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THE ROLE OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADITIONAL NATURAL USE IN THE MOUNTAIN-TAIGA ZONE OF SIBERIA (ON THE EXAMPLE OF EVENK ZABAIKALSKY REGION)

V. I. Gilfanova

In this paper  we consider the importance of the environmental component of the reproduction process  and preservation of ethno-cultural characteristics and lifestyle of the modern composition of the indigenous peoples of the North (Evenki) in the Trans-Baikal Territory. The author argues that the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of the Evenki community, which is an ethnic minority in the areas of residence, is possible provided that the resources of the hunting and fishing fauna of the local population are restored and rationally provided that the Evenki have special rights to them. The nature of the development of the territories, which affects the features of the conservation and reproduction of biological resources in the mountain taiga landscape zone of the region, depends on the institutional environment for hunting nature management that has formed here so far. It is noted that the weakening of the state’s attention to the sphere of nature management in the post-socialist period and the shift in the emphasis of national policy to the sphere of supporting cultural and socio-demographic processes among the indigenous population led to the degradation of the natural resource base of the traditional way of life in most regions of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the reduction in the number of the main hunting and commercial animal species worsens the socio-economic situation of the indigenous population, which remains connected with traditional activities. The purpose of the article is to assess the role of formal and informal institutions in creating the conditions for the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of  Evenki Trans-Baikal Territory. Research materials. The results of interviews with representatives of the municipal authority, the Indigenous Peoples' Association of Evenki (Trans-Baikal Territory) of the TransBaikal Territory, hunting users, heads of hunting farms, chairmen of Evenki communities and ordinary hunters, data on the lease of forest plots, the number of hunting and hunting animals, the number and employment of the population, provided by the relevant State services and departments in the region, as well as the results of studying the transformation of formal and informal environmental management institutions and its consequences for hunting e-fishing activities of the indigenous population. A map showing all the main actors of hunting nature management in the areas of traditional Evenki residence and substantiating the use of an institution-oriented approach to solve the tasks posed during the study was created using GIS technologies. Conclusions. The institutional environment formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory is not very effective in resolving the problems of the development of ethnic nature management in the mountain taiga zone and requires further development in order to strengthen control over the number of commercial animal species and create mechanisms for their sustainable use. The author offers some recommendations that can ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East to hunting as a traditional activity.

Number of views: 204

FACTORS OF CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE BAVARIAN ALPS

T. I. Kosovtsova

A Council of Europe Ordinance of 2000 obliged government structures of various levels to protect and care for cultural landscapes designated as human-inhabited territory, which characteristics express the mutual long-term influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The concern is caused by the fact that since the second half of the 20th century, with the growth of mechanization, automation, and chemilization, the cultural landscapes of both the lowland and mountain regions have undergone particularly strong changes. The Alpine mountain region is considered as a benchmark in which the traditional economic activity in mountain areas, with its regional differences, keeps on co-existing with the current rapid development of technology, innovations and the increasing influence of external capital. However, the problems inherent in all the mountainous regions of Europe (desertion of rural settlements and outflow of population, declining role of agriculture and increasing role of tourism) are also characteristic of the Alpine region. The article deals with the territory of the northern, marginal part of the Alps, belonging to Germany – the Bavarian Alps. The Bavarian Alps occupy only 1.7% of the Germany territory but for Bavaria, this Alpine area is closely linked to its identity. In Alpine Bavaria, traditions, dialects, folklore are being preserved. The farmers land plots here are bigger than in other parts of the Alps, as well as the number of livestock. Population outflow in the Bavarian Alps is less than in some provinces of the Italian or French Alps. The Bavarian Alps is an area of developed, highly specialized and high-tech meat and dairy farming. But at the same time it is an area of sophisticated mass tourism – both, winter and summer. There are practically no original natural landscapes in the Bavarian Alps, since with the arrival of Bayovars, from about the 9th century, agricultural development of the territory began, and by the Middle Ages all suitable areas had been developed. Thus, all existing landscapes are cultural landscapes, the result of natural development and human impact. The cultural landscape of Bavaria, attractive for tourists and so important for the preservation of the natural balance, is supported primarily by farmers. Therefore, the main task is to prevent the desolation of mountain regions, the preservation of rural settlements and the rural way of life. Factors contributing to the preservation of the cultural landscape could be divided into external (political or legislative) and "internal". The external factors include: government subsidies of various levels (starting from the Council of Europe) to farmers; land law protecting the integrity of agricultural land; community rights to land and property management; building codes and regulations that preserve the architectural integrity of rural settlements. The “internal” factors in support of the Bavarian cultural landscape are hidden in the very system of rural life. These are traditions, customs, dialects. Traditions are worked out for centuries, passed down from generation to generation: housekeeping skills, crafts, customs, ceremonies, cuisine, etc. Traditions in Bavaria are very strong, as are the dialects. These factors unite people, create a connection with the place of residence with nature which is reflected in the cultural landscape.

