Goal. The purpose of this paper is to compare landscape maps and descriptions of landscapes of Afghanistan which were compiled at different times and to explain the differences from the point of view of modern landscape science. Methods. The available data of the landscape structure of Afghanistan are analyzed by comparative-geographic and comparative-descriptive methods. The first landscape studies of Afghanistan were conducted at the peak of confrontation between the Russian and British empires during the so called «Great Game» in the XIX century. However, the first scientific description of the landscape structure of the country appeared in the 1920s as a result of the expeditions of N. I. Vavilov and D. D. Bukinich. The main natural regions of Af- ghanistan were identified, a number of earlier sectoral studies on geo-botany, ethnography, geology, etc. were tested and supplemented and the agro-potential of different landscapes of the country was characterized. The first map of landscapes was published by A. A. Polyak in 1953, and although in many terms it was similar to the scheme of Vavilov, some land-scapes were combined, some new complexes were presented while the descriptions and the methods used corresponded to those of academic science. The next important step in the study of the landscape structure of Afghanistan was the release of the first National Atlas in 1985 (the second National Atlas was published in 2014), where a map of natural land- scape types was compiled according to all canons of Soviet landscape school. In 2014-2015, using previously published materials and modern sources and data of remote sensing, the author compiled a more detailed map of the generic of natural landscapes of Afghanistan. Results. On the basis of comparison of historical and modern landscape maps we conclude that some discrepancies seen among them could be explained by dynamics of some landscape complexes due to anthropogenic factor. Conclusions. The data on the landscape structure (2) have not lost their relevance. In some cases, even earlier sources are relevant [5–7]. Nevertheless, some of their discrepancies can be explained not only by differences in the method of compilation but also by historical transformations of the landscape complexes themselves, which is proved by a number of examples.
The aim of the work is to study the changes in mineralization and general rigidity, as the main indicators of water quality in the high-mountain part of the Cherek Bezengiysky. The investigated section of the r.Cherek Bezengiysky is located on the territory of the Kabardino-Balkarian high mountain state nature reserve, at a considerable distance from sources of anthropogenic impact, therefore, the chemical composition of water is formed only under the influence of natural factors characteristic of this high-altitude catchment area. These indicators of water, river basins with a natural hydrochemical background are of particular interest in the development of water quality standards. In the sampled water samples, in the main phases of the water regime (winter low and summer high water), such indicators as mineralization, total hardness and electrical conductivity were determined. The work presents the results of monitoring studies since 2004. Probabilistic statistical methods can be used to analyze the distribution of spatiotemporal changes in these indicators with no less reason than for water flow, since the chemical indices found in river waters are just as random and independent quantities in the multi-year section, as well as river runoff, since their variation over time depends on a large number of random factors. In connection with this, when analyzing the changes in the mineralization values and the total rigidity along the r.Cerek Bezengiysky, we used the results of systematic, long-term observations that did not change the method of sampling and analysis of water samples, the water regime of the watercourse (regulation, water intake, etc.) . Based on the results of statistical data processing, correlation dependencies between mineralization and general rigidity, mineralization and electrical conductivity have been established, which will allow to optimize the process of monitoring hydrochemical data and can be used in the de-velopment of regional or basin water quality indicators. Using the linear trend method, the trends of long-term changes in mineralization in the water of the high-mountain part of the r.Cherek Bezengiysky in the main phases of the water regime are estimated. Graphs and regression equations are given. New materials of hydrochemical observations on previously unexplored water bodies of the mountain-glacial basin will contribute to understanding the features of the formation of the hydrochemical composition of the region's water bodies. The results of the study make it possible to identify the features of the formation of the chemical composition of waters in the previously unexplored, inaccessible part of the mountain-glacial basin of the r. Cherek Bezengiysky and can be used to inform water protection activities, while developing regional or basin water quality indicators.
We propose a model of potential land users, which allows quantifying the efficiency of a number of mechanisms of agricultural land distribution for mountainous land-hungry regions. Land users are represented as economic agents with bounded rationality and subjective utility functions. The model calculates allocation efficiency and budget efficiency as independent values and thus allows us to better determine the applicability of a specific land distribution mechanism. The model has considerable flexibility and can be adjusted to specific agricultural technology and soil types. An analysis of the efficiency of using closed form auctions for the distribution of farmland conducted for the test region showed that, with both a simple first price tender and a Vickrey auction, the optimal allocation of land is achieved in the model. The use of lottery mechanisms, on the contrary, leads to losses of allocative efficiency. As for the budget revenues, the use of lottery mechanisms leads to much smaller losses of budgetary efficiency in comparison with simultaneous closed auctions of the first and second prices. Of all the mechanisms considered, the use of the repetitive Vickrey auction leads to the smallest losses of budget efficiency in the model.
