Published on 30 July 2019
To create innovative zones for the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, as well as methods of their use in various spheres of human activity, the analysis of the processes occurring during the extraction of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions of wastewater of mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises with natural products is performed The aim of the work is to analyze the possible mechanism of extraction as well as to evaluate the possibility of technical use of vegetable oils on the example of extraction of lead ions by vegetable oils. Method of research. The following types of vegetable oils were used as extractants: sunflower, olive, corn. Extraction was carried out from individual aqueous solutions of Pb (II). Extraction was carried out with different pH solutions. During extraction the pH value was kept constant, adjusting it to a predetermined value. For greater confidence in achieving equilibrium extraction results were evaluated every two days. For the most intensive mass transfer, the extraction process was carried out with intensive mixing of the solution and the extractant for a given time. Upon completion of the process, the mixing system was transferred to the separating funnel for settling and more complete separation of the mixture. Results and discussion. The sedimentation dynamics and system stratification after extraction of lead for three types of oils within 24 hours, pH 11, B:O= 1:3, SISC= 5 g/dm3 . When saponified in an alkaline medium (pH ≥ 10), vegetable oils are broken down into glycerin and fatty acids. Reacting with heavy metal hydroxides, glycerin creates metal glycerates – chemical compounds similar to salts. The volume of the extract as a result of extraction with Pb (II) olive oil increases from five to ten percent of the extractant volume. When settling the system after extraction for more than 24 hours, delamination is manifested into the main three phases: the oil phase from above, the water phase from below and the intermediate mesh gel structure of the hydroxocomplexes of divalent lead with the components of water and oil between them. Summary. From the intermediate phase (gel) it is possible to extract ions of lead and/or its compounds which gives the prospect of possible technical use of vegetable oils for the wastewater solutions treatment at the mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises.
Tags: горные территории, экстракция, растительные масла, водный раствор, ионы свинца, отстаивание системы, рН, горно-перерабатывающие предприятия, гидрометаллургические предприятия, очистка сточных вод.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)