According to the Federal target program on development of resorts of the North Caucasus it is supposed to create a year-round tourist and recreational complex “Mamison” in the Republic of the North Ossetia-Alania The aim of the given part of the article is to study avalanche processes on the territory of “Mamison” complex. Climate and orography of the territory of the tourist and recreational complex “Mamison” contribute to development of avalanching processes. Duration of winter period is 111-152 days, during which the accumulated negative temperatures change from – 3700 to – 7600. Stable snow cover is formed in December 15-17, and at the height of 2000-2200 m – in the third decade of November. Duration of its accumulation is from 60 days to 4 months. Average snow height does not exceed 16 cm for foothill regions. In the mountains, snow cover can reach 2-3 m or more. Methods of avalanche hazard assessment are made on the basis of processing and analysis: – Research materials and studies of past years about the conditions of dangerous processes development on studied and surrounding areas; – Results of route observations; – Decoding of satellite images obtained from the annual surveys in the period of maximum snow melt from 2000 to 2015. According to the results of field works interpretation of satellite images were developed maps of avalanches boundaries (M: 10000) and created a database of their morphometric characteristics. Results of the work revealed: 1. 143 avalanche sites. Avalanches manifestation activity is characterized by high altitude and seasonal dynamics. 2. Spring and summer avalanche in different altitudinal zones, starting from the 2800-2900 m altitude watersheds in April, gradually reaching the areas with the highest peaks. 3. By volume dominated by an avalanche from a few hundreds to 1-2 m3. The maximum volume of avalanches among the recorded during the survey is 50000 m3. Basically, all the avalanches accumulated on the slopes without going to the bottom of valleys. Conclusions. In general, infestation of the researched territory by snow avalanches can be assessed as exceptional. Total area with avalanche activity is 41.8 km2 . Totally were identified 75 avalanche catchment areas in the valley of Kozydon river, 86 – in the valley of Zemegondon river. 2 avalanche basins were revealed In the valley of Zemegondon river, 46 avalanche catchment areas in Dzuarikomdon river, 21 avalanche catchment areas in Hitsanshtandon river. Multiple formation centres of avalanches of the right slope are united into 12 avalanche catchments in the valley of Hitsanshtandon river.
Purpose. The article deals with understanding the ecological component in the system of national security and security of certain regions of the state and, in particular, in the most vulnerable part of the nature - the mountain territories. Methods. The concept of ecological safety includes not only environmental security in a certain area, but also a mentality based on choosing alternative options of using limited resources for the purpose of identification, localization or full neutralization of security threat in a certain region, and in this sense the ecological component covers all forms and types of safety: international, national, regional, etc. Results (Discussions). The multidimensional orientation of negative impact of the motor transport on the environment is revealed. At the same time this influence is increasing on account of the growing number of elements in the motor vehicle fleet. The annual 7% gain of vehicle fleet in the country led to air pollution growth by 65% in 2013 in comparison with 2000. In cities with large population and correspondingly with large vehicle fleet such diseases as hypertension, cardio-and cancerous diseases, respiratory disorders are frequent. In mountain areas motor transport operation leads to mountain relief destruction, violation of the slope mechanical durability, shifting of soil masses in gravitational field, erosion occurrence, landslides and change of climatic conditions, and in comparison with flat lands the concentration of exhausts in mountain regions increases several times with the growth of height above sea level. Financial losses caused by the negative impact on the environment (pollution of the atmosphere, increased noise etc.) while operating various types of vehicles in the Russian Federation are very large and amount to 170 billion rubles per year. Such an environmental degradation is caused, first of all, by the fact that ecological characteristics in the updated segment of the motor vehicle fleet have not been improved recently. The increasing number of motor vehicles corrected the balance of environmental pollution “in favour” of movable sources of pollution in comparison with immovable ones. In terms of environmental impact motor transport and roads form a unified system, all more dangerous for the ecological safety of modern society. Summary (Conclusion). The given circumstances lead to increased necessity of ensuring environmental safety in production, operation and utilization of motor vehicles. Therefore referring to environmental safety, it is necessary to speak about implementation of the principles of ecological approach to safety management in a certain sphere of human activities.
