Modern tourism development trends are characterized by the growth of tourist flows, the emergence and development of a wide range of means of transportation, vehicle-to-population ratio and, as a consequence, increased tourist mobility of people. These trends expand the geographical boundaries of travel and make regions, including mountainous, which were not previously visited by tourists, accessible.
The country's transport system, ensuring the accessibility of tourist facilities in mountainous areas, has a positive impact on the economy, standard of living and quality of life of the people living in these regions. At the same time, modern transport infrastructure and intensified transport flows negatively affect the condition of mountain ecosystems, sometimes leading to their complete degradation, which reduces the attractiveness of these areas for tourists and deprives these regions of the possibility of sustainable development in the future.
The work substantiates the necessity and possible directions of ecologisation of the transport component of the tourist product in order to ensure sustainable development of mountainous areas. The development of the global tourism industry is accompanied by the deterioration of the habitat, which is peculiar to not only urban agglomerations, but also of mountainous areas. Growth of vehicle-to-population ratio and passenger traffic, caused by increased tourist mobility, is accompanied by an intensification of negative impacts on various elements of ecosystems. In this regard, the search for ways of ecologisation of the transport component of the tourist product for sustainable development of tourism in mountainous regions is a relevant scientific and technical problem.
The objective of the article is to substantiate the necessity and search for the directions of ecological modernization of the transport component of the tourist product for mountainous areas.
The information base was made up of scientific publications of domestic and foreign authors on the problems of "green" modernisation of the tourism and transport industry as its most important component; data of the Federal and regional state statistics services, analytical materials of national and international environmental organisations. In this paper, the retrospective analysis of the statistical data received from open sources for the five-year period was applied.
The growth of the tourist flow to the Krasnodar Region was accompanied by a corresponding increase in traffic flows and passenger traffic. In 2016, the volume of road transport alone increased to 310.1 million people. Over the past five years, the transport sector has been growing steadily (+275%). Its contribution to the regional tourist product reached 10%.
The level of vehicle ownership in the region is quite high and amounted to 306 vehicles per thousand people in 2016. Insufficient development of public transport and the lack of a restriction system at the regional level has led to the fact that the majority of the informal sector, which accounts for up to 60% of the tourist flow, uses personal vehicles to travel to the sea and ski resorts of the region, which makes it difficult to assess and regulate this segment.
The most important condition for the environmental modernization of transport is the setting of relevant goals and objectives in the strategic documents of regional development, their vertical and horizontal matching with national, regional and sectoral strategies, programmes and plans. Practice shows the lack of coordination between the concepts of transport system development and its ecologisation at the regional level with the national goals and strategic objectives. This leads to aggravation of environmental problems, including reduction of atmospheric air quality and degradation of unique mountain ecosystems as a result of increased tourists' mobility. One of the most promising areas of environmental modernization of the transport component of the Krasnodar Region’s tourist product is the improvement of the methodological foundations of strategic planning for the development of tourist regions, providing conditions for the creation of sustainable tourist mobility and improving its management system in order to reduce all types of negative impact on the environment, ensuring conditions for the development of "green" tourism.
|City||Sochi, Sevastopol, Tula|
|Issue||2020, № 1 (Т. 12)|
|Key words||mountainous areas, recreational and tourist specialisation, "green" tourism, ecologisation of transport, sustainable tourist mobility, ecologisation of transport infrastructure.|