Published on 26 October 2019
In this paper we consider the importance of the environmental component of the reproduction process and preservation of ethno-cultural characteristics and lifestyle of the modern composition of the indigenous peoples of the North (Evenki) in the Trans-Baikal Territory. The author argues that the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of the Evenki community, which is an ethnic minority in the areas of residence, is possible provided that the resources of the hunting and fishing fauna of the local population are restored and rationally provided that the Evenki have special rights to them. The nature of the development of the territories, which affects the features of the conservation and reproduction of biological resources in the mountain taiga landscape zone of the region, depends on the institutional environment for hunting nature management that has formed here so far. It is noted that the weakening of the state’s attention to the sphere of nature management in the post-socialist period and the shift in the emphasis of national policy to the sphere of supporting cultural and socio-demographic processes among the indigenous population led to the degradation of the natural resource base of the traditional way of life in most regions of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the reduction in the number of the main hunting and commercial animal species worsens the socio-economic situation of the indigenous population, which remains connected with traditional activities. The purpose of the article is to assess the role of formal and informal institutions in creating the conditions for the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of Evenki Trans-Baikal Territory. Research materials. The results of interviews with representatives of the municipal authority, the Indigenous Peoples' Association of Evenki (Trans-Baikal Territory) of the TransBaikal Territory, hunting users, heads of hunting farms, chairmen of Evenki communities and ordinary hunters, data on the lease of forest plots, the number of hunting and hunting animals, the number and employment of the population, provided by the relevant State services and departments in the region, as well as the results of studying the transformation of formal and informal environmental management institutions and its consequences for hunting e-fishing activities of the indigenous population. A map showing all the main actors of hunting nature management in the areas of traditional Evenki residence and substantiating the use of an institution-oriented approach to solve the tasks posed during the study was created using GIS technologies. Conclusions. The institutional environment formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory is not very effective in resolving the problems of the development of ethnic nature management in the mountain taiga zone and requires further development in order to strengthen control over the number of commercial animal species and create mechanisms for their sustainable use. The author offers some recommendations that can ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East to hunting as a traditional activity.
Tags: устойчивое развитие, Забайкальский край, институты, коренные народы, эвенки, оленеводство, охота
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)