The purpose of the article is to analyze the problems and pre-conditions of land use optimization in mountain regions of the Northeast Caucasus. To achieve this goal the authors have applied the comparative-geographical analysis, statistical and cartographic methods. Results and discussion. The article proves that the concept of balanced land utilization is a combination of rational use and protection of land resources and reproduction of productive capacity of agricultural lands. The algorithm of land use optimization in the regions of Northeast Caucasus includes a number of serial stages: monitoring assessment of land fund condition, enclosing the analysis of dynamics of these processes, the quantitative and quality standard of potential of the steady (balanced) land use and development of the optimum directions of land use on condition of preservation of natural and resource potential, biological and ethnocultural diversity. Consequence assessment of the development of the specified directions and their subsequent consideration in development and forecasting of land use is important. Optimization of land use has to be carried out both on regional and municipal levels. In addition, special attention should be paid to urban geological systems as centers for development of innovative potential. Large urban geological systems (Grozny, Makhachkala, Nazran) should be developed trough the improvement of traditional directions (industry, tourism, wholesale/retail commodity circulation) as well as through integration of innovation technologies in science, education and production sphere. Conclusions. During the research the authors have revealed both positive (natural and resource, ethnogenetic, innovative potential, etc.) and negative (land degradation processes, poorly developed infrastructure, etc.) aspects for balanced land use in the regions of Northeast Caucasus. Agroindustrial complex, the system of natural protected areas, tourism and recreation activities are the most recommended as the priority direction of development. Natural-climatic and soil-geomorphological conditions in a plain (steppe zone) mainly promote agriculture development, and in a mountain part – livestock production. In the Northeast Caucasus an important part is assigned to the formation of geoecological framework in order to ensure ecological balance in the intensive economic use of lands. Tourist and recreational capacity of this territory allows to develop here scientific and cognitive, sports, extreme, ethnographic, rural and other types of tourism.
Competiveness enhancement of the North Caucasus mountain territories against the background of high water capacity in the regional production and simultaneous lower level of water supple call forth urgency for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of water use efficiency in the examined regions and this is the objective of the present research. The authors think that from the position of development stability in the mountain territories, water use efficiency should be assessed together with socioeconomic indices of these regions. This will make it possible to raise harmonization level of their ecological, economical and social spheres. Materials and research methods. Assessment of water resource use efficiency is carried out from the position of the system-synergetic approach using the following groups of indices: loadings on water resources, water supple, water capacity, water resource quality. The results received and their discussion. The research results indicated that in spite of a significant potential of water economy systems in the mountain territories they were notable for the high and critically high levels of loading on water resources. All the mountain regions, except the Karachi-Circassian Republic and the Republic Severnaya Osetia-Alania, have “catastrophically low”, “very low” and “low” water supply levels. This is an impeding factor for their steady development and mares the task of enhancing water use efficiency important. Significance of solving this problem increases taking into consideration primarily agricultural specialization of the North Caucasus republics in addition to that arable land intensity in their availavle land structure exceeds 50% and low water period lasts for 10 years, on the average. The authors’ hypothesis is that efficiency of water resource use is primarily reflected in water capacity indices of the Gross Regional Product (GRP). Analysis of this index for the considered regions showed that they had its highest level among all the RF constitutional territories. At the same time, under the trend of growing the GRP, reducing in its water capacity is observed. This means that in the corresponding regions resource saving technologies are used and these assure the socio-economical development at the expense of intensive rather that extensive factors. The highest indices of the GRP growth rate are typical for the Republic of Dagestan that allows to say about the high level of water use efficiency for this region. Conclusion. Regular monitoring of water use efficiency indices mares it possible to develop definite measures within the frame of strategies for the steady social and economical development of the mountain territories.