The purpose of this work is to determine the possible impact on the reservoir in the mountain valleys of the Eastern Caucasus landslides−high energy collapses and identify the mechanism and energy component of the process of rapid movement of large masses of rocks on the gentle hillsides over long distances. Research methods: geological and geomorphological, geodynamic, remote sensing, General assessment of the energy component and the calculation of the energy elements of the catastrophic process for a reasonable assumption about its source. The result confirmed nominated in previous studies the position of the pulse energy in the discharge of elastic stresses tensile at break thick layers of strong rocks. The assessment of the revealed energy indicators shows that landslides and landslides are the greatest danger for the anthropogenic infrastructure in the mountain valleys. Even at small angles of inclination of the rock layers of the base in the valley there are long-acting tensile stresses, which are transformed into the energy of seismic (mountain) impact at the rupture of strong layers. The analysis of the examples of catastrophic landslides-landslides, as given in this work, so described in a number of other publications shows that the presence of stratification of a slope or similar to flat cracks is one of the characteristic features of large and catastrophic landslides with a flattened Governor. Also, the result of the development of catastrophic landslides-landslides is the formation of natural dams in the mountain valleys, the stability of which is directly dependent on the strength of rocks and released in the process of formation of kinetic energy. It is concluded that the differentiation of the predicted landslide and rockslide processes on energy classes, high-lighting local potentially dangerous objects will allow to determine rational preventive measures to minimize damage and prevent loss of life from catastrophic manifestations of dangerous geological processes rockslide character. The Eastern segment of the greater Caucasus is characterized with actively developing modern disharmonic folding, the most intense within the Limestone Dagestan, which leads to a wide development of dangerous and catastrophic gravitational processes that adversely affect the developing human infrastructure, especially in the field of hydropower. Differentiation of the predicted landslide and landslide processes by energy classes with the allocation of local potentially hazardous objects will allow to determine the most rational preventive methods of prevention and protection of the population and territory from natural (geological) emergencies.
Purpose of work. The study of the mill efficiency for regrinding industrial products. Experiment conduction on copper-pyrite products regrinding at Urupsky MPP. Determination of the main technological parameters. The results test for the centrifugal mill. Method of research. Tests were carried out on industrial products of the Urup mining and processing plant. Grinding of copper-pyrite industrial products of Urupsky MPP with size less than 0.25 mm was carried out in a continuous mode. The productivity of the mill and the amount of energy consumed were determined. The product of mill unloading was dried, quartered, samples were taken for granule-metric analysis according to the standard procedure. Research result. If the average diameter of the particles in the original feed mill for regrinding to 0.4 mm there is an increase in specific productivity by -0,074 mm class, the value of the specific energy consumption does not change and remains at the level of 3.2 kW h/T. If the particle size in feed mill, 0.40 mm there is a maximum specific productivity of 3.17 t/(m3⋅h) if the specific energy consumption of 5.22 kWh/t, thus the grinding efficiency e=0,023 t/(kWh). Conclusions: According to the results of the research it was established: - industrial product of the processing plant is effectively milled in the mill for grinding at the considered size of the feed; - the increase in class -0.2 mm was 6.14 %, and the increase in class -0.074 mm -3.56 %, i.e. mainly crushed material of larger classes; - the content of large classes in the unloading of the mill is approximately equal, the content of the same class -0,044 mm in the unloading of the grinding mill by 59% less than in the unloading of the ball and rod mills. - when grinding industrial product of poly-metallic ore, the maximum specific productivity -3.18 t/(m3•h) is observed at a specific energy consumption of 5.24 kWh/t, with a grinding efficiency of 0.024 t / (kW•h).
