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EXPOSURE OF ECONOMICALLY ATTRACTIVE MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA TO DANGEROUS GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES

Kh.O. Chotchaev, S.M. Oganesyan, O.A. Goncharenko

Industry economic attractiveness and practicability of the development of some territories in Mountainous part of North Ossetia is considered in direct dependence on state and intensity of dangerous geological processes (DGP) of natural and technogenic character. This article aims to identify the degree of development and variety of types of dangerous geological processes typical for three mountain areas which are economically attractive for development of mining, freight transport and recreational-touristic branches of economic activities. Their development program depends on the activity of DGP on particular territories. Authors have used the following methods to solve stated issues: field geological and geophysical studies for identification of DGP types and their mapping; determination of endogenous geodynamic activity rate with use of seismic and geophysical methods; outcome analysis of previous specialized observations of DGP objects and engineering-geological works on building and designed engineering structures. Analysis results of long-term field observations are given in the list of basic types of DGP with their impact parameters on environment. Relevant types of dangerous geological processes were indicated for the observed territories. Landslide-scree occurrences along mountain roads, on industrial sites for sinking mines and during the open-pit mining of mineral deposits are typical for Sadono-Unalsk ore area. This area is also characterized by deep gaps, formed presumably by collapse of loose ground coatings into underground mines. Mudflows are the most dangerous. Over 50 landslides,15% of which are large (up to 5-10 million m3 ), 144 channeled avalanches with 10-15% total damage of DGP on the highway and its infrastructure are revealed in the area of road “Kavkaz” from settlement Buron to Northern portal of Roki tunnel. Landslide-scree processes affect up to 30% of the total project recreational and tourist areas areas of Mamison. Significant danger is posed by lateral and vertical erosion of rivers, streams and avalanches. Condition of DGP requires coordination of development course in social and industrial spheres and the existing potential dangers of catastrophic consequences of natural and technological processes typical for particular study area. As recommendations for partial restrictions and warnings of DGP activation we have compiled the following suggestions: - any construction must be preceded by work on seismic microzonation; - prohibit construction of long-term facilities without reasonable protective measures in areas that are classified as dangerous for exogenous geological processes (EGP) according to the monitoring data; - increase of control over compliance of construction regulations, especially at the stage of soil bases preparation; - increase responsibility of organisations for the construction of facilities without adequate engineering-geological justification and also for changes in approved design decisions without additional research; - mandatory examination of large constructions projects located in areas of distribution of dangerous geological processes and specialized organizations for the study of EGP.

Number of views: 933

NATURAL AND RECREATIONAL POTENTIAL OF HIGHLANDS OF THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC AS DRIVING-FORCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

I.А.Kerimov, А.А. Daukaev, U.Т. Gairabekov, Asl. А. Daukaev

Objective – current state evaluation of mineral raw material base (МRMB) and water recreational potential of highlands of the Chechen Republic as a factor of sustainable development of the region. Materials and Methods. The authors make use of findings of research work they are currently conducting in relation to evaluation and efficient use of natural and recreational potential of highlands of the Chechen Republic, as well as stock, statistical and literature sources on the topic. Research Findings. A retrospective analysis of development of mineral resources of mountainous areas of the Chechen Republic. It should be pointed out that the area in focus is characterized by irregular state of geological exploration. Besides, mapping materials available are markedly out of date. Geological exploration work (GEW) oriented on restoration of МRMB requires additional research effort. However, the paper stresses the fact that over the past few decades anemic growth and high depletion of proven oil reserves has been witnessed. A table has been drawn up of solid non-metallic minerals of the highlands of the Chechen Republic. The table contains information on their basic kinds, deposits and occurrence. An estimate is given to the current state of МRMB and water recreational potential of the territories in question, and guidelines to their further development and use are provided. Conclusion. The research evidence implies: 1. Mountainous areas of the Chechen Republic have much to offer in terms of significant subterranean assets of mineral resources: oil, gas, solid non-metallic minerals, subsoil waters, etc. 2. Main natural resources restoration and utility problems in the Chechen Republic are: • high depletion of oil deposits of ABC categories and no reserves growth in the past few decades; • lack of evaluation of industrial capacity of non-traditional mineral resources; • lack of specialized geological scientific research establishments and R&D enterprises in the Republic; 3. The State Program of the Chechen Republic «Tourist and Cultural Development of the Chechen Republic» for 2014- 2018 suggests relevant infrastructure initiative – construction of roads, establishment of communications, tourist and entertainment complexes, health resorts, residential hotels, public houses, farming companies, etc. In this regard, maintenance and rational management of natural recreational potential of most vulnerable mountain landscapes of the Chechen Republic come into sharp focus.