Compositional analysis of some bituminous oil sand samples and heavy oil deposits of South Western Nigeria are presented in this research work. An in-depth study of bituminous occurrences, top lateritic soils, upper shales and limestone, upper bituminous sediments (Horizon X), lower bituminous sediments (Horizon Y) is considered.
national natural bio spheric park, in the majority, are in a ripe or over age stage that creates prerequisites of decrease in their resistance to the influence of the external factors – fire danger, environmental, forest pathological susceptibility. In the dark-coniferous forests of the reserve located in the zone of the intensive recreational development for the last five years the very considerable drying of fir-tree forest stands is noted. Research objective is identification of cause and effect relationship of the forest drying in the conditions of climate warming and intensive operation. Monitoring of Karachay-Cherkessia air environment quality on the observations route posts by Rostekhnadzor for the KarachaiCherkess Republic is taken as a basis of methodology. The center of the laboratory analysis and technical measurements for the Karachai-Cherkess Republic and research laboratory of the geo environmental monitoring of KChGU carried out observations on padding points of selection of single tests for the sanitary and epidemiologic monitoring. The data of the hydro meteorological monitoring and the abnormal atmospheric phenomena are created. The analysis and synthesis of the experimental and share material allowed to establish hypothetically: - the impurity of free air fluidized chemicals increased more than by 3 times from 2000; - regional warming of climate and the frequent abnormal atmospheric phenomena (hydrothermal inversions, smogs, fogs, hoarfrost, acid rains …) confirm the increase in the free air impurity level; - the main ingredients worsening quality of the air environment are: white damps, sulfurs, nitrogen, aerosols, hydrocarbons and also volatile organic compounds which are formed from the local sources and get into the gorges with the wind streams; - the majority of the specified substances – gaseous also affect trees as dry settlings, and being acidified by the condensation moisture of air drop out in the form of the acid rains; - the drying process of fir-trees happens from the bottom of slopes to an upper bound of the growth. Individuals of the top tiers in communities and subject to immediate influence of the airflows dry out, first of all. The younger generation (subbody height) located close to the dried-out trees keeps viability.
The purpose of this work is to obtain additional data on the hydrochemical regime of lakes and drip waters of the Novoafonskaya cave, as well as to study some aspects related to modern mineral formation. The obtained data reveal a different macrocomponent composition, but at the same time ‒ the similarity of the geochemical specters of trace elements and lanthanides in the source of Psyrtsha and the lakes of the Novoafonskaya cave. The prevalence of light lanthanides and a pronounced positive europium anomaly is typical for all the samples. At the same time, the accumulation of metals is controlled by local factors – the presence of colloids-concentrators and the deposition of minerals of iron and manganese (which makes incorrect the direct comparison of the trace element composition to determine the hydrodynamic connection between various water manifestations). The results of studies of ferromanganese mineral deposits in the lake of the Nartaa chamber are presented. Observations on the chemical composition of the drip waters in the cave allow us to conclude that the most abundant and constant drop points have infiltration recharge and contribute to the rapid deposition of calcite. Some points are characterized by an increase in the molar ratio of Mg/Ca in infiltration waters to values higher than those for the enclosing limestones, which creates preconditions for the crystallization of magnesian carbonates. The comparisons of the composition of the karst waters of the Novoafonskaya cave with various underground water occurrences of karst waters in the low-mountainous and highmountainous areas of Abkhazia, as well as the main manifestations of the deep chloride-sodium waters of the Black Sea area of Abkhazia, allow us to conclude that the modern hydrochemical regime of the Novoafonskaya cave is associated with cold HCO3--Ca2+ waters in chemically pure carbonate rocks in low mountains. At the same time, it is possible to conclude with a high probability that there is an inflow of deep mineral waters in the source of Psyrtsha located near the cave.
High mountain areas are often seen as regions of stagnation which are characterized by natural and societal development constraints. The Central Karakoram is such an area in which the Tibetan speaking Baltis are confronted with a harsh and hostile natural environment. In the sense of classical regional development theories, high mountain areas show factors that inhibit development, such as a pronounced relief, a high potential of natural risks, low population and settlement densities or a lean network of traffic and communication infrastructures. But today the Central Karakoram stands out against the widespread thesis of stagnation and backwardness as a result of dynamic developments. Through creative adaptive processes of its residents as well as externally induced measures and programs, natural development barriers lose their importance and can sometimes even be converted into advantages. The expansion of the transport and communication infrastructure and thus the improved accessibility and networking are important prerequisites for the expansion of individual scopes of action and the unfolding of individual abilities. Multi-local networks, social capital and formal education are becoming increasingly important factors within current livelihood strategies in this high mountain region.
