Published on 16 October 2020
The research object. The hydrological characteristics of the Gunt and Vanch rivers belonging to the Southwestern and Central climatic zones of the Pamirs and are tributaries of the transboundary Pyanj River are considered. Long-term average values of temperature and precipitation as the main factors affecting the formation of river flows are determined for the period 1944–2016. The state of glaciation in the basins of the respective rivers is estimated. Goal. A comparative assessment of the influence of climatic features and mountain orography on the formation of river flows. Determination of the trend of changes in the climatic conditions of the Gunt and Vanch river basins at different periods of more than 70 years (1944–2016). Research methods. Generalization, systematization of meteorological and hydrological characteristics and determination of their change compared with the base period 1960–1990. Statistical processing of meteorological and hydrological data and establishing a trend of changes in climatic and hydrological characteristics using a differentiated method. Research results. It is shown that the nature of changes in hydrological characteristics, namely the flow of rivers in different climatic zones of the Pamir can differ significantly. On the example of two rivers (Gunt and Vanch) - tributaries of the transboundary Pyanj river, it is shown that the trend of change in the flow of the Gunt river differs from the Vanch river due to the state of glaciation of the river basin. To explain the results the meteorological conditions of the respective river basins and their possible impact on river hydrology were studied. Conclusion. The hydrological characteristics of the Gunt and Vanch rivers in the Pamirs taking into account the meteorological conditions of the respective river basins show that a key factor in improving the state of glaciation and reducing degradation processes, as well as achieving positive trends in the mass balance of glaciers is the presence of sufficient air mass in the glaciation zone. Naturally, this is the key to ensuring a sufficient amount of runoff.
Tags: Памир, оледенение, климатические зоны, формирование стока рек, река Ванч, река Гунт, тренд температур, атмосферные осадки.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)