This article describes current status of North Ossetian artesian basin as one of the main water supply sources for population and industry of North Ossetia-Alania. North Ossetian artesian basin is the largest hydrogeological object on the territory of the republic. Its borders and distribution area coincide with the North Ossetian sloping plain. North Ossetian artesian basin is a huge reservoir, 25% of which is filled with groundwater. Northern boundary of the North Ossetian sloping plain and accordingly, the North Ossetian artesian basin runs along the watershed line of the Sunzha ridge, Southern – along the foot of a Wooded ridge. The basin is bounded by Nazran-Yandyrsk and Datyksk hills in the East; in the West it is delimited by Zmeysky highland (Zmeysky mountain range). Absolute height of the plain is in the range of 800-320 m. The North Ossetian sloping plain, which coincides with the eponymous artesian basin, is a deep depression (deflection) of Jurassic, Cretaceous Paleogene and Neogene sediments, filled with boulder and pebble deposits from the Miocene to modern, all together they form so-called molasse. The beginning of foredeep formation on the territory of North Ossetia-Alania and the mode of sustainable deflection are established from the upper Sarmatian on the background of general uplift of the Greater Caucasus. Depth to groundwater within the plain (basin) varies significantly. For instance, near the cities of Vladikavkaz and Alagir, they occur at depths of 100-150 m near the town of Ardon and Beslan – at a depth of 20-40 m, and in the area of Bekanskiy HPP groundwater comes to the surface. Water catchment area of the depression is about 6000 km2, the area of distribution of the North Ossetian basin is about 1900 km2. Despite the fact that groundwater quality of the Ossetian artesian basin is good (meets the requirements of SanPiN 18.104.22.1684 – 01 “Drinking water”), special attention is paid to a problem of groundwater quality degradation in the South-Eastern part of the basin, ie, in the Northern part of Promyshlenny municipal district of Vladikavkaz. Possible reasons of this fact are analyzed. Presumably, the main causes of this negative phenomenon can be: 1. Intense unsystematic exploitation of aquiferous horizons of underground waters directly from the basin and beyond – in the area of basin nutrition aquifer, particularly in Ordzhonikidzevskoe deposit of underground waters. 2. Pollution of air, soil and underground waters by local industrial enterprises, especially by JSC “Electrozinc”, JSC “Pobedit” and their decomposing polygons of slag dumps. For the identification of extent and causes of groundwater pollution in the South – Eastern part of the North Ossetian artesian basin and for the adoption of appropriate preventive measures it is necessary to conduct ecological and hydrogeological survey at the sites of JSC “Electrozinc” and JSC “Pobedit” and to conduct a comprehensive analysis of this problem. It is necessary to conduct hydrogeological studies of Ordzhonikidzevskoe underground water deposit with the revaluation of operating inventory and elaboration of rational scheme of mining. A permanent monitoring of underground water on the territory of the North Ossetian artesian basin for all active water wells and the analysis of results are needed.
Purpose. In recent years successful development of mountain areas has faced the danger of destructive exogenous processes which annually inflict significant material damage and act as a brake for the further development of tourism. The most dangerous ecogeomorphological processes that have a great impact on recreational potential of a region are: avalanches, landslides, rockslides, rockfalls, cliff debris, mudflows, etc. Consequently, this article is devoted to analysis of landscape and geomorphological features of mountain geosystems of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus in order to assess their impact on landscape-recreational potential. This region is an area of extensive development of spontaneous-destructive processes
which are developed in almost all vertical belts, but they are the most common in mountain zone.
Methods. The study is based on field observations, map data, synthesis of materials obtained mainly by using ArcGIS software package (Hydrology, Statial, Analyst, 3D Analyst and others). In addition, during the evaluation process of recreational resources of the studied region we have also applied an integrated approach where the leading role is given to possibilities of using landscapes in order to develop recreation. The evaluation was carried out by following landscape components : relief, vegetation, water bodies, climate, aesthetic value, landscape diversity, transport availability and anthropogenic transformation of natural territorial complex.
Research results. As a result of this assessment following geological complexes were revealed: with the most favorable, relatively favourable, little favourable and unfavourable landscape and recreational potential. Conclusion. For the successful regulation of recreational loads in the studied areas it is necessary to conduct functional zoning with subsequent landscape-geomorphological and recreational planning sections which are the most attractive for tourists.
Over 90% of the territory of Iran is located in the regions dominated by the arid, semiarid and sub-humid climatic types with low rainfall rates or none at all. Subsequently, the study of the Iranian water resources, especially in the areas that face the challenge of water scarcity, is crucial. The present study focuses on defining the condition and the quality of ground and surface drinking waters in the Delichai river-basin in Iran using GIS technologies and the Schoeller method, based on the semi-log scheme of the main ions concentration (HCO3–, SO4–, Cl–, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, mg/l). The quality of the ground drinking water in the areas concerned was detected on the basis of the data for 12 karises, 269 springs and 123 wells for the years 1984 – 2014. The main ions concentration in the ground and surface waters throughout the period proves the average quality (point of moderate danger) of the ground drinking water for all sub-basins: the excess content of Mg2+ – 82.66 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 30 mg/l), SO4– – 370.33 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 250 mg/l) Cl– – 366.33 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 250 mg/l), TDS 1582 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 1000 mg/l), TH 272 mg/l (Iranian
Standard, 200 mg/l). The same for the surface drinking water: the excess content of Mg2+ – 52 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 30 mg/l) SO4– – 301 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 250 mg/l), TDS 1200 mg/l (Iranian Standard 1000 mg/l), TH 207 mg/l (Iranian Standard, 200 mg/l). Consequently, the surface and ground waters in the Delichai river-basin are in a moderately dangerous condition.
