The cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus clearly manifests itself and is represented by both glacial and cryogenic phenomena. The cryosphere manifests itself in the lithosphere (earth's surface), hydrosphere and atmosphere. The article deals with the phenomena of the cryosphere in the lithosphere and hydrosphere. The phenomena of the cryosphere associated with the hydrosphere belong to both the glacial group and the cryogenic one. Modern formation of the cryosphere in the Greater Caucasus is 125960 square kilometers where 91500 square kilometers are covered with glacial phenomena and 34460 square kilometers with cryogenic ones. The glacial phenomena include: seasonal snow cover, glaciers, snowfields (temporary and migration), seasonal ice cover on water bodies and ice. Their area varies from 17 km2 of ice to 91500 km2 of seasonal snow cover. Cryogenic phenomena in the Greater Caucasus are represented by three types of frozen rocks and thicknesses: 1 – permafrost soils in the form of significant thicknesses (up to 1.5–2.5 m) are observed at altitudes of more than 3000-3200 m and are confined mainly to the slopes of the Northern exposure. They are observed throughout the Greater Caucasus and especially in its Central region; 2 – seasonally frozen soils can be traced at altitudes of 1900-3000 m, their thickness reaches 1.1–1.3 m. 3 – short-term permafrost is available only in high-altitude zones from 1900 to the foothills.
The relevance of the work is due to the need to improve the efficiency of well charges in the destruction of rocks by explosion. The widespread method of open-pit mining continues to be the most cost-effective, safe and technically efficient. At the same time, the most important technological process of the open method of field development is the explosive destruction of the mountain massif. In the development of rock massifs an important way of crushing rocks is drilling and blasting which in the foreseeable future hase no alternative. In this regard, the main research on the creation of effective resource-saving methods of blasting continues to be carried out. Purpose of work. Creation of effective resource-saving technological methods of explosive destruction, providing cost reduction by increasing the efficiency of well charges. The work is based on the idea of integrated use of the results of studies of detonation processes in various structures of borehole charges and formulation of explosives which met the technical and economic criteria for open field development. Method of research. To achieve high-quality indicators of blasting, we used a comprehensive method of research, which includes: generalization and determination of ways to improve the explosive destruction of the quarries; theoretical and field studies of detonation processes in borehole charges of various designs of mixed explosives with conversion additives; industrial testing of the developed technological methods of explosive destruction on the basis of new designs in various mining and technological conditions; the use of statistical and economic analysis methods in assessing the quality of crushing rock mass. Results. On the basis of the data obtained in the course of industrial research, a generalized concept of ideas about the detonation processes in wells during rock blasting was made. The expediency of the use of intermediate detonators of different types in the blasting of mountain ranges is established. Technological methods of exploding rock mass in quarries on the basis of a new resource-saving design of well charge are developed. Summary. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the development of scientific ideas about the process of crushing rocks explosion borehole charges of various designs. Practical importance of research consists in development of universal design channel Thriller; technologies of formation charges with the cavities of hollow containers; resource-saving technologies of destruction of rocks, with the use of the initiators of the new design. The proposed methods of blasting have been successfully tested and implemented in the ultra-deep iron ore quarries of KMA-ore and Krivbass.
In Vietnam, there are a huge number of quarries that are exploited and mainly provide materials to the construction sector of the country. However, most of the quarries are operating without topographic plans due to a lack of surveying activities. This paper introduces an approach of using lowcost UAVs to produce digital surface models which in turn are used to draw topographic maps of quarries in Vietnam. For assessments of accuracy, safety, and working efficiency, four quarries different in terrain conditions, namely Luong Son, Long Son, Nui Nho, and Nui Dai were selected as the study areas. Ground control points were established in each area by using GNSS/RTK for camera calibration and accuracy assessment. The accuracy of DSM was assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) in X, Y, Z, XY, and XYZ components. Capturing images from each site were processed by using Agisoft®PhotoScan Professional 1.5.2. The results showed that all the DSM models of the four areas have high accuracy, RMSE on the checked GCPs ranges from 1.0 to 9.0 cm, from 1.2 to 5.0 cm, from 4.4 to 13.4 cm, from 1.6 to 10.3 cm, and from 4.9 to 16.9 cm for X, Y, Z, XY, XYZ components, respectively. We concluded that the low-cost UAV based mapping technology can guarantee the accuracy of DSMs, the safety of UAV flying, and the efficiency of surveying working simultaneously when using in quarries.