Number of views: 881

GEOCHEMICAL FIELDS OF ROCKS AND SOILS OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS: AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH AND RESEARCH METHODS

T.V. Degtyareva, V.A. Shalnev, A.V. Lysenko

This article aims to track the regional variability and interactions of geochemical fields of rocks and soils within the Northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus and to reveal their formation peculiarities in the course of evolution of the region. Object of the studylitho-, pedogenical, geological and chemical (pedogeochemical) fields of microelements, regional specific of which was revealed on the basis of data on the content of 25 chemical elements in them. Methods: Variability of lithogeochemical background within lithogeochemical fields is characterized by the regional concentration coefficients (RCC), background of pedogeochemical fields is determined by the coefficients of radial differentiation (R). A comparison of data on lithogeochemical differentiation of microelement fields on regional background and pedogeochemical fields comparative to soil-forming materials has allowed to discover features of the migratory interactions between the litho- and pedogeochemical fields, taking into account timing and regional differences. Results: Typification of lithogeochemical fields was implemented according to the leading associations of chemical elements in compliance of their geochemical classification. Genetic groups of the organo-mineral, nutrient-leached and nutrient-intensive componential pedogeochemical fields were detected in landscape altitudinal zones of the Alpine landscapes of the Greater Caucasus. The interaction analysis between litho- and pedogeochemical fields of the Greater Caucasus allows to distinguish four redistribution groups of chemical elements: two groups of inverse correspondence and two groups of direct correspondence with the depletion or accumulation of trace elements. Each redistribution group is characterized by chemical elements, which are a part of compounds with a certain degree of solubility and stability. In the course of evolution of the region there has developed its own particular interaction of geochemical fields dedicated to various genetic types of rocks. The evolutionary interaction of litho- and pedogeochemical fields of igneous and metamorphic rocks of an axial zone of the Greater Caucasus have led differentiation and clearer division of rocks according to their solubility. Conclusions: The distribution analysis of chemical elements in geochemical fields of rocks of different genesis and age allows us to discuss the most important factors that have determined the formation of modern microelement composition of regional litho- and pedogeochemical fields of modern landscapes: different solubility and stability of chemical elements in rocks and soils; the duration and intensity of weathering processes of rocks, which appeared on earth’s surface.

Number of views: 811

RESEARCH OF RADAR AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF CONVECTIVE CLOUDS TO EVALUATE THEIR SUITABILITY FOR ACTION

K.B. Liev, M.L. Dolova

The purpose of this article is to study powerful convective clouds suitable for impact in the North Caucasus. Research methods include the collection of data obtained at the research test site of High Mountain Geophysical Institute. Observations were made using the meteorological two-wave radar MPL-5 operating in the centimeter wavelength range of 3.2 and 10 cm. To assess the suitability of convective clouds for the impact radar and physical parameters were used (maximum radar reflectance Z dBz and its altitude Hmах; altitude of upper boundary of a high reflectivity zone; temperature at altitudes; power of the supercooled part of the zone of high reflectivity; direction and velocity of the radio-echo of a cloud), which are most likely to determine their moisture content, phase structure, the condition of convection and coagulation. Results of the study show that in moderate latitudes significant precipitations in convective clouds are generated in the region of negative temperatures involving the solid phase. With regard to the precipitations from warm convective clouds the peaks of which do not reach the height of the 0 ° C isotherm, their contribution to the total amount is insignificant. Therefore, in order to increase the precipitation, it is more appropriate to study the seasonal course of the height of 0 ° C isotherm and, taking this into account, assess the suitability of convective clouds for impact. The estimated level of condensation in the studied area is averagely located at the altitude of 2.0–2.5 km, the thickness of its warm part is 1.2-1.7 km and if the effect on lowpower convective clouds is carried out with a hygroscopic reagent, the number of clouds suitable for exposure may approach to 100%. The main directions of the leading flow are the western and south-western directions. Conclusions: - Н0 values in June in 90% of cases are located below 4.0 km, the average value of the zero isotherm height is 3.7 km. In July and August the average value is about 4.0 km and in the warm season 90% is below 4.5 km. The average height of zero isotherm has a seasonal course with a maximum in August (5.0 km) and a minimum in June (2.5 km), an average altitude is 3.9 km; - if the impact on convective clouds of low power is carried out with a hygroscopic reagent, then all the detected developing clouds are potentially suitable for action; - west and south-west are the main directions of a leading flow.

