Published on 01 February 2020
Environmental problems of the mountain zone of RSO-Alania appeared as a result of long-term exploitation of natural resources, largely aimed at the extraction and processing of polymetallic ores. As a result-today a number of unique landscapes of mountain basins was unsuitable for human activity. In addition, further irrational use of natural resource potential can lead to further deterioration of the biosphere of the region. Therefore, the aim of this study is to search for the most rational models of environmental management within the mountainous areas of RNO-Alania. To identify the prospects of environmental management it is necessary to identify both the main centers of accumulated negative anthropogenic impact and potential sources of natural resources, the use of which is possible within the framework of environmental and economic environmental management (EEM), by using methods of comparison and analogies, mathematical calculations and modeling based on environmental management paradigms, i.e. principles of minimal, environmentally friendly and efficient use of natural resources. Environmental and economic management is a system in which: - raw materials are processed in depth; - renewable resources are recover; - the waste production is fully utilized. As one of options of application of the EEM models there can be a symbiosis of a number of the directions of traditional environmental management with the tourism industry. As a result quite viable model representing network of small farms with high extent of differentiation of the made goods and services which will allow turns out: a) to provide the region with food; b) to create jobs and to improve a demographic situation; c) to create a wide range of the recreational services based on esthetic, spiritual or recreational assets, such as ecotourism, agro-tourism and so forth; d) to stabilize spontaneous ecological processes (a mountain erosion of soils, to regulate a part of a rain drain, and so forth). As an indicator of the economic efficiency of the proposed model, the profitability of the environmental protection measure is used, based on the dependence of the results of the environmental protection measure on the costs of their implementation. The proposed model can be implemented in the form of a form of socio-zones of special regime of nature management (SZSRNM), already successfully tested in a number of similar natural and geographical conditions of regions of Russia. The implementation of the proposed methods will make it possible to accelerate the socio-economic development of the study areas, will provide an increase in the standard of living of the local population, while allowing to preserve the natural ecological balance.
Tags: горные территории, экология, ресурсы, Северная Осетия, природопользование, хозяйство.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)