The paper presents a new national technical regulation for coal mine wastewater in Vietnam. The analyses of wastewater samples collected at sites indicate that wastewater from Vietnam coal mines is in general low in pH and contains heavy metals such as iron and manganese. Since Vietnam coal industry is being regulated by National Technical Regulation on Industrial Wastewater QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT with 33 parameters, this paper proposes a new National Technical Regulation on Coal Mine Wastewater that includes pH, Total Suspended Solid, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, iron and manganese whose values are equal to those regulated in QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT.
Sustainable development of mining regions, new technologies implementation providing the effective extraction and advanced processing of mineral raw materials is being constrained by the imperfection of dust suppression technologies, localization and liquidation of dust-and-gas aerosols explosions. Based on the Helmholtz theorem, the hypothesis of the uniformity of the traditional and vortex coagulation equations, the Biot-Savart formula, the Fourier rule, criteria equations of hydro vortex coagulation are developed. The influence of the liquid droplets rotation in the process of hydro vortex heterogoagulation, reducing the energy requirement for the total absorption of explosive aerosols. The tests have confirmed the validity of similarity criteria of hydro vortex inertial orthokinetic heterocoagulation, the reduction in the minimum size of the absorbed dust by four times, the efficiency increase in dust catching up to 99 under simultaneous reduction of 20 % in water discharge in comparison with the traditional high pressure wet dedusting.
Natural and man-made disasters in the mountains (avalanches, mudflows, dams, etc.) are characterized by rapid developments, leaving little time for decision-making. A number of problems arising in this case can be reduced to the mathematical models with discretely varying variables, the main tool for solving them are implicit enumeration methods. The composite modifications efficiency of dynamic programming and methods such as branches and boundaries in relation to the knapsack problem is experimentally investigated. All these algorithms combine the technologies of calculation of estimates inherent in the methods of branch type and boundaries and the principles of cutting off "unpromising" dynamic programming plans. The high efficiency of the proposed approaches is demonstrated experimentally and it is shown that the superiority of composite versions of implicit enumeration algorithms over traditional implementations of these methods increases with the growth of the knapsack problem dimension.
The purpose of the study is to develop recommendations for increasing the sustainability of mountain development. The method of achieving this goal is to involve waste products of lead-zinc ore processing in the economic circulation. Recycling of wastes whose resource potential allows them to be considered as qualitative technogenic mineral raw materials into a useful production cycle allows to ensure sustainable development of mountain territories that is the growth of allocations to budgets of different levels and to extra-budgetary funds, and the reduction in the unemployment in the region. At the same time, the problem of liquidating the accumulated environmental damage reducing the burden on the natural environment is being discussed. Directly at the site of waste disposals an industrial product is extracted from them comparable in quality to the primary ore. To do this, environmentally friendly and energy-saving collapsible (mobile) complexes without capital foundations are used. The obtained industrial product in a stationary factory is mixed with the initial ore and co-processed according to the scheme of the current production for commodity concentrates. The costs of joint processing are considered, as if they were produced for the development of plots of one large deposit by the holding company. The achieved depth of metal extraction (unalloyed nonmetallic part of the waste) ensured the receipt of a commodity product utilized in the construction industry. Technical and economic calculations show that when investing 228.9 million rubles into the project it is possible to receive 162.4 million rubles of net discounted income with an internal rate of return of 32.5% and a discounted payback period of 4 years. The concentrate separated from the waste and the current production ore are processed jointly in the existing factory using the existing technology. When enrichment of the charge composed of technogenic gravel-concentrate (10%) and ores of current production (90%), an increase in the technological indicators of separation of selective lead and zinc concentrates was achieved. With the joint financial and technological accounting the generalized profitability with an economic effect becomes significantly more positive and sustainable compared to the individual waste processing for the selective concentrates.
The aim of the study is to construct a formation model of target environmental program to reduce the negative impact of the road transportation sector within the territory. The reasoning of prevalent approaches to environmental management and present system’s limitations and shortcomings has allowed to identify the perspective directions of its development. The research method is based on the theoretical and experimental explorations of patterns of pollutants emissions from mobile sources engines. The authors created the mathematical model of air pollution process during the transport work performance which mostly eliminates the gaps of existing approaches. On its basis the algorithm and method of calculation of pollutants masses emitted by motor vehicles were developed. Using the method and capabilities of modern technologies will allow forming the system of actual emissions assessment within the territory. Results. The formulated method of pollutants calculation emitted by motor vehicles is the basis of transportation sector model of the territory. Successive approximations of its variables which include environmental protection measures realization for environmental benchmark of transition to sustainable development allow constituting the variety of modifications for the transportation sector model. The transition to respective options can be achieved within target environmental program where the selection of appropriate version implements by using of optimization criteria. As a result, the most acceptable version of the transportation sector model for the transition to the environmentally sustainable development can be identified on the basis of such procedures. Conclusion. Using the proposed model of transportation sector development (environmental aspect) permits to compare the variety of alternatives to achieve the strategic function, i.e. environmental sustainability. Adequate assessment of the proposed model parameters will allow making effective long-term plans for the development of industries, infrastructure and territories. The simulation results may indicate the need for a significant increase in the maximum permissible load, reducing the number of the most environmentally unfriendly cars, etc. In case of impossibility of implementation of the target ecological program at present in the conditions of admissible resource expenses the model can serve as approach to justification of need of territorial ecological and economic strategy formation.