The article discusses the need for scholars to approach research on mountain territories through an interdisciplinary lens that accounts for the dynamic interactions occurring between humans and nature. While the global mountain research community has made strides towards interdisciplinary approaches and international collaboration, the Russian mountain research community has remained largely isolated from these interdisciplinary and international agendas. The article is critical of the persisting natural science bias in Russian mountain research, explains why such a bias is problematic, and offers recommendations for ways forward.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the need to develop the framework conditions for self-cost production, which can be the basis economy betterment in the region, by justifying the ecological and economic efficiency of environmental protection technologies through the utilization of tailings production and ore processing. Methods. Evidence includes generalization and critical analysis of publications, results of technological and economic research, expert evaluation and scientific forecasting of development prospects. Results. The information about the history of industrial development of Sadon deposits and the problem of accumulation of ore processing tailings, which became a source of chemical contamination of the environment. The problem of waste accumulation is characterized. The concept of non-waste and resource-saving development of fields using new technologies is described. A reference is given to the theory and practice of using production waste with detailing the direction of extraction of metals by leaching the tailings of enrichment. The principle of operation of the disintegrator with the activation of the process of leaching of metal-containing minerals is described. The direction of combination of traditional technologies of preparation of raw materials, technologies of activation in high-speed devices and technologies of leaching of metals is detailed. Natural connections between the ecology of the mining region and the technical level of mining production are established. It is shown that the effect of the concept implementation is manifested in the extension of the field life, obtaining new financial flows and radical improvement of the environment. Summary. The basis of economy betterment could be combined technology of field development with rational combination of elements of traditional and new leaching technologis. Economics of mining can be improved creating the adjacent marketable products after metalls extraction from the tailings.
The article describes research conducted by authors at mining enterprises in Russia and Kazakhstan. The purpose of the research is to develop an integrated system for assessing the reliability of the ventilation management system at mining sites in mountainous areas. The research objectives: - to make the layout of the ventilation control system into structural units; - to establish the properties of dense sets with the help of which it is necessary to prove the conditions for the implementation of the enumeration algorithm and the reduction operation. The tasks are solved on the basis of a comprehensive study of the increasing efficiency problems of the technical system of the mining complex. For this purpose, an integrated system for the reliability assessment of a ventilation management system at mines mining areas is being developed. Results of the research. An integrated system for assessing the reliability of the ventilation control system at mining sites was developed. An algorithm based on the construction of a graph is developed. The result of successive contraction in the graph of each maximal dense subset to some one vertex is that different subsets are contracted to different vertices. The obtained algorithms can be successfully applied for a complete analysis of the stability of the jets of individual independent ventilation areas and small mines. More extensive use of the criteria and algorithms developed in the integrated system is possible after simplifying the schemes for the proposed methods.
Introduction. The mining region RSO-Alania looks for ways of recovery of the mountain industry which is in the protracted crisis condition after the managing system change in Russia. In similar conditions in case of exhaustion of the majority of inventories of balance sheet ores the real direction of development is production diversification, in this case, by a combination of traditional and nonconventional technologies of production and conversion of ores. Materials and methods. For the purpose of the potential recovery of one of the non-ferrous metallurgy leaders the complex method of researches including stages from the mining experience analysis to assessment of nonconventional technologies of metals production from substandard raw materials is used. Results. Experience of balance sheet ores leaching first in the world practice of underground mine built for this purpose in Sadon ore node is systematized and used. The potential amount of raw materials source for leaching technologies is determined. An assessment of metals production prospects with the use of traditional technologies is given. An assessment of a potential object of leaching is given. The conclusion is drawn on the possibility of earlier subsidized mining entities survival when using nonconventional technologies by a combination of the traditional and innovative methods of ores production. This conclusion is confirmed with researches in case of metals production from other ores and coals. Discussion. Diversification of the mountain entities and complex use of resources in conditions of RSO-Alania is more effective in comparison with the construction of the new mountain entities because of the available business assets and inventories use. The new direction of the mining entities survival due to nonconventional technologies use in case of the technologies combination on the economic basis is the real direction of the depressive region budget replenishment.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)