For the minimization of mining wastes and for sustainable development of mountain territories, including Zabaykalsky Krai, the following main tasks are being solved: development of effective combined reextraction technology of useful components from the anthropogenic-transformed wastes based on the directed electro- chemical effects; probation of new methods on laboratory experiments and industrial tests; waste minimisation through reextraction of gold, chemically related elements and active leaching solutions. The main purpose of the work is the development effective complex geothechnology waste minimization from mining branch technogenic formations and ecosystem restoration in the zone of valid mining enterprises taking into account the specifics of objects. The work idea consists of the complexity and efficiency of technogenic gold additional recovery, the lixiviated solutions due to the development of new technology. Methods: researches of migration of gold and the accompanying elements, processes of electroactivation of ion-exchange sorption of colloidal gold of the technogenic transformed raw materials in laboratory, trial and industrial conditions are conducted. The complex of methods, including theoretical researches, generalizations, multiple-factor planning of experiments, mathematical processing of experimental data is used. Results (discussion): In the conditions of Transbaykalia on one of tailings dams it was succeeded to carry out landing of seedling of corn which showed good results and ability to accumulate precious metals in the fabrics. Extraction of gold from tails by means of a fitoremediation at the level of 78,3% is received. Options of sorber with electric activation by means of which it was possible extraction 57,5% of residual colloidal gold are developed. As an ion-exchange sorbent at initial stages it was chosen anionit in a form-CN ‾, at the subsequent stages – in forme-ON ˉ that allowed to neutralize also cyanides. Conclusions: The described separate blocks are switched on in geotechnology of minimization of waste of gold mining branch due to additional recovery of gold, the accompanying elements, the lixivating solutions and decrease in anthropogenous load of natural ecosystems. The developed combined technology of additional recovery of useful components from the technogenic transformed waste on the basis of the presented methods showed the efficiency on laboratory experiments and industrial tests. Introduction in production will lead to improvement of an ecological situation and further to sustainable development of mining gold-bearing territories of Transbaykalia.
Research objective. For geosystem characterization of exogenous relief-forming processes that have a significant impact on the landscape situations development, it is important to work out different methods for constructing scenarios of possible changes in the geo-ecological situation of various mountain ranges that have destructive effects by identifying causal relationships. To accomplish this, the article analyzes the possibilities for predicting changes in landscape structure of highlands in the natural region of the Greater Caucasus using a variety of data. These statistics helped to find out the main differences between the factors of relief situation in which there are exodynamic relief and landscape building processes, the character and intension of land-utilization, in various degrees affecting landslides and being affected by their destructive influence. Methods. These works were performed during the visual field studies and cameral research, which involve measurement on topographic maps and reveal slope of surface, stimulating the slide mountain masses, as well as compilation of digital elevation models of landslide slopes by application of machining programs. Results. The available materials may provide an opportunity to identify the preconditions of occurrence and development of landslide processes and to create a certain group of landslide slopes with the goal of developing protective measures to prevent their harmful effects. According to the results of conducted research it was revealed that the composition of the underlying rocks is an important factor in the development of geodynamic processes and it is sufficiently exposed to erosive and denudation processes. Conclusions. Currently, there is an urgent need for large-scale inventory of the mountainous massifs with account of changing geomorphological and landscape conditions, which implies the preparation of detailed landscape, geological-geomorphological, soil, geobotanical maps, including using satellite imagery. Cartographic materials should be supplemented by meteorological data, including information on the annual course of air temperature, quantity, nature and mode of precipitation, annual and monthly air temperatures. Information on the humanitarian and economic situation of the landslide area should take an important place in the description of landslide array. Accumulation and processing of large amounts of data may allow to make a comparison of possible factors, that cause landslides processes and to identify key factor in order to find the possibilities of its neutralization.
