Published on 30 July 2019
The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region is the main fuel and energy base of Russia, on its territory there are numerous oil fields including Samotlorskoe field, which is among the largest fields in the world. Recently, as a result of hydrocarbon production, the amount of polluted land has been increased. To eliminate the negative anthropogenic impact the method of remediation is used. According to various estimates, in the Ugra area the land contaminated by oil products equals to 55.7 thousand hectares. Of these, slightly more than 10% were reclaimed and only 16% of the reclaimed areas are restored to their natural state. It is impossible to prevent environmental pollution but the natural ecosystem self-healing mechanisms can be used to the maximum. It is necessary to understand all the processes aimed at self-purification. In this study the authors reveal changes in the chemical parameters during the natural restoration of natural substrates that are used during remediation activities. These processes were considered in the conditions of model experiments. Experimental sites were laid ten years ago in the natural landscapes. Pre – coat sand, loam, peat and a mixture of sand with peat were chosen as substrates — which are used for the land reclamation in the north. We compared the dynamics of changes in the content of the chemical indicators with the reclaimed area of the Sovetskoye field in Nizhnevartovsk area. The site was subjected to the industrial pollution in 2015. For four years, the monitoring has been carried out of oil salt contamination and migration of some chemical elements responsible for the restoration of fertility. The decrease in the petroleum products content and chloride ions in the soil substrate was educed. The pH ranged from weakly acidic to neutral one. The changes in the bulk composition of the transformed soils an increase in the content of phosphorus, and ammonium ions were observed which indicates the activation of soil formation. It was revealed that different soil substrates used in remediation, in approximately the same environmental conditions are aligned in the content of chemical indicators and approach the background level. It was diagnosed the improvement of the agrochemical properties of the upper layer of technology-related substrate at the site of the field and at the experimental sites.
Tags: почва, рекультивация, нефтяное загрязнение, техногенные субстраты, самовосстановление, химические показатели.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)