Sustainable development of mining regions, new technologies implementation providing the effective extraction and advanced processing of mineral raw materials is being constrained by the imperfection of dust suppression technologies, localization and liquidation of dust-and-gas aerosols explosions. Based on the Helmholtz theorem, the hypothesis of the uniformity of the traditional and vortex coagulation equations, the Biot-Savart formula, the Fourier rule, criteria equations of hydro vortex coagulation are developed. The influence of the liquid droplets rotation in the process of hydro vortex heterogoagulation, reducing the energy requirement for the total absorption of explosive aerosols. The tests have confirmed the validity of similarity criteria of hydro vortex inertial orthokinetic heterocoagulation, the reduction in the minimum size of the absorbed dust by four times, the efficiency increase in dust catching up to 99 under simultaneous reduction of 20 % in water discharge in comparison with the traditional high pressure wet dedusting.
Natural and man-made disasters in the mountains (avalanches, mudflows, dams, etc.) are characterized by rapid developments, leaving little time for decision-making. A number of problems arising in this case can be reduced to the mathematical models with discretely varying variables, the main tool for solving them are implicit enumeration methods. The composite modifications efficiency of dynamic programming and methods such as branches and boundaries in relation to the knapsack problem is experimentally investigated. All these algorithms combine the technologies of calculation of estimates inherent in the methods of branch type and boundaries and the principles of cutting off "unpromising" dynamic programming plans. The high efficiency of the proposed approaches is demonstrated experimentally and it is shown that the superiority of composite versions of implicit enumeration algorithms over traditional implementations of these methods increases with the growth of the knapsack problem dimension.
The purpose of the study is to develop recommendations for increasing the sustainability of mountain development. The method of achieving this goal is to involve waste products of lead-zinc ore processing in the economic circulation. Recycling of wastes whose resource potential allows them to be considered as qualitative technogenic mineral raw materials into a useful production cycle allows to ensure sustainable development of mountain territories that is the growth of allocations to budgets of different levels and to extra-budgetary funds, and the reduction in the unemployment in the region. At the same time, the problem of liquidating the accumulated environmental damage reducing the burden on the natural environment is being discussed. Directly at the site of waste disposals an industrial product is extracted from them comparable in quality to the primary ore. To do this, environmentally friendly and energy-saving collapsible (mobile) complexes without capital foundations are used. The obtained industrial product in a stationary factory is mixed with the initial ore and co-processed according to the scheme of the current production for commodity concentrates. The costs of joint processing are considered, as if they were produced for the development of plots of one large deposit by the holding company. The achieved depth of metal extraction (unalloyed nonmetallic part of the waste) ensured the receipt of a commodity product utilized in the construction industry. Technical and economic calculations show that when investing 228.9 million rubles into the project it is possible to receive 162.4 million rubles of net discounted income with an internal rate of return of 32.5% and a discounted payback period of 4 years. The concentrate separated from the waste and the current production ore are processed jointly in the existing factory using the existing technology. When enrichment of the charge composed of technogenic gravel-concentrate (10%) and ores of current production (90%), an increase in the technological indicators of separation of selective lead and zinc concentrates was achieved. With the joint financial and technological accounting the generalized profitability with an economic effect becomes significantly more positive and sustainable compared to the individual waste processing for the selective concentrates.
The aim of the study is to construct a formation model of target environmental program to reduce the negative impact of the road transportation sector within the territory. The reasoning of prevalent approaches to environmental management and present system’s limitations and shortcomings has allowed to identify the perspective directions of its development. The research method is based on the theoretical and experimental explorations of patterns of pollutants emissions from mobile sources engines. The authors created the mathematical model of air pollution process during the transport work performance which mostly eliminates the gaps of existing approaches. On its basis the algorithm and method of calculation of pollutants masses emitted by motor vehicles were developed. Using the method and capabilities of modern technologies will allow forming the system of actual emissions assessment within the territory. Results. The formulated method of pollutants calculation emitted by motor vehicles is the basis of transportation sector model of the territory. Successive approximations of its variables which include environmental protection measures realization for environmental benchmark of transition to sustainable development allow constituting the variety of modifications for the transportation sector model. The transition to respective options can be achieved within target environmental program where the selection of appropriate version implements by using of optimization criteria. As a result, the most acceptable version of the transportation sector model for the transition to the environmentally sustainable development can be identified on the basis of such procedures. Conclusion. Using the proposed model of transportation sector development (environmental aspect) permits to compare the variety of alternatives to achieve the strategic function, i.e. environmental sustainability. Adequate assessment of the proposed model parameters will allow making effective long-term plans for the development of industries, infrastructure and territories. The simulation results may indicate the need for a significant increase in the maximum permissible load, reducing the number of the most environmentally unfriendly cars, etc. In case of impossibility of implementation of the target ecological program at present in the conditions of admissible resource expenses the model can serve as approach to justification of need of territorial ecological and economic strategy formation.