Purpose. The article deals with the degree of correlation between the pollution degree and the level of children and adult morbidity of the population in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. Methods. The features of geo-ecological location of North Ossetia are determined. The main features are: hollowed location of the cardinal planar part of Ossetia, the fact that it is surrounded by mountains; extremely low probability of wind; low degree of atmospheric air self-purification; high level of streamflow autonomy(excluding the district of Mozdok); considerable density of federal highways with high traffic load and as a result – aggravation of ecological situation; concentration of mining, processing and dressing factories of non-ferrous metallurgy, tailing ponds, clinkers in the republic; advanced distillery production with a virtual absence of sewage treatment plants. Results. It was revealed that air contamination level in the republic increases constantly. And that is despite the fact that atmospheric emissions from stationary sources have been decreased dramatically, especially emissions from “Electrozinc” plant. Air contamination level increases on account of increase of vehicles and transit transport. Overwhelming majority of vehicles are concentrated in Vladikavkaz. As a result the contamination level of atmospheric air in the capital of the republic is several times higher than in other districts. This applies both to the absolute( emissions, tonnes) and relative(emission per unit area of land, tons / sq. km) indicators. Mozdoksky district is on the second place in absolute pollution. These areas turned out to be the leaders in sickness rate – Vladikavkaz in adult morbidity, and Mozdoksky district – in child morbidity. Similar situation can be observed in other districts: areas with high pollution level have higher morbidity rate, and areas with low pollution level have lower morbidity rate. Conclusions. The studies have shown a high level of correlation between pollution degree and the level of children and adult morbidity. Nevertheless other factors should be also taken into consideration like wind rose, naturally high level of radiation (e.g. – Digorsky Gorge) and many others.Keywords: North Ossetia, districts, en- vironmental pollution, population, emission, morbidity, dependence.
Globally destinations are exposed to so called mega-drivers: climate change, urbanization, demographic change or sharing economies. While research in the field of climate change impact is globally considered a major issue, demographic change seems to be of less importance. Looking at the dynamics of aging and the movement of the younger population from rural areas into the cities in the EU the question comes up, if demographic change might be the driver with much stronger impact to local communities in the near future. Thereby demographic change does not only shift the age structure of the local population in tourism villages but also that of secondary residents and guests. This paper is based on a case from a small traditional tourism village in the Bavarian Alps. The population change forecast provided by the regional statistical office shows a stable situation with a shift in the age structure towards the older groups. This would imply that the only necessary measure is to attract young families for settlement. However, a new spatial analysis method which visualizes the age structure in each building of the village, the vacancy risk, real vacancies, tourism related objects and second homes shows a different result: subareas with a high share of abandoned houses or such with a high risk for vacancy within the next few years are found. Furthermore, second home residences with a very low occupancy rate or abandoned tourism businesses are identified. Based on these results adaptation strategies were developed, using a participatory process and focussing on a new settlement policy and the innovation of the accommodation sector and its business models.
The aim of the article is to analyze the limits of knowledge transfer in the field of climate change and water resources management in different mountain regions – the Alps and the Caucasus. The main method is a comparative geographical analysis of climatic and hydrological data, as well as the method of regional analogues, which allows comparing regions similar in nature but different in development. Results (discussion). The Alps and the Caucasus have much in common that allows to compare current trends in change of the environment, in particular, of change of hydrological processes under the influence of climate. Reducing the proportion of melt water runoff, as well as an increase in the dry season in the late summer set the Alpine scientists and managers thinking of possible consequences in water management. Compared to the Alps, the Caucasus is clearly lagging behind in the study of climate change impacts on hydrological processes. In the Alps, the important role of the cryosphere, in particular, a decrease in melt water runoff is acknowledged. For the Caucasus, this trend could be confirmed only on the materials from the Central Caucasus, while for other regions reliable data are scarce or they are non-existent. Analysis of the impact of various factors on hydrological processes in the Alps and the Caucasus shows that at the present stage, the more powerful are the social and economic transformations that overshadow climate change. However, the role of climatic factors should not be discounted. The need to address short-term problems should not reduce attention to long-term problems. Problems of water management in the Alps (the fragmented water use, unequal access to water, a tangled system of law in the field of water use regulation) are characteristic also for the Caucasus. The Alpine experience of the integrated water management could be successfully used in the Caucasus. Conclusions. The knowledge transfer between regions with similar natural conditions, but at different levels of socio-economic development, allows taking into account the positive and negative experiences and avoiding some mistakes in the regulation of water resource management. In particular, the alpine experience may come in handy for the Caucasus region in the field of integrated water management and the creation of water storage.
