The inventory and analysis of high-altitude flora is a necessary condition for assessing the state of fitbit, determining trends in its changes and the impact on the integrity of the habitant, as well as for the correct understanding of flour -genesis, forecasting in many theoretical and practical areas, determining the prospects for the use of resource-useful species and the preservation of phyto-diversity. The article highlights the results of long-term (2010– 2017) studies of Alpine rock scree flora of the Central and Eastern Caucasus. The data on endemic species are given. In the present flora among 384 species 107 (27.9 percent) are endemic species; 33 (8,6%) species strictly endemic species (22 steno endemic and 11 euro endeliks), 74 (19.3 per cent) of sub endemic ones. Kinship relations of different species, as well as their origin are established. An analysis of endemism species show that there are different types of endemic species, noted their importance for the solution of close genetic issues. The analysis of flora endemism of the Central and Eastern Caucasus showed that the studied flora has rather high degree of originality, almost every tenth of its species is endemic for this territory. The leading families of the systematic spectrum play an outstanding role in the formation of the endemic component of the flora, they account for about a quarter of endemics of all categories, the dominant role belongs to three families Campanulaceae-Caryophyllaceae-Fabaceae. Data on the genetic and geographical relationships of 22 steno endemic and 11 angelics are provided. The formation of the endemic core of flora should be geographically associated with the Elbrus mountain range and mountain ranges of the right bank of the Samura, in total, the largest number of endemics of all categories is concentrated in the floristic regions of the East Caucasus. The vast majority of endemic species are neo endemics which were formed on the Caucasian genetic basis, the fourth part of the species are polio endemics showing the Armenian-Iranian-Turanian ties, weak ties can be traced with the Central Asian territories.
To create innovative zones for the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, as well as methods of their use in various spheres of human activity, the analysis of the processes occurring during the extraction of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions of wastewater of mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises with natural products is performed The aim of the work is to analyze the possible mechanism of extraction as well as to evaluate the possibility of technical use of vegetable oils on the example of extraction of lead ions by vegetable oils. Method of research. The following types of vegetable oils were used as extractants: sunflower, olive, corn. Extraction was carried out from individual aqueous solutions of Pb (II). Extraction was carried out with different pH solutions. During extraction the pH value was kept constant, adjusting it to a predetermined value. For greater confidence in achieving equilibrium extraction results were evaluated every two days. For the most intensive mass transfer, the extraction process was carried out with intensive mixing of the solution and the extractant for a given time. Upon completion of the process, the mixing system was transferred to the separating funnel for settling and more complete separation of the mixture. Results and discussion. The sedimentation dynamics and system stratification after extraction of lead for three types of oils within 24 hours, pH 11, B:O= 1:3, SISC= 5 g/dm3 . When saponified in an alkaline medium (pH ≥ 10), vegetable oils are broken down into glycerin and fatty acids. Reacting with heavy metal hydroxides, glycerin creates metal glycerates – chemical compounds similar to salts. The volume of the extract as a result of extraction with Pb (II) olive oil increases from five to ten percent of the extractant volume. When settling the system after extraction for more than 24 hours, delamination is manifested into the main three phases: the oil phase from above, the water phase from below and the intermediate mesh gel structure of the hydroxocomplexes of divalent lead with the components of water and oil between them. Summary. From the intermediate phase (gel) it is possible to extract ions of lead and/or its compounds which gives the prospect of possible technical use of vegetable oils for the wastewater solutions treatment at the mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises.