The article deals with the problem of sustainable development of mountain areas on the basis of automated monitoring of inaccessible mountain areas using unmanned aerial vehicles (UMAV), the properties of which depend significantly on the characteristics of the navigation system (NS) and software (SW). The methodological base of the research carried out in the scope of the article includes the theory of circuits and classical methods of analysis of linear electronic circuits, mathematical apparatus of signal analysis in the frequency domain, error theory, etc. The novelty of the article is mainly determined by a significant improvement in the quality of monitoring and elimination of the shortcomings of the known UMAV and the fact that it proposes the design of a navigation system with new functionality and SW with improved characteristics. In this regard, the main results of the article are related to the creation of a special inertial navigation system (INS) and special SW. An important advantage of the latter is to ensure high reliability of monitoring of remote mountain landscapes, which is highly appreciated by experts on sustainable development of mountain areas. The article also considers the whole set of tasks to be solved on the basis of UMAV in order to ensure sustainable development of mountain areas. The success of solving these problems is significantly increased by using the developed INS and SW, as they allow processing and analysis of data (information) in real time, the results of which are displayed for visualization (displayed as graphics of acceleration, speed and movement, and UMAV models in three-dimensional space). The important features of the developed SW also include: the possibility of real-time spectral analysis of signals, which is based on the algorithm of fast Fourier transform; analysis of the normal distribution and dispersion of the data; providing research characteristics of the complementary filter, Kalman filter and composite filter based on them. In General, the developed SW is a universal tool for the analysis of the ins with the ability to be developed and optimized as necessary. Moreover, the use of UMAV with developed INS and SW is expected to significantly increase the reliability of information on hard-to-reach areas of mountain territories. The main conclusion of the article is the possibility of wide and effective use of INS and SW for solving the problems of sustainable development of mountain mountain territories.
The concept of unmanned mine production based on the use of non-traditional physical effects and phenomena, as well as a possible method of its implementation with the help of a multi-agent robotic complex, is presented. The complex includes a rock-milling and ore-preparing mining combine, auxiliary stand-alone stationary and mobile robotic systems and pipeline pneumatic conveying. The design of the com- bine used three inventions (RF patents No. 2136397, No. 2234603 and No. 2404862). Extraction of the rock takes place in the form of crushing of the surface layer of the rock monolith and the surfaces of the combs of the working organ of the combine at high frequency impacts of the strikers along the surface of the ore body. The combs are made from blocks of rock and create the effect of "threshold destruction" of the rock. The effect is to limit the value of deformation stresses in the polycrystalline structure of the near-surface layers of the material within the threshold of the strength of intergranular bonds. Because of this, with mutual impacts of the surfaces of the rock monolith and striker in the near-surface layers of solid rock, the surface microcracks grow along the intercrystalline boundaries. As a result of multiple repetition of impact impacts, fatigue distur- bances accumulate in the structure of the subsurface layers of the rock, resulting in the separation from the monolith of the ore that has been mined with a high degree of selectivity. The automation of the proposed combine provides op- timal conditions for the accumulation of fatigue structural defects. The design productivity of the combine is not inferior to the daily productivity of three-brigade mining using drilling and blasting operations with the laying of providing penetrations and the use of mining equipment 52 items. Crushed ore is collected by the suction pneumatic system of the combine and fed to the airgravity separator of the mixture materials, from which the concentrate is transported directly to the surface by the pipeline pneumotransport to the concentrat- ing factory, and the empty rock is fed to autonomous mobile shotcrete complexes for the preparation of fast-setting embedded material and the laying of empty excavations. In the concepts of aggregate designs, in the solutions of algorithmic and kinematic problems of aggregate functioning, navigation, positioning and interaction of autonomous aggre-gates of the multiagent complex, the author has experience in developing and creating systems for supporting intelligent decision making and creating multi-agent robot systems. The application of the new technology will lead to a significant reduction in energy consumption of ore production, a multiple reduction in the amount of material extracted from the mine, with a corresponding reduction in environmental pressure on the environment.
The article analyzes the use of renewable energy resources (RES) of the Chechen Republic. Renewable energy sources – RES) are energy resources of constantly existing natural processes on the planet, as well as energy resources of products of vital activity of biocenters of plant and animal origin. The main advantages of renewable energy sources in comparison with energy sources on organic fuel are the practical inexhaustibility of resources, the widespread distribution of many of them, the absence of fuel costs and emissions of harmful substances into the environment. The use of such renewable energy sources has recently been successfully developing all over the world. Therefore, in this work the analysis of the use of renewable energy resources of the Chechen Republic, where the assessment of wind potential and solar radiation in different periods of the year. The main characteristics of the wind energy cadastre are presented. The questions of biomass and geothermal energy use and application of detander-generator units (DGA) in the gas supply systems of the Chechen Republic are considered. The ways of development and effective use of renewable energy sources are studied. improving the efficiency of energy resources use, introduction of new promising alternative sources is one of the most important tasks of innovative energy development, which give a complete system view of the scale of the problem of transferring the energy system to innovative rails. Moreover, along with energy problems, environmental problems are also being considered, which have begun to grow worldwide. Especially the attention to RES was followed by a number of major political and environmental crises, after which active research began around the world to identify environmentally friendly energy sources and technologies for their transformation. During the study of the development of the modern Russian energy complex, it was noted that the Russian energy sector comprises about 600 power plants with a specific capacity of more than 5 MW. As a result, the total installed capacity of existing power plants in Russia with a certain structure by type of generation is presented. The scientific and technical basis of the use of renewable energy sources and the technologies of their use for electricity production are presented. Based on the results of the issue under consideration, it can be noted that Russia has great opportunities to become a regional leader in ensuring Eurasian energy security.
