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GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF WATER INTAKE POLLUTION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA IN THE AREA OF THE PASSIVE ACTIVITY OF MINING

Alborov I.D., Tedeeva F.G., Gridnev E.A., Vadim Hasdan

Resultsof researches of technical and sanitary and ecological condition of water intakes of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania are given in the article. Practically research has covered all the territory of the republic. In the article the detailed characteristic of the reasons and consequences of violation of the modes of water use in case of operation borehole and the piping of water intakes is given. In addition, as a resultof detailed studying of operation borehole and the piping of water intakes the basic reasons which have led to bacteriological and toxicological pollution of the water pumped to the settlements of Alagirsky district from the water intake “Youzhny” which have negatively affected state of health of local population are established. The analysis of the results received in case of field surveys has allowed to estimate an overall picture of condition of water intakes in the territory of the republic. At the same time authors note that the established reasons of pollution of water intakes are characteristic not only of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, but also of other subjects of the region that in addition confirms relevance of the considered problem. Examples of the actual deviations of the mode of operation of the zones of sanitary protection peculiar to the most part of water intakes and the piping of constructions are given. The special attention is paid to recommendations for possible technical solutions which can provide safe operation of water intake constructions and provide high quality of the extracted drinking water, for providing the population of a number of areas of the republic. Need to bring within the shortest time condition of water intakes into full compliance with the requirements of the existing water and sanitary and epidemiologic legislation of the Russian Federation is highlighted. The provided data can be useful to ecologists-researchers, operators, designers, specialists of services of water utility.
Number of views: 1211

RATIONAL METHOD OF PROVISION OF CURRENT SUPPLY IN ORE MASS BY THE UNDERGROUND AND ELECTROCHEMICAL LEACHING

Kondrat'ev Yu.I., Vazieva L.T., Ushakova S.M.

One of the most important factors determining effective intensification of underground and heap leaching of ore mass by the electric current is the insurance of identical current density in all parts of the processed volume. Achieving the same current density is provided primarily by the input of electrical current to the ore mass. There are 2 possible ways of supplying the electric current for underground leaching: through a system of coaxial and opposite electrodes in ore mass and through electrodes, passing through the ore mass (in conditions of successful construction of wells and connection of electrodes in stored ore). Heap leaching can be expanded with 3 more methods: the parallel spaced plates; a plate and electrodes, which are perpendicular to it; a plate and electrodes, which are parallel to it. Distribution of the electric field and, therefore, the current in leached ore mass are hardly considered in literature except the input of electric current through a system of coaxial and opposite electrodes in ore mass. The article presents the results of analytical studies of electric fields distribution for the remaining cases, which are based on methods of calculation of electric fields. Analysis of patterns of the electric fields described by mathematical expressions, shows that the uniform field of leached ore mass can only be obtained when the current input is implemented by using two parallel plates. However, such method of current input is unrealizable in underground leaching and extremely difficult to implement in heap leaching. Method of «plate – parallel electrodes» is also difficult to implement during the heap leaching. The most possible alternatives are the current input through coaxial opposite electrodes connected with the leached ore mass or through parallel electrodes. But, it is impossible to obtain a uniform electrical field in the ore mass, using such methods, even in case of application of multiple pairs of coaxially opposite or parallel electrodes. This disadvantage cannot be removed completely even by using the alternate feeding of current pulses to separate pairs of electrodes in the regime of “running wave”. Voltage supply in the regime of “running wave” on the individual, in a certain way formed groups of pairs of electrodes provides at different points of time the flow of equal current in the processed ore mass in all directions (in height, along the strike and across). Using this method of power supply will allow us to evenly and therefore efficiently operate with the entire volume of the leached ore mass.
Number of views: 1217

MICROPROCESSOR-BASED CONTROL OF STATIONS OF PNEUMATIC CONVEYOR SYSTEMS AT THE ENTERPRISES OF MINING AND METALLURGICAL COMPLEX

Bestvater D.V., Khmara V.V., Kabyshev A.M., Lobotsky Y.G.