This article is devoted to the problem of waste soil pollution of "Tuvakobalt" mine, Republic of Tyva. The problem has not lost its relevance since the closure of the plant in 1991. A major threat to the adjacent areas and nearby communities is represented with 5 cards-waste of hydrometallurgical redistribution of arsenide-cobalt-nickel ores of Khovu-Aksinskiy field. The aim of the work is to assess the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals and arsenic, to identify the possibility of the additional remediation activities. The area under research is confined to a small Elegest-Ungesskiy basin located in the spurs of the Eastern ridge of TannuOla in the upper reaches of the Elegest river (Central Tuva). Totally 51 soil samples were selected: from the surface of the waste disposal maps of the plant, from the adjacent area and from the background area (35 km to the South-West and 25 km to the North of the plant). The content of organic carbon, the fraction of physical clay, pH was determined in the samples. Gross concentrations and mobile forms of nickel, copper, cobalt and cadmium were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The gross amount of arsenic was determined by the AAS method, in part of the samples – by photometric method. To identify the ability of soils to inactivate heavy metals and arsenic, the soil buffering was evaluated by the method of Ilyin V. B. The concentration coefficients of elements, the total pollution coefficient (Zc) and the radial differentiation coefficients were calculated. According to the research results the greatest soil pollution was observed in the area near the plant facilities and waste disposal maps. The assessment of buffering shows that the established level of accumulation of pollutants in soils is 10 background values. In general, for the studied area the level of pollution is defined as low, near the maps – average. The concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in soils are characterized by significant variability both in the territories adjacent to the waste maps and in the soils of the background. At the same time, Nickel, cobalt and arsenic concentrations stand out significantly, which well reflects the Association of the main components of the ore of the Khovu-Aksinsky deposit. In the substrate of uncovered maps elements are present in the abnormally high concentrations. Significantly less in their content, but many times higher than in the clark they were revealed in the soil remediated cards, proving the need for the re-remediation.
The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region is the main fuel and energy base of Russia, on its territory there are numerous oil fields including Samotlorskoe field, which is among the largest fields in the world. Recently, as a result of hydrocarbon production, the amount of polluted land has been increased. To eliminate the negative anthropogenic impact the method of remediation is used. According to various estimates, in the Ugra area the land contaminated by oil products equals to 55.7 thousand hectares. Of these, slightly more than 10% were reclaimed and only 16% of the reclaimed areas are restored to their natural state. It is impossible to prevent environmental pollution but the natural ecosystem self-healing mechanisms can be used to the maximum. It is necessary to understand all the processes aimed at self-purification. In this study the authors reveal changes in the chemical parameters during the natural restoration of natural substrates that are used during remediation activities. These processes were considered in the conditions of model experiments. Experimental sites were laid ten years ago in the natural landscapes. Pre – coat sand, loam, peat and a mixture of sand with peat were chosen as substrates — which are used for the land reclamation in the north. We compared the dynamics of changes in the content of the chemical indicators with the reclaimed area of the Sovetskoye field in Nizhnevartovsk area. The site was subjected to the industrial pollution in 2015. For four years, the monitoring has been carried out of oil salt contamination and migration of some chemical elements responsible for the restoration of fertility. The decrease in the petroleum products content and chloride ions in the soil substrate was educed. The pH ranged from weakly acidic to neutral one. The changes in the bulk composition of the transformed soils an increase in the content of phosphorus, and ammonium ions were observed which indicates the activation of soil formation. It was revealed that different soil substrates used in remediation, in approximately the same environmental conditions are aligned in the content of chemical indicators and approach the background level. It was diagnosed the improvement of the agrochemical properties of the upper layer of technology-related substrate at the site of the field and at the experimental sites.