Abstract: The article considers a system in which the territorial features of reservoir layers are investigated, which is manifested in the formation of certain genetic types of groundwater. The actual problem is the study of the hydrogeochemical conditions of individual geological structures of the Yuzhno-Khulymsky field, in the future containing industrial accumulations of hydrocarbons. The purpose of research. The studies are aimed at studying the hydrogeochemical indicators of the reservoir oil reservoir MZ-125 in order to assess the oil and gas potential of the North-Eastern block of the South Khulym field. Tasks of research. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: - processing and systematization of data on the geochemistry of groundwater of the North-Eastern block of the Yuzhno-Khulymsky field; - hydrogeochemical study of the South Khulym sedimentary basin, zonality and genetic characteristics of groundwater, the degree of their metamorphization; - analysis of the gas composition of groundwater reservoir rocks of the North-Eastern block of the South-Khulymsky field; - division of groundwater into genetic types; - calculation of various coefficients of genetic indicators of groundwater. Research results. For oil and gas exploration purposes, the following indicators of the salt composition of water were used: type of water and nature of total mineralization, water metamorphism coefficients, sulfate content, trace element content (ammonium, iodine, bromine, boron, etc.), rare and trace elements (strontium, vanadium, nickel , copper, molybdenum, etc.). The results of the chemical composition of groundwater in reservoir rocks of the Northeastern block of the Yuzhno-Khulymskoe field were analyzed according to the data of exploratory and structural drilling. The genetic factors, elemental composition, type of brines were determined. The presence of CaCl2 salt in brine is associated with metamorphization in limestone. The process of dolomitization is of particular importance: 2CaCO3 (limestone) + MgCl2 (brine) = СaCO3 × MgCO3 (dolomite) + СaCl2 (brine). These types of brines are characteristic of oil fields. Since chlorine-calcium and bicarbonate types of groundwater are associated with hydrocarbons, the Northern block located at higher hypsometric elevations may represent a promising area, which is a kind of trap on the migration route of groundwater characteristic of the oil and gas of the Eastern and North-Eastern blocks. In this regard, the search and assessment of this area is justified, the Northeast bloc is the primary and promising object possibly containing industrial accumulation of hydrocarbons.
Ecological processes of modernization of regional economic systems by means of dynamics of indicators of impact on the environment in Russian regions are investigated. To receive quantitative features, we used one of geoecological indicators of quality of the environment of economic growth - "eco-intensity". It characterizes the level of negative impact on environment per unit of the result of economic activity. An indicator of the environmental load is the volume of air pollutant emissions from stationary sources (including the most common pollutants:solids, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides). The gross regional domestic product (converted into 2005 constant prices in conjunction with official GRDP growth rates) is used as a characteristic of the result of economic activity in the regions. The study of the dynamics of eco-intensity of air pollutant emissions was carried out in different time intervals: 2005-2009, 2009-2013 and 2013-2016. Special attention is paid to the study of environmental aspects of the development of the mining industry, which is the basis of economic activity of many resource-extracting regions of the Russian Federation. For the spatial analysis of the dynamics of the studied geo-ecological indicators the tools of GIS-technologies were used. Assessment of the dynamics of eco-intensity of air pollutant emissions from stationary sources showed that in recent years there has been a marked increase in the number of regions characterized by an increase in the specific environmental load. The worst dynamics of eco-intensity of emissions of the most common pollutants was observed in the regions of Siberia, the Far East and the Urals, as well as in few regions of the European part of the Russian Federation. Natural resource extraction and processing activities have a significant negative impact on the natural environment. In some resource-extracting regions, the eco-intensity of emissions in the mining industry was significantly higher than for the economy as a whole. The results of a comparative analysis of the environmental and economic development of the mining industry showed that in some regions there was an increase in eco-intensity (in some it was very noticeable). The results allow us to conclude that the existing state institutions do not fully fulfill their task of regulation in order to stimulate environmental modernization and sustainable development of the regions.
The purpose of this study is predicting and modeling of future changes in the Rafsanjan area, using remote sensing and GIS. The multispectral satellite data obtained from Landsat 5 (TM), 7 (ETM+) and 8 (OLI) for the years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016, were used respectively. The supervised classification technique was applied to multitemporal Landsat images. Rafsanjan city was classified into four major LU classes including urban areas, pistachio gardens, bare-land, and salt. Change detection analysis was performed to compare the quantities of land use class variation between time intervals. The results revealed both increase and decrease of the different LU classes from 1986 to 2016. Generally, the conclusions indicate that during the study period, Urban areas and pistachio gardens have increased by 6.89% (18.47 km2) and 12.76% (34.18 km2) while bare-land and salt have decreased by 13.43% (35.97 km2) and 9.96% (26.68 km2), respectively. In order to predict the future land use changes map, we used the Land change modeler tools of IDRISI software. Consequently, the predicted land use map of 2022 was prepared based on the trend of 30 years of land use changes and effective variables.