Institutional-oriented analysis of development issues emphasizes the existence or absence of binding rules that influence the relationship between nature and man, between different nature users, or between the state and local communities. Institutions play a crucial role in sustainable development, regulating existing and emerging contradictions and conflict of interest. As studies in the North Caucasus showed, in addition to the formal rules expressed in official laws and regulations, informal institutions, including traditional ones, are quite widespread. However, recent data on the North Caucasus continues to show high levels of violence, high unemployment, dependence on financial subsidies, and a state relying on arbitrary executive power rather than legitimate institutional rule, which leaves voids sometimes filled by local societal institutions. This unlikely to be conductive for successful sustainable development. Attempts by the federal center to stimulate the development of the North Caucasus regions through development programs are largely aimed at achieving loyalty of the local elite and preventing violent conflicts between different groups. The volume and nature of the implementation of federal funds significantly exceed the institutional capacity of the North Caucasian polities to process these resources in a transparent, accountable and effective way. Despite the obvious positive results in the field of supporting material well-being and physical security, little has been done to turn development in the regions into a self-reliant process. Implemented programs are aimed at obtaining quick shortterm effects, without laying the foundations for sustainable long-term development. The programs largely ignore the already existing features and scale of the local economy, primarily small and medium-sized businesses, which widely use local relations and institutions. Large projects have pushed back local entrepreneurs, in some cases causing social tension. The changes caused by the implementation of development programs would be most effective when existing legitimate and problem-solving societal institutions are taken into account and are connected to state-sponsored development efforts in a meaningful way.
Purpose. This article aims to prove that problems of North Caucasian region cannot be solved without sustained economic foundation through the use of mineral resources, as well as traditional technologies for mineral deposits development do not ensure cost-effective production and cannot be the basis for improvement of regional economy.
Methods for proving include the systematization and critical analysis of publications on the subject, the results of technological and economic studies made for mining enterprises of North Ossetia-Alania, a retrospective assessment and scientific prediction.
Results. Information about pace of crisis in mining industry in post-reform period is given. It is shown that exploitation of minerals of the North Caucasus has played an important role in the economy of the USSR. The authors also provide objective assessment of recovery possibility of regional industrial potential by using traditional technologies of extraction and processing of Sadon polymetallic ores. The article describes recovery possibility of mining industry through the extraction of metals from substandard reserves for traditional technologies and practice of pioneer development of leaching technologies in the region from ores of Kakadur-Khanikomsk field. Economic evaluation of a project on conversion technologies has been performed. It is shown that the revival of profitable production of metals is possible on the basis of combining traditional technologies with the filling of cavities with hardening compounds and new technologies underground, heap and mechanochemical leaching. Formulated the development concept of geotechnological methods with leaching of metals in a place of natural occurrence of ore deposits in Sadonsk ore cluster. The article assesses the contribution of scientists of NCIMM(STU) in the theory of the leaching of lead and zinc from sulfide ores. Advisable is a combined production engineering providing the highest profitable production of complex ores.
Summary: a radical turn towards economic recovery can be accomplished through redevelopment of a profitable production of local metals based on a technology combining traditional and new technologies of subterrenian, heap and mechanochemical leaching. The mining economy can be improved by creating related productions of goods made of leaching talings left after the extraction of metals.
Research work was undertaken in a number of areas in the Caucasus and Kazakhstan. The spatial distribution patterns of oil fields and currently known seismic structures were considered on the stages of investigation. The petroleum potential estimation of the Northern Caucasus (Russian Federation) and Kazakhstan territories with the help of the structural-geodynamic prerequisites is considered. The identification and tracing of heightened fracturing zones by quality interpretation of seismic time sections was the methodology of exploration that has been used in some areas of Kazakhstan in recent years. A number of exploitation criteria that were defined based on the analysis of the reference seismic data according to well-studied areas in comparison with test data of wells was used. For a sufficiently good quality of records it becomes possible to select areas of petroleum exploration interest. The distribution scheme of fractured-loosened zones along the horizontal is obtained by correlations of similar signs of the wave field disturbance from profile to profile, although this procedure is associated with a high complexity of the choice of the reference version of the correlation. When planning and carrying out further exploration works for oil and gas on the territories of the Caucasus and Kazakhstan it is suggested to include in the range of works soil vapor survey together with the regional morphostructural analysis. This will allow for a small cost to get brand new valuable information on the petroleum potential of objects.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)