Published on 21 April 2019
The purpose of the study is to prove the necessity and possibility of extracting metals from coal tailings during the recultivation of the coal mines surface. It can be achieved by creating a technological process and a complex of equipment for extracting metals from waste to the level of sanitary requirements. Research methods include the analysis of the mechanism of influence of waste products on the ecosystems of the environment and technological schemes of enrichment and extraction of target chemical elements during the reclamation of dumps. Results. The problem of complex use of coal wastes is formulated. Differentiated by regions and deposits of the region, the properties of coal-containing tailings of the beneficiation were investigated and systematized, as a basis for their utilization during the mine surface recultivation. The typification of burned rocks according to their function in tailings storages is proposed. The mechanism of the impact of waste dump products on the ecosystem of the environment is described. Differentiated by consequences and factors of influence of waste dumps on the environment are ranked. It is shown that wastes from the enrichment of coal, ash, and slags from coal-fired power plants can be used for industrial production of products and materials. Noted the requirement for the use of coal tailings only after the extraction of metals from them to the MPC standards. The quantitative value of the content of chemical elements in the dumps of coal mines is given. Identified technical solutions for the rehabilitation of the mine surface. The role of tailing dumps in the creation of a new, almost unlimited mineral and raw material base for the production of metals using new technological schemes for enrichment and extraction of chemical elements is shown. Conclusion. Traditional technologies for the extraction of metals do not solve the problem of wastelessness, since metallic impurities in coals are the product of natural leaching of ores enclosed in mineral matrices, and can only be extracted by applying high energy during innovative leaching processes.
Tags: утилизация, металлы, окружающая среда, хвосты обогащения, рекультивация, угли, Донбасс.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)