Number of views: 691

HAZARDS AND AVALANCHE PROCESSES IN THE BASINS OF RIVERS KOZYDON AND ZEMEGONDON ON THE TERRITORY OF ALL-SEASON TOURIST AND RECREATIONAL COMPLEX “MAMISON”

A. Kh. Adzhiev, V. Kh. Kesaonov, N. V. Kondratyeva, M.L. Dolova

Mudflows, avalanches and glaciers dynamics pose a serious threat for the objects of future recreational complex “Mamison”. Their dynamics is largely determined by the condition of Kozydon and Zemegondon glaciers. The purpose of this part of the article is to study the dynamics of the glaciers of Kozydon and Zegegondon on the territory of tourist and recreational complex “Mamison”. Methods for assessing the development dynamics of glaciers are based on processing and analysis: - research materials and investigations of the last years about conditions of development of dangerous processes in the investigated and adjoining territory; - results of route observations; - decoding of space images obtained as a result of annual surveys during the period of maximum snowmelt from 2000 to 2015. Results The maps of Kozydon and Zemegondon glaciers are scaled 1:5000, reflecting their current state. Signs of their pulsations are not revealed. Currently, the Kozydon Glacier has an area of 0.712 km2 . There are several stone blocks not exceeding 2 meters on the glacier. There is a degradation of the glacier and its retreat. The 

retreat of the glacier along the length for the period from 1957 to 2014 is amounted to 360-380 m. Reduction of the area from 1975 to 2014 is 0.144 km2 . Open glaciers are common on the Kozydon Glacier. A total of about 30 sites with cracks were identified. The width of such cracks ranges from 1 to 4 meters. The depth of the cracks is about 5-10 meters. The length is up to 120 meters. The total area of glaciers in the valley of the river. Zemegondon was 2.11 km2 . There is a degradation of the glacier and its retreat. According to our estimates, the glacier retreat along the length from 1957 to 2014 was 370-420 meters. About 100 cracks were detected on the Zemegondon glacier. The majority of them were covered with snow even at the end of July and were distinguished by the characteristic refraction of sunlight. The width of the cracks is from 0.3 to 1 meters. The length of individual cracks reaches up to 50 meters. Conclusions According to the average rate of glacier area decrease of 0.0043 km2 / year, the glacier may disappear over 157 years. The Zemegondon Glacier (No. 270) has retreated and continues to retreat without the formation of terminal moraine ridges. The speed of ice movement is about 18 m / year. On the glacier “Zemegondon” there are areas with a lot of cracks, torn ice and overhanging ice masses. In accordance with the carried out researches, there are no avalanche sites on Kozedon and Zemegondon glaciers. However, there is a leakage of avalanches on the part of the surface of the glaciers.

Number of views: 956

NATURAL COMPOUND OF RECREATIONAL AND TOURIST POTENTIAL OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

T.A. Safranov

This article is dedicated to the assessment of the natural compound of recreational and tourist potential of the Ukrainian Carpathians, including aggregate climate, water, land, forest, biological, landscape and other resources that can used for recreational and tourist activities. At the same time the main factors of this activity are: advantageous geographical position; unique geological and geomorphological conditions; developed hydrographic network; the presence of various mineral waters, therapeutic mud and ozocerite; landscape-biological diversity and attractiveness of landscapes. Methods. Bioclimatic, hydromineral and other characteristics of the natural component of recreational and tourist potential of the Ukrainian Carpathians have been described. In addition, the author have used his own published data and research materials. Results. Hydromineral resources together with other natural resources and conditions of the territories of national natural parks in the Ukrainian Carpathians can become a basis for creation of the centers of resort treatment, medical, social and psychological rehabilitation. The most important factors of influence on natural and recreational resources, which, in turn, determine recreational and tourist activities are weather and climatic conditions (in particular, air temperature). The possible influence of changes of air temperature on recreational and tourist activity during 2021-2050 is considered according to the regions of Ukraine. Changes of the average annual, seasonal summer and winter air temperatures for the moderate climate change scenario during 30 years (2021-2050) will not significantly affected to the possibilities of summer forms of recreational and tourist activities and their sustainable development in the regions of Ukraine, as well as level of heat load on recreants (tourists). Under this climate change scenario is not expected to deteriorate significantly the conditions for winter forms of recreational and tourist activities, primarily in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Conlusion. Development of recreational and tourist potential is a priority for the development of the Ukrainian Carpathians. But, at the same time the economic activity in tourist and recreational zones leads to denaturalization of natural landscapes, depletion of natural resources and pollution of natural environment. So, it is necessary not only to assess the impact of recreational and tourist activities on the state of the environment, but also to use technologies and methods to minimize the forms of recreational and tourist activities, including the organization of environmentally oriented forms of this activity in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

