Published on 30 July 2019
The cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus clearly manifests itself and is represented by both glacial and cryogenic phenomena. The cryosphere manifests itself in the lithosphere (earth's surface), hydrosphere and atmosphere. The article deals with the phenomena of the cryosphere in the lithosphere and hydrosphere. The phenomena of the cryosphere associated with the hydrosphere belong to both the glacial group and the cryogenic one. Modern formation of the cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus is 125960 square kilometers where 91500 square kilometers are covered with glacial phenomena and 34460 square kilometers with cryogenic ones. The glacial phenomena include: seasonal snow cover, glaciers, snowfields (temporary and migration), seasonal ice cover on water bodies and ice. Their area varies from 17 km2 of ice to 91500 km2 of seasonal snow cover. Cryogenic phenomena in the Greater Caucasus are represented by three types of frozen rocks and thicknesses: 1 – permafrost soils in the form of significant thicknesses (up to 1.5–2.5 m) are observed at altitudes of more than 3000-3200 m and are confined mainly to the slopes of the Northern exposure. They are observed throughout the Greater Caucasus and especially in its Central region; 2 – seasonally frozen soils can be traced at altitudes of 1900-3000 m, their thickness reaches 1.1–1.3 m. 3 – short-term permafrost is available only in high-altitude zones from 1900 to the foothills.
Tags: ледники, криосфера, гляциальные явления, криогенные явления, снег, климатическая снеговая линия.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)