Purpose. The article discusses current issues on environmental safety of mining areas in ore dressing plants of non-ferrous and iron and steel works. In the Republic of North Ossetia such facilities include mining and concentration plants of Sadonsky Industrial Association (ore mines and Mizur ore dressing plant) and Electrotsink plant incorporated in the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Holding Company. Methods. It was proved that environmental safety in the area of coverage of these plants can be provided through complex automation of technological processes, which will definitely result in intense reduction of a negative impact of discharged ore tailings on the environment. The performance of the automatic process control systems employed by these non-ferrous and iron and steel works largely depends on the volume and quality of analytical information used for these purposes and which is normally generated in the automated analytical monitoring systems (AAMS). Results. AAMS of ore dressing plants and metallurgical plants is built with the use of two, fundamentally different options for automatic delivery of representative samples of controlled process products for analysis: bulk pneumatic delivery of samples over a pipeline in the form of “pulp cork” and container pneumatic delivery of samples over a pipeline in special transportation insulated containers. Conclusions. The article goes into particulars of the creation and optimization of the above-mentioned systems for collection and delivery of samples for analysis.
Objective. The article provides information about the ways of study strength characteristics of rocks in natural deposits to determine the rational parameters of drilling and blasting operations. Special attention is paid to the determination of properties of rocks on the basis of parameters of production wells drilling. The purpose of research results, which are given in the article is the development of a methodology for specification of properties of rock mass in natural deposits according to the difficulties of drilling and the refinement of parameters of borehole explosive charges. Methods. For this purpose, we used a complex method of research including the synthesis and analysis of scientific literature, methods of mathematical statistics, simulation and experiments. It is shown that the specification of rock properties in the manufacture of blasting has great scientific and practical importance. Results. Research results of relationships between the processes of roller-bit drilling and explosive destruction of rocks are provided. It is demonstrated that the measurement of parameters during the process of boreholes drilling allows to simulate the change of strength characteristics of rocks in the excavation blocks and clarify the parameters of borehole explosive charge. At a certain methodical maintenance, it may allow to reduce the consumption of material resources in the production of blasting and to improve the quality of rock mass crushing. On the basis of obtained results the methodology of determining the value of specific consumption of explosives was developed according to the data of production wells drilling. That methodology allows to build models of changes in strength characteristics of rocks on the height of a ledge, to determine the proportionality between energy characteristics of processes of roller-bit drilling explosive destruction of rocks, as well as to clarify the mass of explosive charges in each well of an excavation block. Conclusions. The studies in the Mining Institute, Ural branch of RAS have developed a method for rapid investigation of soil, which is to model the fortress of rocks on the basis of data obtained in the process of production wells drilling.The obtained model serves as the basis for specification of parameters of charges in the wells of an excavation block. With the use of modeling of rocks hardness according to their difficulty and intensity of drilling it is possible to clarify a fracture of a massif, which is especially important in the process of choice of a rational scheme of explosive charges initiation.
Relevance of the work is determined by the need to improve the completeness of extraction of metallic mineral raw materials from the earth’s depths and complexity of its use through the treatment of industrial wastewater, which contains natural solutions of metals. Aim of the work: substantiation of technological possibilities and economic feasibility of using liquid and metallurgical waste processing as the conditions for preventing the global destruction of the natural environment. Research methods: a synthesis and critical analysis of the experience according to the literature, laboratory and production experiment, techno-economic modeling and initial engineering studies. Results. The article gives the results of consideration of the problem of industrial wastewater treatment as a condition for obtaining scarce metals and preventing the global destruction of natural environment in the conditions of mountainous location of industrial regions on the example of North Caucasian natural deposits. The full cycle of cleaning works of metal-containing effluents of Sadonsk mines was investigated. This can serve as a basis for the design and construction of treatment facilities for the implementation of wastewater treatment methods. Electrochemical method is recommended to use as a basic in combination with the processes of electrochemical softening and electrodialysis desalination. The results of extraction of metals from mining effluents by the authors and other researchers are given. It was noted, that the implementation of proposed methods of extraction of metals from products of natural leaching is attractive not only as a tool for reducing the environmental load, but also as a real opportunity for obtaining marketable products for the improvement of economy of enterprises. It also can be combined with the innovative technology of mechanochemical leaching of metals from sub-standard raw materials in disintegrator. Conclusions. Regularities of electrochemical processes of wastewater treatment are adequate and need an adjustment by technological means, which opens opportunities to control the technological process. Intermediate products anolyte and catholyte, obtained in purification process are suitable for use in industrial processes. The proposed technology is recommended to use for real reduction of risk of environmental chemical contamination and for production of commercial product and deserves approbation and practical application.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)