Cyclical-flow and in-line production are the most progres- sive methods of production. These methods have found application in the development of coal deposits, as well as in the dumping for soft and loose rocks. The purpose of the proposed work is the development of special belt conveyors capable of transporting mountain cargoes prepared by drilling and blasting without expensive secondary grinding in crushing units. This problem is solved with the help of belt-wheel conveyors, proposed by prof. Spivakovsky A.O. The steeply inclined belt-wheel conveyor considered in this work is capable of transporting loads at angles of inclination corresponding to the angles of slope of the sides of the quarry, which significantly reduces the capital costs for the construction of transport trenches and reduces the required length of the conveyor itself. The operability of the structure, as well as the loading device to it, were tested in laboratory experimental installations. Successful operation of the first pilot-industrial sample of a lifting belt-wheel conveyor served as the basis for the development and implementation of a large career conveyor system. However, serious miscalculations made during the design of the complex led to unsatisfactory results of its operation. The proposed steeply inclined belt-wheel conveyor allows to increase the angle of inclination to 40-450, which in most cases corresponds to the angles of slope of the sides of quarries. The drive of a steeply inclined lifting belt-wheel conveyor is advisable to perform as an intermediate rack and pin drive for the experience of using such drives in modern underground escalators. Such a solution allows to reduce radius of curvature of the conveyor line at the inflection sites, which causes a significant reduction in the volumes of mining, capital and construction and installation works. Successful operation of belt-wheel conveyors for coarse-grained mining cargoes is possible with the provision of a shockless load-carrying belt and at a speed close to the speed of the conveyor. The fall of coarse-grained rocks and ores with a size of more than 0.5 m leads to breakdown not only of the working strip of the tape, but also of the frame itself of the tape. The problem of efficient loading of belt-wheel conveyors can be solved with the use of a special blade-type loader, which ensures a shock-free loading of the conveyor.
Purpose. The tailings pond is a mountain object that undergoes significant physicochemical changes. It should be considered not only as waste, but also as temporarily preserved raw materials. Therefore, the fate of the tailing dumps should be considered in a comprehensive manner, taking into account their environmental dangers and the benefits from the components obtained, and the restoration of the habitat. It is necessary to carefully plan the tailing dump and tailings processing activities long before the operation of the enterprise during the entire life of the mine, as well as for the purpose of rational land reclamation after closure. Accuracy and reliability of control under the known mineralogical and chemical composition of the pulp solid phase will allow us to justify and continuously assess the material balance of the concentrating mill, and control the technological and ecological state of the tailing dump. Method. Measurement of the technological parameters of the pulp in a gravity tail pipe (pipeline) is carried out using measuring systems. Measurement of solid flow in pulp with the help of modern tools is necessary to improve the accuracy and reliability of control of process flows during the transportation of tailings to the tailings pond. Discussion. The performed investigations made it possible to propose a system for automated control of solid flow in a pulp moving along a partially filled pipeline. The control of the flow of solids in the pulp was carried out in a pipeline with a radius of 0.5 m which was filled with a pulp with a different filling volume of the pipeline, for example from 60–100% of its volume, the area of the segment of the unfilled space of the pipeline was measured with an ultrasonic level meter, the volumetric flow of pulp – flow meter, the density of the solid in the pulp – in a laboratory way, and the density of the pulp and the density of the liquid – a radioisotope densitometer. The proposed system allows you to obtain operational and accurate current information on the flow rate of solid in the pulp entering the main pipeline and reduce the error by 50%. Result. The proposed methodology, based on the regularities of tailings management will improve the efficiency of the technological solution for storing raw materials. Knowledge of the volumes of tailings stored in the tailing pond is an indispensable condition for ensuring the safety of the drive and evaluating the economic efficiency when using them further.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)