An actual problem is the assessment of the affected areas size in the case of rock mass crashes at the present time. To study the rock fall processes, various methods are used, among which an important role is played by the mathematical and computer modeling.The rock fall movement of the slope which is associated with the horizontal section was investigated in the paper. The theoretical investigation was performed using two-fluid model based on the continuum approach and kinetic theory of granular gas. At the continuum approach the moving mass of a substance is represented as a continuous medium characterized by the inseparable field of the physical parameters values. To describe the fluidization of the mass of rock fall in the course of its motion, the kinetic theory of granulated gas was used, which takes into account the chaotic motion of debris both in the dense and in the rarefied state.Fluidization means a change in the density of the layer which can change during its movement. Verification of the model was carried out using the results of the experiments obtained on the laboratory equipment. The comparison between the experiment results and calculations, performed using two-fluid model and discrete element method were presented. The numerical calculations of the affected area of rock fall performed for various values of the slope angle to horizontal surface satisfactorily describe the experiments. The affected area increases almost linearly with an increase in the slope angle. The experimental data is corresponding to the calculations obtained using the two-fluid model at relatively large values of the slope angle better than the calculations obtained using the discrete element method. In addition, the computer time spent on computations using the two-fluid model is about four times less than in the case of using the discrete element method.Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the two-fluid model based on the continuum approach and the kinetic theory of granulated gas can be used to describe the motion of the rock fall and to estimate the affected area.
For the typical regional geosystems of the Baikalian region, this study of spatial landscape heterogeneity was carried out at the level of elementary territorial units, i. e. facies. Our investigation into the spatial-coenotic changes of the mountain taiga and subtaiga forests and steppe geosystems of the Southern Baikal Region and the Western Baikal Region allowed us to establish the dependence of the spatial landscape heterogeneity on the variability of the hydrothermal conditions and litomorphic nature of habitats. A useful starting point for landscape heterogeneity research has been to explore landscape as groups of plant communities or ecosystems forming ecological units (patches) which have distinguishable structural, functional, morphological, and disturbance regimes. We identified dominant and edificatory species of vegetation as well as peculiarities in their spatial distribution in the key sites. The complexity of the landscape structure is enhanced by the mixed character of the successiondynamical states of geosystems arising as a consequence of different impacts. The application of a structural dynamic approach to the analysis of the spatial landscape heterogeneity in our study made it possible to show the order of changes of the facies due to the variability in ecological conditions in the form of models, namely, factoringdynamic models. These models will support us in understanding and integrating information on spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the current and prognostic geosystems needed to provide the main functions of the geosystems. These are the resource, environment-forming, environmentprotective and social functions. We studied this landscape structure as a set of the geosystems existing in different dynamical states as a result of their directed transformation under spatial and temporal changes in natural conditions and under anthropogenic impact. Landscape structure analysis was made of the middle-scale landscape profiles using the comparative-geographical method, since the landscape topographic profile and spatial combination of the facies within it reflect the main structural and dynamic features of the territorial landscape structure with regard to regional nature characteristics.
The goal is to identify ecological risks, associated with development of recreational and tourism objects in the mount cluster of Sochi. The anthropogenic, geological, hydrological, hydro chemical aspects which represent danger for the resort as well as for unique ecosystems of the mount river Laura were studied. Methods. During 2016–2017 the complex research of the Laura river were conducted within the framework of which the analysis of exogenous geological processes and studying of hydro-chemical and hydro-biological parameters of ecological situation of the water body were carried out. The examinations of water were carried out in accordance with methods approved by the Hydro-meteorological Service of the Russian Federation. For evaluation of biological communities conditions the saprobical method and analysis of biological diversity were used. Results. The research indicated that intensive anthropogenic influence on the geological environment of the region provokes activation of the dangerous geological processes increasing the risks for humans health and safety as well as for the natural communities of the river Laura. It was determined that during summer months in the hydro biocenoses of the Laura river due to the complex "Gazprom" influence on zone share tolerant to the organic pollution of macrozoobenthic organisms significantly increases. Resulting from the river dewatering and increasing anthropogenic pressure, the status of the river on this area was changed from oligosaprobical to β-mezosaprobical. The increase in the river pollution level by domestic wastewater combined with the raised fine-grained suspended solids content and excessive metal ions concentrations due to the natural geochemical anomalies creates risks of additive influence of these factors on the mountain river biocoenoses in the region. It was revealed that the Laura river above the resort complex territory where there is practically no anthropogenic pressure during the whole investigation period was characterized as a clean, oligosaprobic waterway. Conclusion. A comprehensive study of the Laura mountain river allowed identification of the environmental risks for the river ecosystem. It was revealed in the course of the research that the changes in the water body hydro biocenoses composition creates the risks of decreasing the fishery and recreational value not only of the Laura river but also of the Mzymta river, the inflow of which it is. The authors recommend the expansion of the monitoring program of these rivers which should include the study of the actual referencing areas and a comprehensive analysis of all biotic and abiotic factors affecting the ecological status of water bodies.