Abstract: The article considers a system in which the territorial features of reservoir layers are investigated, which is manifested in the formation of certain genetic types of groundwater. The actual problem is the study of the hydrogeochemical conditions of individual geological structures of the Yuzhno-Khulymsky field, in the future containing industrial accumulations of hydrocarbons. The purpose of research. The studies are aimed at studying the hydrogeochemical indicators of the reservoir oil reservoir MZ-125 in order to assess the oil and gas potential of the North-Eastern block of the South Khulym field. Tasks of research. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: - processing and systematization of data on the geochemistry of groundwater of the North-Eastern block of the Yuzhno-Khulymsky field; - hydrogeochemical study of the South Khulym sedimentary basin, zonality and genetic characteristics of groundwater, the degree of their metamorphization; - analysis of the gas composition of groundwater reservoir rocks of the North-Eastern block of the South-Khulymsky field; - division of groundwater into genetic types; - calculation of various coefficients of genetic indicators of groundwater. Research results. For oil and gas exploration purposes, the following indicators of the salt composition of water were used: type of water and nature of total mineralization, water metamorphism coefficients, sulfate content, trace element content (ammonium, iodine, bromine, boron, etc.), rare and trace elements (strontium, vanadium, nickel , copper, molybdenum, etc.). The results of the chemical composition of groundwater in reservoir rocks of the Northeastern block of the Yuzhno-Khulymskoe field were analyzed according to the data of exploratory and structural drilling. The genetic factors, elemental composition, type of brines were determined. The presence of CaCl2 salt in brine is associated with metamorphization in limestone. The process of dolomitization is of particular importance: 2CaCO3 (limestone) + MgCl2 (brine) = СaCO3 × MgCO3 (dolomite) + СaCl2 (brine). These types of brines are characteristic of oil fields. Since chlorine-calcium and bicarbonate types of groundwater are associated with hydrocarbons, the Northern block located at higher hypsometric elevations may represent a promising area, which is a kind of trap on the migration route of groundwater characteristic of the oil and gas of the Eastern and North-Eastern blocks. In this regard, the search and assessment of this area is justified, the Northeast bloc is the primary and promising object possibly containing industrial accumulation of hydrocarbons.
Ecological processes of modernization of regional economic systems by means of dynamics of indicators of impact on the environment in Russian regions are investigated. To receive quantitative features, we used one of geoecological indicators of quality of the environment of economic growth - "eco-intensity". It characterizes the level of negative impact on environment per unit of the result of economic activity. An indicator of the environmental load is the volume of air pollutant emissions from stationary sources (including the most common pollutants:solids, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides). The gross regional domestic product (converted into 2005 constant prices in conjunction with official GRDP growth rates) is used as a characteristic of the result of economic activity in the regions. The study of the dynamics of eco-intensity of air pollutant emissions was carried out in different time intervals: 2005-2009, 2009-2013 and 2013-2016. Special attention is paid to the study of environmental aspects of the development of the mining industry, which is the basis of economic activity of many resource-extracting regions of the Russian Federation. For the spatial analysis of the dynamics of the studied geo-ecological indicators the tools of GIS-technologies were used. Assessment of the dynamics of eco-intensity of air pollutant emissions from stationary sources showed that in recent years there has been a marked increase in the number of regions characterized by an increase in the specific environmental load. The worst dynamics of eco-intensity of emissions of the most common pollutants was observed in the regions of Siberia, the Far East and the Urals, as well as in few regions of the European part of the Russian Federation. Natural resource extraction and processing activities have a significant negative impact on the natural environment. In some resource-extracting regions, the eco-intensity of emissions in the mining industry was significantly higher than for the economy as a whole. The results of a comparative analysis of the environmental and economic development of the mining industry showed that in some regions there was an increase in eco-intensity (in some it was very noticeable). The results allow us to conclude that the existing state institutions do not fully fulfill their task of regulation in order to stimulate environmental modernization and sustainable development of the regions.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)