Number of views: 213

CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES: UNIQUE MODEL OF RUSSIAN OLD BELIVERS “BELOVODYE”

Yu. P. Badenkov

The purpose of this article is: 1) to show that the economy is neither the only nor the dominant factor in the sustainable mountain development; 2) consider the integration of the cultural needs of society with the goals of sustainable development; 3) describe the history of the occurrence (17th – 18th centuries) of the Old Believer’s SMD ethno-cultural model Belovodye and its relevance for the SMD Agenda of modern Russia. Methods of researches: analytical review of literary sources The article contains 3 key blocks: 1) Introduction - the issue of the integration of culture  and the relevance of this issue to the mountain regions of Russia; 2) a brief overview of the history of the ROC schism in the 17th century, the emergence of two Russian sub-ethnic groups - the New (Nikonians) and Old Believers, as the basis for the emergence of a SMD  model “Belovodye”; 3) specific examples of the history and features of the development of Old Believer communities in Altai and the Far East. The “Belovodye” model is a unique example of the SMD strategy, where ethno-cultural traditions and work ethics (affairs) are the main drivers of development. Its vitality and attractiveness in the 21st century is confirmed by numerous examples from the life of the Old Believer’s Russian diaspora in the most diverse natural and cultural landscapes of Russia and the world - Altai, Sikhote-Alin, Transbaikalia, North and South America. Such a model of life and management in the mountains is organic to the nature of the mountains. It is based  on effective local management of local resources. The success of the SMD of the territory and the community is possible if there is a “political will” of the State that supports, through legal, economic and investment mechanisms, such a development model. In conclusion, the author poses the following questions: • How relevant and is there a future for the Old Believer model of “Belovodye” in the mountains of Russia? • Is the process of convergence of the preserved culture of the Russian subethnos of the Old Believers possible with a complex picture of a changing world - the world of numbers, modernization, artificial intelligence, climate change, etc.? • In what format can a powerful layer of Old Believer culture be integrated into the modern Russian SMD Agenda?

Number of views: 259

CULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE MOUNTAINS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS: APPROACHES TO RESEARCH, RECONSTRUCTION AND PRESERVATION

E. Yu. Kolbovsky, M. N. Petrushina, L. A. Petrov, Z.Sh. Gagaeva

Cultural landscapes of the North Caucasus were created by the work of many generations of the Highlanders from regions of the Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus, and in the native habitats of indigenous ethnic groups with distinctive environmental practices. The originality of cultural landscapes was formed as a result of adaptation of traditional types of nature management to the unique landscape mosaic, and is expressed in the unique combination of residential complexes, mountain agricultural terraces and pastures with natural surroundings. An analysis of the literature and the experience of studying key mountain areas in the Galanchozh, Itum-Kalinsky and Sharoy regions of the Chechen Republic show that the current state of cultural landscapes can be characterized as critical with the ongoing destruction and ruinization of the former settlement, revegetation in some parts of landscape-economic areas and intensive uncontrolled pasture load in others.. The abandonment and desolation of the historical habitats of the mountain peoples are caused by the collapse of local communities, the loss of control over resources by local residents, the formation of a new enlarged "cutting" of land use, depopulation, the emergence of resource and tourist-recreational forms of exploitation of the territory. This phenomenon is proposed to be considered as a “mountaineering” of the Caucasus, in the sense that this sequence of events was realized (in various national invariants) in the second half of the 20th century on the vast space of the "Alpine arc". The specificity of the postmodern scenario of the North Caucasus development was manifested in the fact that the leading factor in the alienation of resources and the destruction of traditions was not private capital, but errors in public administration that led to a shift in the native ethnic areas, including due to the eviction of mountain ethnic groups, which led to more than a quarter-century gap in the traditions of staying in the enclosing landscape. The sequence of destruction of the cultural landscapes of the mountains is closely related to the features of their inherited structure: the distant and high-altitude villages and their adjacent landscape-economic area, the most vulnerable part of which is the mountainous terraces, become unused. The degradation of the cultural landscape entails the loss of the whole set of eco-service functions — environment-stabilizing, life-supporting, intangible, which contradicts both immediate aims and the long-term prospects for the region’s socio-economic development of the region. At the same time, in a number of regions of the North Caucasus, and especially in the mountainous part of the Chechen Republic, there is a "return" movement (approved, and partly initiated by the authorities) to traditional high-mountain habitats ("historical roots"), during which the efforts of private business and volunteers restore sacred centers (designed to serve as new points of growth) and there are the first signs of the re-development of the territory (small farms, seasonal shelters and roads) – a process that can be called "nativization".

Number of views: 204
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)