Published on 05 July 2018
Goal. The purpose of this paper is to compare landscape maps and descriptions of landscapes of Afghanistan which were compiled at different times and to explain the differences from the point of view of modern landscape science. Methods. The available data of the landscape structure of Afghanistan are analyzed by comparative-geographic and comparative-descriptive methods. The first landscape studies of Afghanistan were conducted at the peak of confrontation between the Russian and British empires during the so called «Great Game» in the XIX century. However, the first scientific description of the landscape structure of the country appeared in the 1920s as a result of the expeditions of N. I. Vavilov and D. D. Bukinich. The main natural regions of Af- ghanistan were identified, a number of earlier sectoral studies on geo-botany, ethnography, geology, etc. were tested and supplemented and the agro-potential of different landscapes of the country was characterized. The first map of landscapes was published by A. A. Polyak in 1953, and although in many terms it was similar to the scheme of Vavilov, some land-scapes were combined, some new complexes were presented while the descriptions and the methods used corresponded to those of academic science. The next important step in the study of the landscape structure of Afghanistan was the release of the first National Atlas in 1985 (the second National Atlas was published in 2014), where a map of natural land- scape types was compiled according to all canons of Soviet landscape school. In 2014-2015, using previously published materials and modern sources and data of remote sensing, the author compiled a more detailed map of the generic of natural landscapes of Afghanistan. Results. On the basis of comparison of historical and modern landscape maps we conclude that some discrepancies seen among them could be explained by dynamics of some landscape complexes due to anthropogenic factor. Conclusions. The data on the landscape structure (2) have not lost their relevance. In some cases, even earlier sources are relevant [5–7]. Nevertheless, some of their discrepancies can be explained not only by differences in the method of compilation but also by historical transformations of the landscape complexes themselves, which is proved by a number of examples.
Categories: Articles, Geo-ecological,-Recreational-and-Biomedical-Issues-of-SDMT
Tags: Продовольственная безопасность, сельское хозяйство, ландшафт, Афганистан, ландшафтное картографирование, аридные территории
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)