Number of views: 785

ASSESSMENT OF MUDFLOW DANGER MANIFESTATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN (On the example of the Greater Caucasus)

S.A. Tarihazer, H.L. Nabiyev

The territory of the Greater Caucasus is characterized by high potential for occurrence of modern dangerous geomorphological processes (MDGP) formed by the totality of seismotectonic, geological-geomorphologic, hydro-climatic and other factors. Determined areas according to the degree of mudflow danger: with weak, medium, and high mudflow danger. This article reviews the most dangerous region of Azerbaijanthe territory of the Greater Caucasus where the entire spectrum of modern dangerous geomorphological processes (MDGP) is encounteredhigh seismic activity, avalanches, landslides, landslides, talus, mudflows, etc. This area of intensive development of eco-geomorphological destructive processes in recent years has been actively developed with the aim of tourism development like summer grazing lands. The scale of use of that territory in agricultural purposes has significantly increased as well as massive building of infrastructure facilities. During the research the foci feeding the mudflows with clastic material are subdivided into the following morphological groups: debris (the source parts of the basins of the Shinchai, Kishchay, Dyimiraparanchay, Mazymchai, etc.), landslides (high-mountain zones in the basins of the Kurmukhchay, Tikanlichay rivers, etc.) , Moraines (basins of the Kishchay river, Kurmukhchay, Vandamchay, etc.), landslides (upper streams of rivers Kishchay, Belokanchay, Filfilichay, Khalkhalchay, Mukhakhchay, Gabalachay, Dashagylchay, etc.). Conclusions are based on the results of aerospace images interpretation. Using this interpretation the authors have divided the study area into different zones in terms of degree of mudflows intensity (the amount of material taken out, the erosive impact of the flow on a valley, mudflow manifestation of tributaries and the basin as a whole and also on the predominant types and classes of mudflows, their geomorphological conditions of development, formation and passage as well as statistical data on past debris flows). The following 3 areas were divided according to actual and potential damage to the population from mudflows: 1) zone with a high degree of mudflows manifestation; 2) zone with an average degree of mudflows manifestation; 3) zone with a low degree of mudflows manifestation.

Number of views: 880

MODELLING OF PARAMETERS OF STABILITY OF THE BIOSPHERE ON THE EXAMPLE OF RESERVES

B. E. Bolshakov, E. F. Shamaeva

The article presents the theoretical, methodological basis and system parameters the modeling of biosphere stability based on the threading model of the interaction of living systems with the natural environment (E. C. Baur, V. I. Vernadsky, S. A. Podolynsky, P. G. Kuznetsov). For example, the reserves of the Republic of Kazakhstan presented the results of calculations of parameters of stability of the biosphere, including: the density of the consumed, produced and lost power, the quality of the natural environment, the index of sustainability of biosphere.Based on calculations compiled ratings reserves recommendations. Summary Today the question of the cross-disciplinary description and interaction for discussion of scientific problems of sustainable development is sharply raised; development which exists in the uniform system “the person — society — the nature”. In this regard development of mathematical model and the parameters of stability of the biosphere more precisely describing stream interactions in the “person — society — the nature” system and their modeling on the example of reserves became the purpose and a subject of article. The methodological base of scientific research has designated methodology of project management by sustainable development in terms of power sizes (International school of sciences of sustainable development of P.G.Kuznetsov; B.Bolshakov (1988)). The research is constructed on the principle steady E.S.Bauer’sneravnovesnost. According to E.S.Bauer (1935), fundamental difference of live matter from lifeless is characterized by the principle of a steady disbalance: “all and only live systems never happen in balance and execute due to the free energy permanent job against balance under the existing external conditions”. The requirements to live systems formulated by E.S.Bauer can be presented in the form of the stream scheme of interaction of live system with the environment. The system of parameters of stability of the biosphere describing stream interactions of live system with the surrounding environment in the form of mathematical model in terms of density of power and its derivatives belongs to results of a research. As a result of modeling on the example of reserves of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Aqsa-Zhabaglinsky, Almaty, Naurzumsky, Barsakelmessky, Korgalzhynsky, Markakolsky, Ustyurt, West Altai, Alakol, Karatau) calculations of parameters of stability of the biosphere are presented, including: density of the consumed, useful and lost power, quality of the surrounding environment, an index of stability of the biosphere. The carried-out calculations illustrate research conclusions, namely: a possibility of use of the parameters constructed on conservation law of power and the principle of a steady neravnovesnost of E.S.Bauer for modeling of stability of the biosphere. On the basis of calculations the ratings of reserves are made, recommendations on preservations and to development of the biosphere of reserves in terms of the allocated parameters are formulated. It is shown that preservation of density of full capacity, reduction of density of useful power and power of losses due to increase in efficiency of use of natural energy resources perhaps under a condition preservation of a biodiversity of flora and fauna of reserves, increases in efficiency of economic activity of the person in the territory of the region due to use of breakthrough technologies and improvement of quality of planning.

