Published on 26 October 2019
The research object. The proposed article considers the climatic features, the state of the ice and snow cover of the mountainous Pamir as a source of food for numerous rivers and the climate-forming link in the region of Central Asia. Goal. To analyze the processes in the Pamir’s mountain ecosystem regarding snow-ice and water aspects in the spectrum of changes occurring on a planetary scale. To establish the influence of mountain orography on the distribution of air masses and the formation of snow cover, the change in the river hydrograph due to changes in the current state of the climatic factors of the mountain river basin. Methodology. The analysis of the snow-ice resources state of the Pamir was carried out based on extensive use of archival and modern data using statistical classification to establish the dynamics of their changes in climate warming conditions. A comparative assessment of changes in the hydrology of the Pamir rivers was carried out by comparing modern hydrological characteristics with the early period. Results. Analysis of the glaciers and snow cover state in the mountains of several countries showed that climate change makes significant adjustments in the functioning of many components of the ecosystem, and especially in reducing the area of glaciation and glacier degradation. The studies results of the climate change impact on the snow-ice resources of the mountainous Pamir using the example of the upper reaches of the Trans boundary Pyanj River show a significant impact of mountain orography on precipitation and the formation of snow cover. Conclusion. A deep analysis of the published works on the effects of global climate change on the snow-ice resources of high mountains demonstrated that the mountain ecosystem is particularly sensitive to climate cataclysms. The heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of precipitation and the depth of snow cover in the Pamir in three climatic zones upstream of the Pyanj River is noted. The western climatic zone of the Pamir is characterized by more abundant precipitation than the eastern zone. It is assumed that the decreasing trend of precipitation is due to the fact that the eastern part is subject to the inflow of dry mass. The mass of the air of the Indian Monsoon is unloaded when passing high mountain ranges and only dry residue enters the eastern part of the upper reaches of the Pyanj River. The impact of climate change on water flow is analyzed using the example of the water content of the Vanch – tributary of the Pyanj River, and a comparison of the water volume values of the Vanch River in two periods (1940–1970 and 1986–2016) revealed its increase over the period 1986–2016.
Tags: Памир, снежный покров, атмосферные осадки, орография, потепление климата, климатические зоны, гидрограф, расход воды.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)