The aim of the study was to assess the resources of the Caucasus high – mountain maples for forest planning and efficient use. The high-mountain maple Acer trautvetteri Medw., remains little studied among forest-forming species and features of the structure of stands stocks and properties of wood, plant raw materials, non-wood products have not yet been studied. In the Caucasus high-mountain maples occupy the Northern slopes of the ridges at altitudes from 1 to 2,2 thousand m. The structure of high-mountain maples, stocks and structure of raw materials deposited in these plant communities depends on the height above sea level. Based on the results obtained, the zone of distribution of the Trautfetter maple along the vertical profile is conditionally divided into three zones: the upper belt (above 1600 m above sea level), the middle belt (from 1301 to 1600 m above sea level) and the lower belt (up to 1300 m above sea level). It is established that high-mountain maples are a source of various medicinal and technical raw materials of a vegetable origin, food plants, good base for beekeeping. The greatest number of useful for human species of plants is concentrated in the lower tiers of high-altitude maple trees. Most of the types presented here are polyresource ones. Resource plant species are represented by the main life forms-trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. The most represented in klenovnik are herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. To food plants include more than 50 species, 69 species of medicinal, melliferous 73, to technical plants 61 views. It is established that the majority of resource species do not form continuous thickets, the projective cover on a particular forest area is most often about 5 %. This makes it impossible to organize the use of a certain list of resource species on an industrial scale. On the other hand, with a yield and reserves, allowable current rules and regulations, procurement polyresource types feasible and economically justified. At each forest site, regardless of soil and groundwater conditions at the same time grow to dozens of resource species of plants. In this regard, the procurement of food and medicinal raw materials in separate tracts is possible. Stocks and yields of a particular type of plant in a particular forest area is determined primarily by forest growth conditions, which primarily depend on the height above sea level and other elements of the relief. As the height above sea level increases, the number of resource species is changing towards their decreasing. Changes not only the number of species, but also stocks of raw materials, the yield of individual species. The distribution of the species also depends on a variety of other factors: exposure and slope steepness, composition, height, density of the tree stand, closed treeshrub canopy, etc. In order to preserve the mountain forests and high-mountain maples in particular, it is necessary to study their features and structure, establish the types of resources, stocks and yields. Effective management of mountain forests will allow to implement the tasks of their use and increase their environmental, soil protection, raw materials and other functions.
|City||Vladikavkaz, Saint-Petersburg, Sarajevo, Arkhangelsk|
|Country||Russia, Federation оf Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Issue||2018, № 3 (Т. 10)|
|Key words||North Ossetia; mountain forest; highland maple forest; Acer Trautvetteri; structure of maple forest.|