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the problems and pre-conditions of land use optimization in mountain regions of the Northeast Caucasus. To achieve this goal the authors have applied the comparative-geographical analysis, statistical and cartographic methods. Results and discussion. The article proves that the concept of balanced land utilization is a combination of rational use and protection of land resources and reproduction of productive capacity of agricultural lands. The algorithm of land use optimization in the regions of Northeast Caucasus includes a number of serial stages: monitoring assessment of land fund condition, enclosing the analysis of dynamics of these processes, the quantitative and quality standard of potential of the steady (balanced) land use and development of the optimum directions of land use on condition of preservation of natural and resource potential, biological and ethnocultural diversity. Consequence assessment of the development of the specified directions and their subsequent consideration in development and forecasting of land use is important. Optimization of land use has to be carried out both on regional and municipal levels. In addition, special attention should be paid to urban geological systems as centers for development of innovative potential. Large urban geological systems (Grozny, Makhachkala, Nazran) should be developed trough the improvement of traditional directions (industry, tourism, wholesale/retail commodity circulation) as well as through integration of innovation technologies in science, education and production sphere. Conclusions. During the research the authors have revealed both positive (natural and resource, ethnogenetic, innovative potential, etc.) and negative (land degradation processes, poorly developed infrastructure, etc.) aspects for balanced land use in the regions of Northeast Caucasus. Agroindustrial complex, the system of natural protected areas, tourism and recreation activities are the most recommended as the priority direction of development. Natural-climatic and soil-geomorphological conditions in a plain (steppe zone) mainly promote agriculture development, and in a mountain part – livestock production. In the Northeast Caucasus an important part is assigned to the formation of geoecological framework in order to ensure ecological balance in the intensive economic use of lands. Tourist and recreational capacity of this territory allows to develop here scientific and cognitive, sports, extreme, ethnographic, rural and other types of tourism.
Competiveness enhancement of the North Caucasus mountain territories against the background of high water capacity in the regional production and simultaneous lower level of water supple call forth urgency for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of water use efficiency in the examined regions and this is the objective of the present research. The authors think that from the position of development stability in the mountain territories, water use efficiency should be assessed together with socioeconomic indices of these regions. This will make it possible to raise harmonization level of their ecological, economical and social spheres. Materials and research methods. Assessment of water resource use efficiency is carried out from the position of the system-synergetic approach using the following groups of indices: loadings on water resources, water supple, water capacity, water resource quality. The results received and their discussion. The research results indicated that in spite of a significant potential of water economy systems in the mountain territories they were notable for the high and critically high levels of loading on water resources. All the mountain regions, except the Karachi-Circassian Republic and the Republic Severnaya Osetia-Alania, have “catastrophically low”, “very low” and “low” water supply levels. This is an impeding factor for their steady development and mares the task of enhancing water use efficiency important. Significance of solving this problem increases taking into consideration primarily agricultural specialization of the North Caucasus republics in addition to that arable land intensity in their availavle land structure exceeds 50% and low water period lasts for 10 years, on the average. The authors’ hypothesis is that efficiency of water resource use is primarily reflected in water capacity indices of the Gross Regional Product (GRP). Analysis of this index for the considered regions showed that they had its highest level among all the RF constitutional territories. At the same time, under the trend of growing the GRP, reducing in its water capacity is observed. This means that in the corresponding regions resource saving technologies are used and these assure the socio-economical development at the expense of intensive rather that extensive factors. The highest indices of the GRP growth rate are typical for the Republic of Dagestan that allows to say about the high level of water use efficiency for this region. Conclusion. Regular monitoring of water use efficiency indices mares it possible to develop definite measures within the frame of strategies for the steady social and economical development of the mountain territories.