The distribution of debris in the mudflow dangerous areas of the Azerbaijani Republic according to the materials of past debris flows (1891–2016). The limit of daily precipitation amounts needed to form mudflows (20 mm or more per day) was determined. It was found that mudflows occur with long, lasting for several hours rains, accompanied by short showers, intensity of 0.45–2.00 mm/min or more. Extreme values of mudflow rains on the southern slope of the greater Caucasus are 20–188 mm in the North-Eastern slope of the greater Caucasus with the Gobustan – 20–132 mm, in the Malyi Caucasus – 22–60 mm in Lankaran – 26–283 mm. A special attention is given to relations between types of atmospheric circulation prevailing over Europe and Siberia and synoptic conditions contributing to invasion of cold and humid air masses, leading to the loss of heavy rain, the peculiarities of the pressure fields (surface and altitude) to mudflow periods. Studying the circulation processes leading to the mudflow of storm water origin, it is established that they are determined by the invasion of cold and transformed air masses into the territory of Azerbaijan. It was found that in almost all cases during the period of mudflow formation there was a sufficient reserve of positive energy of instability and the level of convection often reached the surface of 300–200 GPA, and the specific humidity was characterized by high values. To identify the links between atmospheric circulation and mudflow in Azerbaijan, the types of circulation according to the Wangenheim G. classification were used and Dzerdzeevskii B. L. found that when enhancing the processes E in the study area is intensification of floods and the processes of mudflow formation weakened. Analysis of the relationships between debris flows and circulation patterns in B. L. Dzerdzeevsky found that mudflows in Azerbaijan are mainly formed in the 12 subtype (subtype Northern meridional circulation) and 13 l (subtype of the southern meridional circulation dominating in the summer).
The significant factor hindering the viticulture development in the foothill and mountainous areas of the Republic of Dagestan is the lack of the corresponding machinery complex. Generally, in the region the pace and scale of progress in this direction are still lagging behind. Transfer of the grape cultivation at the foothill is associated with significant costs for its planting in the area and mechanization of labor-intensive processes. This circumstance allows to characterize the current state of affairs in the creation of new modern technical means and technologies for the grape cultivation in the foothill and mountainous areas of the region, the tendencies of its change and areas of improvement. The purpose of the study is the analysis of problems and prerequisites for optimizing the foothill land use in the region, making changes in the grape cultivation on the slopes, developing the bridge unit for planting and care for the vine located in the foothill area with a steepness from 15 to 25° In order to reduce the negative impact of the above factors, we consider it possible to make changes in the technology of growing grapes on the slopes. The determining condition for the creation and sustainable development of the viticulture industry is the diversified range of new machines. There remains a need to focus on the selection of grape varieties, taking into account the compliance of their biological characteristics with the climatic conditions of the region. The implementation of this goal is achieved by using the developed bridge unit, which contains two propulsion devices (of a tractor) on the frame of which rotary platforms, formed from two halves: the rotating upper half and the lower half rigidly connected with the vertical mounts have been placed, while in the space formed by the four guide brackets mounted on the upper half of the rotating platform with the ability to move along its horizontal axis the supporting transverse beam pivotally connected with the bracket and springs has been mounted. The use of the foothill and mountainous areas requires solving the problems of preserving the surface layer of the soil and preventing erosion processes, as well as the ability to comply with the technological requirements of planting and care for industrial vineyards while ensuring the high level of mechanization of labor-intensive processes. Solution of these problems is possible on the basis of the development of new technical means and modern technologies for the development of slopes for vineyards, taking into account their steepness.
The cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus clearly manifests itself and is represented by both glacial and cryogenic phenomena. The cryosphere manifests itself in the lithosphere (earth's surface), hydrosphere and atmosphere. The article deals with the phenomena of the cryosphere in the lithosphere and hydrosphere. The phenomena of the cryosphere associated with the hydrosphere belong to both the glacial group and the cryogenic one. Modern formation of the cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus is 125960 square kilometers where 91500 square kilometers are covered with glacial phenomena and 34460 square kilometers with cryogenic ones. The glacial phenomena include: seasonal snow cover, glaciers, snowfields (temporary and migration), seasonal ice cover on water bodies and ice. Their area varies from 17 km2 of ice to 91500 km2 of seasonal snow cover. Cryogenic phenomena in the Greater Caucasus are represented by three types of frozen rocks and thicknesses: 1 – permafrost soils in the form of significant thicknesses (up to 1.5–2.5 m) are observed at altitudes of more than 3000-3200 m and are confined mainly to the slopes of the Northern exposure. They are observed throughout the Greater Caucasus and especially in its Central region; 2 – seasonally frozen soils can be traced at altitudes of 1900-3000 m, their thickness reaches 1.1–1.3 m. 3 – short-term permafrost is available only in high-altitude zones from 1900 to the foothills.
