A Council of Europe Ordinance of 2000 obliged government structures of various levels to protect and care for cultural landscapes designated as human-inhabited territory, which characteristics express the mutual long-term influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The concern is caused by the fact that since the second half of the 20th century, with the growth of mechanization, automation, and chemilization, the cultural landscapes of both the lowland and mountain regions have undergone particularly strong changes. The Alpine mountain region is considered as a benchmark in which the traditional economic activity in mountain areas, with its regional differences, keeps on co-existing with the current rapid development of technology, innovations and the increasing influence of external capital. However, the problems inherent in all the mountainous regions of Europe (desertion of rural settlements and outflow of population, declining role of agriculture and increasing role of tourism) are also characteristic of the Alpine region. The article deals with the territory of the northern, marginal part of the Alps, belonging to Germany – the Bavarian Alps. The Bavarian Alps occupy only 1.7% of the Germany territory but for Bavaria, this Alpine area is closely linked to its identity. In Alpine Bavaria, traditions, dialects, folklore are being preserved. The farmers land plots here are bigger than in other parts of the Alps, as well as the number of livestock. Population outflow in the Bavarian Alps is less than in some provinces of the Italian or French Alps. The Bavarian Alps is an area of developed, highly specialized and high-tech meat and dairy farming. But at the same time it is an area of sophisticated mass tourism – both, winter and summer. There are practically no original natural landscapes in the Bavarian Alps, since with the arrival of Bayovars, from about the 9th century, agricultural development of the territory began, and by the Middle Ages all suitable areas had been developed. Thus, all existing landscapes are cultural landscapes, the result of natural development and human impact. The cultural landscape of Bavaria, attractive for tourists and so important for the preservation of the natural balance, is supported primarily by farmers. Therefore, the main task is to prevent the desolation of mountain regions, the preservation of rural settlements and the rural way of life. Factors contributing to the preservation of the cultural landscape could be divided into external (political or legislative) and "internal". The external factors include: government subsidies of various levels (starting from the Council of Europe) to farmers; land law protecting the integrity of agricultural land; community rights to land and property management; building codes and regulations that preserve the architectural integrity of rural settlements. The “internal” factors in support of the Bavarian cultural landscape are hidden in the very system of rural life. These are traditions, customs, dialects. Traditions are worked out for centuries, passed down from generation to generation: housekeeping skills, crafts, customs, ceremonies, cuisine, etc. Traditions in Bavaria are very strong, as are the dialects. These factors unite people, create a connection with the place of residence with nature which is reflected in the cultural landscape.
|Issue||2019, № 3 (T. 11)|
|Key words||Alpine region, Bavarian Alps, cultural landscape, land use traditions, communities|