The article presents the principles of geo-ecological monitoring developed by the authors. The complex geoecological approach allows to estimate transformation of landscapes under the influence of dangerous natural processes taking into account the anthropogenic component. Сartographic method is the main method in monitoring. In addition, the study of photographs and multispectral space images is carried out in the MultiSpec Program is carried out in order to identify areas of landscapes with different degrees of transformation of the dangerous processes. As a result, the authors identify three stages of monitoring. At the same time, methods and techniques of monitoring are defined for each stage. Тhe principles of territorial division developed for mapping and zoning of dangerous processes: the creation of the so-called hydrograph-geomorphological framework. A number of classifications have been compiled to assess the vulnerability of the territory to dangerous processes in their inventory: dangerous natural processes, conditions and factors of their formation, types of land use. The parameters for assessing the impact of dangerous processes on individual components of the landscape (terrain, vegetation, soil) are presented for passportization of monitoring objects. At the same time, it is sites of formation of dangerous processes act as objects. The criteria of distribution of the main units of formation of processes on priority and frequency of inspection, and also classes of danger of economic objects in a zone of action of these processes are given for creation of a monitoring network and ranking of sites. In the future, this approach allows to develop measures for prevention, control and protection from dangerous processes. At the same time, the area assessment of the territory's exposure to the dangerous process can be carried out on the basis of classifications of conditions and factors of formation of processes, as well as the principles of territorial division. This assessment allows the removal of part of the territory with a high degree of danger from use in its development. Moreover, a number of economic activities that lead to the activation of processes may be prohibited in the further development of the already developed territory. The results of the passportization and ranking of monitoring objects allow you to choose the optimal variant of the control measures with dangerous processes and to reduce their impact on the landscape to an acceptable minimum. The territory acquires the status of potentially safe with this geoecological approach.
Features of the torrential processes happening on the territory of Greater Caucasus are investigated. A brief description of the geomorphologic structure of the Greater Caucasus is given. It was established that the combination of favorable morph-tectonic, geo-morphological, climatic, litho-logical and other conditions for the passing of gravitational-fluvial processes created the prerequisites for the dominance of processes such as mudflows, which are often repeated and lead to catastrophic consequences. From the analysis of the data on the mudflow-forming precipitation, it is established that the mudflows on the territory of the republic are formed with precipitation in the amount of 20 mm and more per day. The extreme values of mudflow-forming rains on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus are 20–188 mm, but in the region of the north–eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus and Gobustan 20–132 mm. To estimate the synoptic situations leading to the formation of mudflows, the classification of atmospheric circulation types according to Dzerdzeevsky B.L. was also used. It was established that the mudflows in Azerbaijan are mainly formed under the subtype 12a (subtype of the northern meridional circulation) and 13l (the subtype of the southern meridional circulation, which prevails in the summer). As a result, based on the interpretation of aerospace images (ASI), a map-scheme of the mudflow hazard was drawn up on the 5-point scale within the Azerbaijani part of the Greater Caucasus, where zones with a high (once in 2–3 years, 1 strong mudflow are possible) — V, with an average (once in 3–5 years, 1 strong mudflow is possible) — IV, with a weak (once in 5–10 years, 1 strong mudflow is possible) — III, with a potential mudflow hazard — II and where no mudflow processes are observed — I.
The purpose of the study is to prove the necessity and possibility of extracting metals from coal tailings during the recultivation of the coal mines surface. It can be achieved by creating a technological process and a complex of equipment for extracting metals from waste to the level of sanitary requirements. Research methods include the analysis of the mechanism of influence of waste products on the ecosystems of the environment and technological schemes of enrichment and extraction of target chemical elements during the reclamation of dumps. Results. The problem of complex use of coal wastes is formulated. Differentiated by regions and deposits of the region, the properties of coal-containing tailings of the beneficiation were investigated and systematized, as a basis for their utilization during the mine surface recultivation. The typification of burned rocks according to their function in tailings storages is proposed. The mechanism of the impact of waste dump products on the ecosystem of the environment is described. Differentiated by consequences and factors of influence of waste dumps on the environment are ranked. It is shown that wastes from the enrichment of coal, ash, and slags from coal-fired power plants can be used for industrial production of products and materials. Noted the requirement for the use of coal tailings only after the extraction of metals from them to the MPC standards. The quantitative value of the content of chemical elements in the dumps of coal mines is given. Identified technical solutions for the rehabilitation of the mine surface. The role of tailing dumps in the creation of a new, almost unlimited mineral and raw material base for the production of metals using new technological schemes for enrichment and extraction of chemical elements is shown. Conclusion. Traditional technologies for the extraction of metals do not solve the problem of wastelessness, since metallic impurities in coals are the product of natural leaching of ores enclosed in mineral matrices, and can only be extracted by applying high energy during innovative leaching processes.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)