The relevance of the work is due to the need to improve the efficiency of well charges in the destruction of rocks by explosion. The widespread method of open-pit mining continues to be the most cost-effective, safe and technically efficient. At the same time, the most important technological process of the open method of field development is the explosive destruction of the mountain massif. In the development of rock massifs an important way of crushing rocks is drilling and blasting which in the foreseeable future hase no alternative. In this regard, the main research on the creation of effective resource-saving methods of blasting continues to be carried out. Purpose of work. Creation of effective resource-saving technological methods of explosive destruction, providing cost reduction by increasing the efficiency of well charges. The work is based on the idea of integrated use of the results of studies of detonation processes in various structures of borehole charges and formulation of explosives which met the technical and economic criteria for open field development. Method of research. To achieve high-quality indicators of blasting, we used a comprehensive method of research, which includes: generalization and determination of ways to improve the explosive destruction of the quarries; theoretical and field studies of detonation processes in borehole charges of various designs of mixed explosives with conversion additives; industrial testing of the developed technological methods of explosive destruction on the basis of new designs in various mining and technological conditions; the use of statistical and economic analysis methods in assessing the quality of crushing rock mass. Results. On the basis of the data obtained in the course of industrial research, a generalized concept of ideas about the detonation processes in wells during rock blasting was made. The expediency of the use of intermediate detonators of different types in the blasting of mountain ranges is established. Technological methods of exploding rock mass in quarries on the basis of a new resource-saving design of well charge are developed. Summary. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the development of scientific ideas about the process of crushing rocks explosion borehole charges of various designs. Practical importance of research consists in development of universal design channel Thriller; technologies of formation charges with the cavities of hollow containers; resource-saving technologies of destruction of rocks, with the use of the initiators of the new design. The proposed methods of blasting have been successfully tested and implemented in the ultra-deep iron ore quarries of KMA-ore and Krivbass.
In Vietnam, there are a huge number of quarries that are exploited and mainly provide materials to the construction sector of the country. However, most of the quarries are operating without topographic plans due to a lack of surveying activities. This paper introduces an approach of using lowcost UAVs to produce digital surface models which in turn are used to draw topographic maps of quarries in Vietnam. For assessments of accuracy, safety, and working efficiency, four quarries different in terrain conditions, namely Luong Son, Long Son, Nui Nho, and Nui Dai were selected as the study areas. Ground control points were established in each area by using GNSS/RTK for camera calibration and accuracy assessment. The accuracy of DSM was assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) in X, Y, Z, XY, and XYZ components. Capturing images from each site were processed by using Agisoft®PhotoScan Professional 1.5.2. The results showed that all the DSM models of the four areas have high accuracy, RMSE on the checked GCPs ranges from 1.0 to 9.0 cm, from 1.2 to 5.0 cm, from 4.4 to 13.4 cm, from 1.6 to 10.3 cm, and from 4.9 to 16.9 cm for X, Y, Z, XY, XYZ components, respectively. We concluded that the low-cost UAV based mapping technology can guarantee the accuracy of DSMs, the safety of UAV flying, and the efficiency of surveying working simultaneously when using in quarries.
The paper presents a new national technical regulation for coal mine wastewater in Vietnam. The analyses of wastewater samples collected at sites indicate that wastewater from Vietnam coal mines is in general low in pH and contains heavy metals such as iron and manganese. Since Vietnam coal industry is being regulated by National Technical Regulation on Industrial Wastewater QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT with 33 parameters, this paper proposes a new National Technical Regulation on Coal Mine Wastewater that includes pH, Total Suspended Solid, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, iron and manganese whose values are equal to those regulated in QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)