Automatic management of any technological process involves continuous or periodic monitoring of the parameters determining this process. For mining, mineral processing and metallurgical enterprises and factories such parameter is the material composition of the feedstock, fluxes, used reagents, intermediate products, finished products, tailings and sewages. Information about chemical composition of these products is obtained by selection and subsequent analysis of representative samples. The aim of this work is the development of a system of container delivery of process samples for express analysis, based on use of unified assemblies functioning under control of the universal microprocessor system. Solution of this problem allows to simplify the process of adapting the system to particular technological process, improve its reliability through the use of unified assemblies and simplify service operation. The scheme of container delivery system of samples, which includes load and unload stations of a transport container was developed. The stations are made on the basis of unified assemblies and elements. Such unified assemblies include: pneumatic cylinders, electro pneumatic valves, valves, distributors and magnetic sensors. These assemblies and elements are used for moving a transport container within the stations as well as through transport pipelines. Control of the assemblies of a station is performed by using a microprocessor control system. The article describes the optimization of control signals generated inside the stations and coming from the auxiliary system devices such as: samples loading station and samples unloading station. Control signals provide optimal algorithms of the functioning of the system. Algorithms of functioning of the stations were developed. Principle diagram of the microprocessor control system based on modern element base was also developed. The control system is flexible, allows not only to implement developed algorithms, but also can be easily adapted to perform more complex modes of operation of the stations, it allows you to extend the functionality of the system. Software for microprocessor control system of container delivery of samples was developed using a computer simulation.
Number of views: 1388

ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF THE NATURAL-INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM OF MINING AND METALLURGICAL COMPLEX WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE DEPOSIT

Kluyev R.V., Bosikov I.I., Youn R.B.

Research work was carried out at the Zhezkazgan field (Annensky district), Kazakhstan.
Geological object of Annensky district field was considered with the assessment and analysis of its spatial heterogeneity. Quantitative assessment of heterogeneity was carried out with detailed studies, i.e. covered local objects and structures. State medium- and large-scale geological surveys and development of new geological data analysis methods have created the conditions for a quantitative approach to the assessment of local and regional spatial inhomogeneities.
Datamine program is the leading global software for the industry of natural resources. We used it to make data and analysis, research, geology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, surveying, ore body modeling, the design of underground mines and quarries and production planning, and in the fields relatedto the study of the environment.
To work with well data source file is read into the database. A wide range of formats of data sources were used to import external data files, which are available through the Import command in the Data menu or the Import button in the toolbar. The studies used file-sources, which are four text files containing information about the location of wells and sample wells and properties orientation.
Contouring was conducted from the extreme southern section to the north at regular intervals.
One of the methods of studying the regional spatial inhomogeneities is spatial and statistical analysis.
Spatial and statistical analysis is based on the record of structural complexity and further tested by Jeffrey De-Vignala. The technique has confirmed the presence of pre-existing deposits (Pokrovsky, Krestovsky), and also revealed the presence of prospective area in the north-eastern part, dedicated to the siltstone-sandstone complex. In the course of geochemical studies carried out on the results of channel sampling faces three horizons (220, 120, 90) of copper and silver distribution maps were constructed. The investigations led to the conclusion that the useful component anomalous values correspond to places of tectonic faults and flexures.

Number of views: 1279

RETAINING WALLS AND THEIR APPLICATION FOR THE INSURANCE OF SAFETY OF TRAFFIC ON ROADS DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES

Kortiev L.I., Kortiev A.L., Vaneev S.D., Tedeev V.B.

The article focuses on the construction of retaining walls to ensure safety on mountain roads during the development of mountain territories. It also examines protective structures, which are currently in use on the roads of Caucasus mountains. Special attention is paid to the effectiveness of their use on roads of South Ossetia, which are already constructed or are under construction, including Transkam and on the road Tskhinvali – Leningor.
Protective retaining walls are constructed to retain the unstable soil mass from collapse. In transport construction retaining walls are installed on steep slopes and slopes mainly for protection of roads and railways.
At present stage in conditions of the Caucasus one of the laid roads, as a result of omissions and mistakes in calculations of the project implementation, was not provided with the calculation of a base strength and the pressure force of zapazushnoy dirt mass brought the wall in a sloped condition, creating the risk of an emergency. Consequently, designed massive retaining wall came in an unstable condition, reducing the road safety.
Poorly constructed retaining walls instead of providing safe driving conditions create emergency situations, such aschunks or lumps of rocks, which jump over the retaining wall and fall on the roadway.
Detailed monitoring and analysis of operation of the retaining walls shows in certain conditions they were ineffective, as zapesochnaya space is filled with mass of wet soil, which pressures the wall and leads it to an unstable state. Parallel to this the possibility of harvesting of zapashny ground in a mechanized way is complicated, that is one of the main negative factors of protective retaining walls operation.
As a result of a survey of the operating conditions of retaining walls on mountain roads of the Caucasus we can conclude:
1. The use of retaining walls should be justified in technical, economic and environmental terms; the efficiency of road traffic safety is also very important.
2. Design of retaining walls, working in conjunction with the soils in the embankment subgrade and zapazushny space are technology-savvy, convenient and efficient in structural design, but their use should be considered from the point of view of their relevance in the safety and protection of roads from collapse of slope landslides, landslide-screes and other hazards.

