Published on 25 April 2020
Introduction. Widely distributed on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the mountain-forest belt is formed under the influence of various factors. At the same time, the territory is constantly exposed to various anthropogenic factors. A large number of settlements, household facilities are located here and their number is growing every day.
Materials and research methods. For a qualitative study of exodynamic processes in the mountain-forest belt of the north-eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the method of decoding space images obtained using a spectrodiometer (MODIS) installed on NASA satellites was used. At the same time, the results obtained in the period of previous studies and, inter alia, by other authors were taken into account. The work also used field research data, assessment methods based on GIS technologies, data from aerological and ground-based meteorological stations in the research area. In order to assess the geoecological situation on the basis of primary information, the choice of representative (characteristic) forests with varying degrees of exposure to anthropogenic impact was of great importance.
Research results. It was determined that mountain forests undergo transformation under the influence of various factors, and an analysis of these causes plays a large role in optimizing the use of forests. Thus, deforestation leads to drying out of water sources and intensification of soil erosion on the slopes.
Some areas with sparse forest cover, steep slopes and inconvenient for cutting, shrubby areas are used for grazing. In steep areas where the soil cover is protected only by shrubs, soil with a disturbed structure undergoes erosion with high speed. Within the forest belt, such sites are widespread in the Tahirjal river basins in the Gusar district, and in the Shabran region in the Gilgilchay and Atachay river basins. Deciphering aerial photographs revealed a number of destructive landslides in the research area, especially in the Velvelichay river basin. In this case, a transition from one process to another is observed. Area landslides are characterized mainly by surface deposits.
Conclusion. We can come to the conclusion that it is advisable to carry out construction work outside the territories of active manifestation of exogenous relief-forming processes. At the same time, it should be noted that the indices of landscape homogeneity of landslide massifs indicate the formation of a complex landscape structure and make it possible to determine the direction of environmental measures.
Tags: плотность, туризм, трансформация, ландшафт, съемка, массив, напряженность
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)