The Greater Caucasus experienced repeated glaciation during the Quaternary (early, middle, upper Pleistocene, late Glacial, and late Holocene), which occurred under changing climatic conditions and differentiated tectonic movements. These glaciations, of course, are associated with changes in terrain, the formation of new deposits, transgressions and regressions of the Caspian Sea, changes in vegetation and soil
types, so the problem of glaciation affects all earth Sciences to varying degrees. The study of Quaternary glaciation, especially Holocene glaciation, is currently relevant for understanding climate change. Against the background of significant climate fluctuations within the epochs of glaciation, there are smaller cooling phases that cause the temporary onset of glaciers. Short-term climate fluctuations are manifested in oscillations – minor fluctuations in the languages of glaciers. All this indicates that the climate undergoes significant changes in a short time, which are reflected in the morphosculpture of the terrain, the latest deposits and modern precipitation. Glaciation of the Greater Caucasus in the Prikazbeksky region reached its maximum in the middle Pleistocene,when glaciers went far into the Ossetian basin. All these traces have been preserved due to the lower capacity of the Chanty-Argun glacier and its fluvioglacial flow, which developed during the late Pleistocene epoch. Volcanic activity, especially active in the late Pliocene and continuing up to the present time, is associated with the late horn stage of development of the Caucasus. The formation of the Rukhs-Dzuar molass formation more than 2 km thick in the late Pleistocene in the Ossetian basin of the Tersky-Caspian flexure is associated with the activity of volcanoes in the Kazbek volcanic region. In the early Pleistocene, volcanic activity on the BC decreased significantly. The most intense outbreak of volcanism in the Kazbek and Elbrus volcanic regions occurred at the beginning of the late Pleistocene, which roughly coincided with the maximum phase of the late Pleistocene (Bezengian) glaciation. Then, in the second half of the late Pleistocene, volcanic activity was manifested on the mount Kazbek. The last outbreak of volcanic activity occurred in the Holocene no more than 2-3 thousand years ago. Fresh lavas are available on Elbrus, Kazbek, in the Terek valley near villages. Sioni and on the Kel volcanic plateau. Fumarolic activity still continues on Elbrus. Thus, in the Kazbek region, eruptions occurred from the late Pliocene to the late Holocene inclusive.
|Issue||2020, № 3 (Т. 12)|
|Key words||Pleistocene, Holocene, glaciation stages, nival-glacial processes, causes of glaciations, climate change, anthropogenic factors, natural factors, Earth degassing, magmatogenic degassing branch, seismotectonic degassing branch, greenhouse gases, newest geodynamics, volcanism, mud regimes, volcanism, |