Number of views: 1356

MODERN APPROACHES TO USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES FOR THE OBTENTION OF EFFECTIVE BUILDING COMPOSITES

Murtazaev S-A.Y., Salamanova M.Sh., Bisultanov R.G., Murtazaeva T.S-A.

The article gives the analysis of natural resource base of the Chechen Republic for the development of building materials industry. Stocks of cement marls, limestones, dolomites, and large deposits of building and glass-making sands, shell limestones, sandstones, including the huge deposits of gypsum are concentrated in mountainous areas. Natural resource potential of the Chechen mountains allows to obtain portland cement, lime, gypsum binder, fine and coarse aggregate concrete fillers, mineral admixtures (fillers) for obtaining high-strength concretes and composite binders materials. The experimental investigations are focused on a development of effective high-strength concrete of new generation with the use of active mineral additives of a natural origin and graded aggregates. Rocks of sedimentary origin – silicified marls (gaize) and fine quartz sands of Vedeno mountain field were investigated as the active mineral additives. The article describes optimal granulometric composition of graded fine aggregate, based on examined sands and screenings from the crushing of rocks of the Argun deposit. The analysis showed that the best characteristics of filler can be achieved with 1:1 ratio of sand to attrition crushing. The proposed formulation of the composite binder with the use of mineral additives of a sedimentary origin showed relatively better results in comparison with portland cement. Formulations of high-strength concrete were obtained on the basis of developed binder compositions. Rheological and physico-mechanical properties of concrete are investigated. It is discovered, that the use of graded aggregate on the basis of screenings from the crushing of rocks and fine quartz sands and the use of composite binder has a positive effect on the properties of concrete. All the mentioned in combination allows us to obtain concrete of C40 class and above.
Number of views: 1205

ARTIFICIAL CEILINGS IN UNDERGROUND MINING

Lyashenko V.I., Lukyanov V.G., Golik V.I.

Change of an economic system of management and search of internal reserves for survival of mining companies creates a number of economic and ecological tasks. Reduction of amount of the ores left in a subsoil for ensuring safety of massifs becomes the main direction of optimization of fields development. Artificial ceiling is an option to use the progressive technology with laying of technogenic emptiness with hardening mixes allowing to solve a number of economic and ecological problems. Artificial ceilings are constructed for protection of clearing workings from the negative effects of mining operations and the prevention of adulteration of rocks to ore. For the construction of an artificial ceiling clearing workings are being filled with hardening mixture, which is used as the main constructive element of building. Replacement of ore pillars with artificial ceilings can be demanded at the entities of depressive mining regions, for example, on the North Caucasus, where need of technological diversification of mining on the basis of innovative resourcesaving technologies has ripened. Increase in amount of use of solid mixtures opens prospects for utilization of its stockpiles of tailings of ores, which can be brought into production after the extraction of metals from them using the methods of mechanochemical activation with leaching in disintegrators. Combined artificial roofs promote the increase of quality of extracted mineral raw materials by separating the produced ores and overlying rocks, which raises competitiveness of products of mountain enterprises and in certain conditions provides financial well-being. Improving the stability of mountain mass and the quality of
extracted ores by retrieving earlier lost reserves of valuable ores is an opportunity for improvement of economy of modern mining industry.
Number of views: 1339

POSSIBILITY OF USING GEOMETRIC MODELING TO SOLVE SOME PROBLEMS OF TECTONIC NATURE OF THE POLE CORE BY MEANS OF CAD SYSTEM

Guriev T.S., Tsabolova M.M., Kalinichenko A.V.

Proficient and rational use of wells in various aspects of exploration and delineation of mineral deposits is undoubtedly an urgent task, which includes various mountain-geological scientific and engineering problems and which can be solved through geometric modeling and wider use of CAD system. Geometric modeling of wells allows to solve problems of exploration and delineation of mineral deposits and designate them as the system of design automation.
Examined one of the directions of subsoil geometry, associated with extensive use of computers for solving different geological, scientific and engineering problems.
The pole core is used to obtain various information about the geological structure of a site of tabular deposits. With its help it is possible to obtain physical-mechanical, structural properties of the deposits and estimate its reserves. For this purpose certain amount of exploration wells in the survey area of the mineral deposit are used.
Geometric modeling of wells is based on the techniques of their approximation with classic geometric images. From a geometrical point of view a well is a cylindrical surface. Consequently, geometric shape of a core is a circular cylinder, the section of which with a plane can represent in a variety of situations circle, ellipse or two parallel lines. Form of obtained cross section depends on the position of cutting plane relative to the cylindrical surface.
Some positional and metric tasks by the pole core can be solved using the methods of descriptive geometry. Developed geometric algorithm and its mathematical description allows us to make the program automated solution to the problem of determining the occurrence of a layer in the pole core.
Number of views: 1203
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)