The physiographic features of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Crimean Mountains provide the conditions for almost all yearround recreational activities. Despite the high natural recreational potential of mountain regions of Ukraine degree of development is still very small. Natural complexes of mountain ranges of Ukraine are favourable for the development of the recreation, sports, cognitive and other types of recreational activities. Eco-tourism and environmental forms of recreation correspond to the concept of the balanced sustainable natural resources using.
The change of modern glaciation was analyzed at the beginning of the 21st century. It appeared that in 1970-2007 mass balance for the most glaciers improved due to the climate change. The most intensive climate change was recorded from 1970. In parallel, speed of the glaciation area degradation and velocity of glaciers' and section recession were reduced twice. Thes significant improvement in modern glaciation was recorded for glaciers which have ablation and accumulation areas located rather high.
The quantity of the tourists visited the cave Novoafonskaya, last 10 years has increased in 6 times and reached 300 thousand persons per season. Simultaneous presence of such quantity of tourists, continuous use of lighting devices leads to increase of the total temperature of air in the cave to 0,2-0,40°С, that is essential. On the basis of the revealed features of the air exchange in the cave with a day surface and admissible concentration of the carbonic gas calculation of a maximum quantity of the tourists at a time supposed in a cave is spent. The important part of the protection cave is the creation of the negative processes forecast and working out of measures the ecological safety on maintenance the ecological of these unique natural objects.
General methodological issues of the sustainable development problem are considered. Promising approaches to analyze this problem using simulations based on the mathematical apparatus of the hierarchy analysis method and learning in neural networks are considered.
The article is dedicated to the social and economic problems for the steady development of mountain territories Republic Dagestan. Various variants for the sanction of the complex economic and social contradictions which have resulted from the world financial crisis, the actions promoting, in opinion of authors, the improvement of the social and economic situation in the region are offered.
The article is dedicated to the estimation of the 'mountain' factor from the positions of critical approach to the concept of sustainable development. The analysis conducted, reinforced by the actual data on the content of the natural (relief and risks), and economic factors of the rise in price of life in the mountain regions, made it possible to reveal basic factors and mechanisms and to estimate the spatial differences in the rise in price of life in the mountains. The total estimation of 'mountain coefficient' for the Altai Republic territory covered the special features of the local settlement, thus making possible to differentiate the municipalities. The procedure proposed can be used for the majority of mountain areas and adapted for other hierarchical levels.
This article describes land using in the mountain regions of Europe, in particular in the Alps region and changes in XX century. These changes connect with various types of land using: agriculture, settlement, tourism and recreation, industry. The statistical table gives correspondence of some land complexes and land using types.
This article is analyzing the biological diversity in the Russian part of the Caucasus, the rare gene pool that must the different level from state to region. In addition, the degree of the biological diversity transformation affected by the anthropogenic factors was shown.
The paper is devoted to the study of the foothill pastures state of the Ararat valley of Armenia and application of the different optimization measures. The presented data concerning variation of the productivity and portion of the principal meadow plant groups (grasses, legumes, forbs) of the grasslands were studied in 1986-2008. It has been shown that the legume forages practically disappeared from the pasture, moreover for the indicated period the yield capacity of the pastures was also significantly decreased (from 26.0 to 16.3 c/ha) mainly due to reduction of grasses' portion (from 17.0 to 8.0 c/ha). The different measures of superficial improvement, on the whole, positively influenced the total yield and portion of grass and legume forages. The productivity of pastures is substantially increased in variants - N60P60K60 without and with undersowing by legumes (100 and 134%), besides it was observed a significant improvement of botanical composition, particularly, in variant N60P60K60 the portion of grasses and legumes was increased by 123 and 350%, and in N60P60K60 with undersowing - by 160 and 488%.
The mountain societies that were established in the 15-18th c., differed from each other by the land size they possessed and by the number of the population, yet everywhere it was the same civil community that was а form of social-political unity, called in Ossetio «b®st®» - a whole self-governed social body, a collective of the citizens possessing the sovereign rights.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)