Published on 21 April 2019
The article presents the principles of geo-ecological monitoring developed by the authors. The complex geoecological approach allows to estimate transformation of landscapes under the influence of dangerous natural processes taking into account the anthropogenic component. Сartographic method is the main method in monitoring. In addition, the study of photographs and multispectral space images is carried out in the MultiSpec Program is carried out in order to identify areas of landscapes with different degrees of transformation of the dangerous processes. As a result, the authors identify three stages of monitoring. At the same time, methods and techniques of monitoring are defined for each stage. Тhe principles of territorial division developed for mapping and zoning of dangerous processes: the creation of the so-called hydrograph-geomorphological framework. A number of classifications have been compiled to assess the vulnerability of the territory to dangerous processes in their inventory: dangerous natural processes, conditions and factors of their formation, types of land use. The parameters for assessing the impact of dangerous processes on individual components of the landscape (terrain, vegetation, soil) are presented for passportization of monitoring objects. At the same time, it is sites of formation of dangerous processes act as objects. The criteria of distribution of the main units of formation of processes on priority and frequency of inspection, and also classes of danger of economic objects in a zone of action of these processes are given for creation of a monitoring network and ranking of sites. In the future, this approach allows to develop measures for prevention, control and protection from dangerous processes. At the same time, the area assessment of the territory's exposure to the dangerous process can be carried out on the basis of classifications of conditions and factors of formation of processes, as well as the principles of territorial division. This assessment allows the removal of part of the territory with a high degree of danger from use in its development. Moreover, a number of economic activities that lead to the activation of processes may be prohibited in the further development of the already developed territory. The results of the passportization and ranking of monitoring objects allow you to choose the optimal variant of the control measures with dangerous processes and to reduce their impact on the landscape to an acceptable minimum. The territory acquires the status of potentially safe with this geoecological approach.
Tags: геоэкологический мониторинг, ландшафты, геосистемы, опасные природные процессы, инвентаризация, паспортизация, ранжирование.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)