Compositional analysis of some bituminous oil sand samples and heavy oil deposits of South Western Nigeria are presented in this research work. An in-depth study of bituminous occurrences, top lateritic soils, upper shales and limestone, upper bituminous sediments (Horizon X), lower bituminous sediments (Horizon Y) is considered.
national natural bio spheric park, in the majority, are in a ripe or over age stage that creates prerequisites of decrease in their resistance to the influence of the external factors – fire danger, environmental, forest pathological susceptibility. In the dark-coniferous forests of the reserve located in the zone of the intensive recreational development for the last five years the very considerable drying of fir-tree forest stands is noted. Research objective is identification of cause and effect relationship of the forest drying in the conditions of climate warming and intensive operation. Monitoring of Karachay-Cherkessia air environment quality on the observations route posts by Rostekhnadzor for the KarachaiCherkess Republic is taken as a basis of methodology. The center of the laboratory analysis and technical measurements for the Karachai-Cherkess Republic and research laboratory of the geo environmental monitoring of KChGU carried out observations on padding points of selection of single tests for the sanitary and epidemiologic monitoring. The data of the hydro meteorological monitoring and the abnormal atmospheric phenomena are created. The analysis and synthesis of the experimental and share material allowed to establish hypothetically: - the impurity of free air fluidized chemicals increased more than by 3 times from 2000; - regional warming of climate and the frequent abnormal atmospheric phenomena (hydrothermal inversions, smogs, fogs, hoarfrost, acid rains …) confirm the increase in the free air impurity level; - the main ingredients worsening quality of the air environment are: white damps, sulfurs, nitrogen, aerosols, hydrocarbons and also volatile organic compounds which are formed from the local sources and get into the gorges with the wind streams; - the majority of the specified substances – gaseous also affect trees as dry settlings, and being acidified by the condensation moisture of air drop out in the form of the acid rains; - the drying process of fir-trees happens from the bottom of slopes to an upper bound of the growth. Individuals of the top tiers in communities and subject to immediate influence of the airflows dry out, first of all. The younger generation (subbody height) located close to the dried-out trees keeps viability.
The purpose of this work is to obtain additional data on the hydrochemical regime of lakes and drip waters of the Novoafonskaya cave, as well as to study some aspects related to modern mineral formation. The obtained data reveal a different macrocomponent composition, but at the same time ‒ the similarity of the geochemical specters of trace elements and lanthanides in the source of Psyrtsha and the lakes of the Novoafonskaya cave. The prevalence of light lanthanides and a pronounced positive europium anomaly is typical for all the samples. At the same time, the accumulation of metals is controlled by local factors – the presence of colloids-concentrators and the deposition of minerals of iron and manganese (which makes incorrect the direct comparison of the trace element composition to determine the hydrodynamic connection between various water manifestations). The results of studies of ferromanganese mineral deposits in the lake of the Nartaa chamber are presented. Observations on the chemical composition of the drip waters in the cave allow us to conclude that the most abundant and constant drop points have infiltration recharge and contribute to the rapid deposition of calcite. Some points are characterized by an increase in the molar ratio of Mg/Ca in infiltration waters to values higher than those for the enclosing limestones, which creates preconditions for the crystallization of magnesian carbonates. The comparisons of the composition of the karst waters of the Novoafonskaya cave with various underground water occurrences of karst waters in the low-mountainous and highmountainous areas of Abkhazia, as well as the main manifestations of the deep chloride-sodium waters of the Black Sea area of Abkhazia, allow us to conclude that the modern hydrochemical regime of the Novoafonskaya cave is associated with cold HCO3--Ca2+ waters in chemically pure carbonate rocks in low mountains. At the same time, it is possible to conclude with a high probability that there is an inflow of deep mineral waters in the source of Psyrtsha located near the cave.
High mountain areas are often seen as regions of stagnation which are characterized by natural and societal development constraints. The Central Karakoram is such an area in which the Tibetan speaking Baltis are confronted with a harsh and hostile natural environment. In the sense of classical regional development theories, high mountain areas show factors that inhibit development, such as a pronounced relief, a high potential of natural risks, low population and settlement densities or a lean network of traffic and communication infrastructures. But today the Central Karakoram stands out against the widespread thesis of stagnation and backwardness as a result of dynamic developments. Through creative adaptive processes of its residents as well as externally induced measures and programs, natural development barriers lose their importance and can sometimes even be converted into advantages. The expansion of the transport and communication infrastructure and thus the improved accessibility and networking are important prerequisites for the expansion of individual scopes of action and the unfolding of individual abilities. Multi-local networks, social capital and formal education are becoming increasingly important factors within current livelihood strategies in this high mountain region.
The article discusses the need for scholars to approach research on mountain territories through an interdisciplinary lens that accounts for the dynamic interactions occurring between humans and nature. While the global mountain research community has made strides towards interdisciplinary approaches and international collaboration, the Russian mountain research community has remained largely isolated from these interdisciplinary and international agendas. The article is critical of the persisting natural science bias in Russian mountain research, explains why such a bias is problematic, and offers recommendations for ways forward.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)