Number of views: 838

NETWORK PLANNING FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION OF THE TAILINGS ALLUVIUM PROCESS

Lolaev А.B., Khulelidze К.К., Butyugin V.V., Badoev А.S.

Introduction Application of network diagrams in forming the plan of implementation of the complex set of works allows to define reserves of time to prevent possible disruptions during works, to implement operational adjustment of actions. Materials and tests methodics The object of this work is inwashed tailings dam located in the northern part of Krasnoyarsk region of Russia. Currently tailing is represented by two fields. The tailing dam of the first field has absolute marks ~ 70 m. Absolute marks of the crest of the tailing dam enclosing the second field form the 46–47 m. The type of the tailing is cascade, with a vertical drop of water levels in the first and second fields more than 20 m. Alluvium dam is made successively in the first and second fields with average daily temperature above -5˚С. The alluvium process of tailings storage options were explored with the help of physico-mathematical modeling. Tests results and discussion Based on the analysis of mathematical calculations and the results of model tests during testing the optimal technological parameters of dam alluvium were identified taking into account the height of the tailing dam in one cycle and overall for the year, the width of the front of alluvium, the number of alluvium tails, time schedule, etc. However, calculations showed that the duration of sequentially sectors inwash exceeds permitted time according to the climatic conditions of the region. Conclussions In order to fulfil the regulatory requirements for optimization of the alluvium process the network planning was applied. As a result it was determined that the duration of critical path of the network diagram allows you to get the entire volume of tailings in the required time. The proposed method for calculating the technological parameters of the alluvium process improves the accuracy of determination of technological parameters for the formation of technogenic storages, which is the basis for reducing the costs of erecting and operating of these facilities.

Number of views: 861

INVESTIGATION OF THE GRINDING MATERIAL MOVEMENT IN THE CENTRIFUGAL MILL OF VERTICAL TYPE WITH COAXIAL RING INSTALLATION IN ITS WORKING SPACE

V.N. Khetagurov, E.S. Kamenetsky, D.G. Minasyan, M.V. Gegelashvili

The aim of this work is to study the movement of grinding material in the working space of a centrifugal mill of vertical type to determine the optimum radius of the coaxial ring installed above the mill rotor. Research method includes computer simulation in the hydrodynamic approxima-tion using the OpenFOAM package. The grinding medium was represented as a viscous incompressible non-Newtonian fluid. The cylindrical body of the mill is stationary and the adherence conditions of the material were set on it. The adherence conditions for the material were also set on the entire surface of the rotor. It was assumed that the upper surface of the grinding material column in the mill is horizontal. The equations were solved by the finite volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm. Research results. The version of the centrifugal mill work with a rotor radius of 0.15 m was calculated at a rotor speed of 310 rpm, the material column height in the casing was 0.27 m and six radial ribs were installed in the rotor cavity. The diameter of the coaxial ring installed in the working space of the centrifugal mill was assumed to be 0.05; 0.75; 0.1; 0.115 m. It was found that the installation of a ring with a radius of 0.05 mm slightly changes the intensity of the material move. Between the ring and the body of the mill, a torus-like vortex remains, and inside the ring the material slowly descends toward the bottom of the rotor. In the case of a ring with a radius of 0.115 m, a vortex is formed near the inner wall of the ring, which reduces the efficiency of the material’s grinding. With an ring radius of 0.075 m, such a vortex is formed between the ring and the mill body. In the case of a ring with a radius of 0.1 m, it is a divider of the movement of the material in the vertical plane. Conclusions. In our view, the most effective, from the point of view of increas-ing the collision speed of the material with the ribs of the rotor, are the rings of radius 0.115 m and 0.1 m, but in view of the vortex formation in the working space with a ring of 0.115 mm radius, the most effective will be the installation in a centrifugal mill working space a coaxial ring with a radius of 0.1 m (0.66 radius of the rotor).

Number of views: 746
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