Published on 28 March 2021
Aim. The basis for the optimal development of mountain regions is the regulation of anthropogenic impact on natural land-scapes. The purpose of the study is to assess the state of natural landscapes of the highlands of the Central Caucasus and substantiate effective mechanisms that regulate economic activity in territories adjacent to nature conservation ones. On the example of the Karasu river valley, which is representative of the Northern macro slope of the Greater Caucasus, analyzes the features of anthropogenic impact in the form of recreation, tourism and grazing.
Research methods. The key method of this research is the making of maps showing the landscape structure of the area under consideration, the spatial features of the location of exogenous processes and types of nature management.
Using the above maps, the features of the geological and geomorphological basis and landscape structure of the Karasu river valley were identified, the features of modern nature management were characterized, the consequences of anthropogenic impact on natural landscapes were assessed, and the management approach were formulated to reduce the negative impact on the nature of mountain areas.
To assess the land cover, high-resolution satellite images were used, according to which the difference vegetation in-dex was calculated, which most clearly distinguishes the main types of the cover.
Results. Within the boundaries of the study area, the role of shrub-meadow vegetation of the subalpine zone, which performs a water-retaining function, is especially significant. The destruction of land cover due to overgrazing, the construction of capital facilities, and other types of economic activity without the necessary protective engineering and land reclamation measures favors the development of destructive exogenous processes. The border of the reserved and non-reserved territories is smooth (not sharp).
Conclusions. The gradual transition from landscapes with a reserved regime to landscapes with different uses requires a revision of the concept of nature protection in the direction of developing measures on the principle of “protection in use.” Particular attention should be paid to the conservation of sub-alpine meadows, alpine meadows and wastelands, bog complexes, which have a high species diversity, the presence of endemic species and are small in area. The main environmental measures for these communities are state monitoring and the maximum possible reduction in anthropogenic impact.
Tags: антропогенная нагрузка, Северный Кавказ, природопользование, горные ландшафты, регулирование, пастбищное скотоводство, туризм.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)