Environmental problems of the mountain zone of RSO-Alania appeared as a result of long-term exploitation of natural resources, largely aimed at the extraction and processing of polymetallic ores. As a result-today a number of unique landscapes of mountain basins was unsuitable for human activity. In addition, further irrational use of natural resource potential can lead to further deterioration of the biosphere of the region. Therefore, the aim of this study is to search for the most rational models of environmental management within the mountainous areas of RNO-Alania. To identify the prospects of environmental management it is necessary to identify both the main centers of accumulated negative anthropogenic impact and potential sources of natural resources, the use of which is possible within the framework of environmental and economic environmental management (EEM), by using methods of comparison and analogies, mathematical calculations and modeling based on environmental management paradigms, i.e. principles of minimal, environmentally friendly and efficient use of natural resources. Environmental and economic management is a system in which: - raw materials are processed in depth; - renewable resources are recover; - the waste production is fully utilized. As one of options of application of the EEM models there can be a symbiosis of a number of the directions of traditional environmental management with the tourism industry. As a result quite viable model representing network of small farms with high extent of differentiation of the made goods and services which will allow turns out: a) to provide the region with food; b) to create jobs and to improve a demographic situation; c) to create a wide range of the recreational services based on esthetic, spiritual or recreational assets, such as ecotourism, agro-tourism and so forth; d) to stabilize spontaneous ecological processes (a mountain erosion of soils, to regulate a part of a rain drain, and so forth). As an indicator of the economic efficiency of the proposed model, the profitability of the environmental protection measure is used, based on the dependence of the results of the environmental protection measure on the costs of their implementation. The proposed model can be implemented in the form of a form of socio-zones of special regime of nature management (SZSRNM), already successfully tested in a number of similar natural and geographical conditions of regions of Russia. The implementation of the proposed methods will make it possible to accelerate the socio-economic development of the study areas, will provide an increase in the standard of living of the local population, while allowing to preserve the natural ecological balance.
Research objective – to reveal dependence of techno-sphere objects of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) from the complex emergency situations (ES) of natural and man-made of a mountain part of the SFD. For realization of the purpose the following problems were solved: 1. To reveal dependence of techno-sphere objects of the SFD from complex emergencies of natural character. 2. To reveal dependence of techno-sphere objects of the SFD from complex emergencies of man-made character. 3. To make the rating of subjects of the SFD on vulnerability from complex emergencies of natural and man-made character.
Research methods: in the work methods of the risks forecast emergence of multiple-factor and complex emergencies of natural and man-made character taking into account climatic features of regions of the country on the example of the SFD were used. In the article the assessment primary (temperature, wind, rainfall) and the secondary factors causing emergence of complex emergencies of natural and man-made character in a mountain part of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) is carried out. Extent of influence of these factors on subjects of the SFD is established and the gradation of indicators on the level of influence of each factor is carried out. As a result of the conducted research the following conclusions were formulated: 1. The SFD shares two geographical zones: mountain and flat. Each of zones differs in physiographic conditions and levels of natural and man-made danger. Levels of danger are formed by a combination of primary and secondary factors in various territories. 2. Primary (temperature, rainfall, wind) natural sources of emergency are the defining factors of formation of natural emergency situations in the territory of the SFD, at the same time the combination of primary and secondary sources forms complex natural and natural and man-made emergencies. 3. On the basis of the obtained data it is possible to carry out comparison of resistance of mountain and flat parts of the SFD to primary and secondary factors of emergence of emergency. According to the obtained data the air temperature, fire hazard, flood danger, ice jams on the rivers, avalanche danger, torrential danger, landslide hazard have the greatest impact on a mountain part of the SFD. According to the total indicator including all above-stated indicators in the sum, a mountain part of the SFD has the greatest indicators of total natural danger. 4. The wear of the equipment is also the important factor promoting accidents in a techno-sphere in territories of a mountain part of the SFD. Subjects of a mountain part of the SFD have indicators of influence of wear of the equipment above, than on a flat part of the district.
The purpose is to investigate dynamics of climatic characteristics of air temperature in mountainous areas of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia during instrumental measurements with data from the nearest meteorological stations. Research methods. Methods of mathematical statistics is the choice for data processing and calculation of climatic indicators and their dynamics. The periods of averaging for climate indicators correspond to the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization. To eliminate the inhomogeneity of the initial data, we used the mean values of the air temperature in 24 hours for the temperature levels before 1966. The series have the same length by regression methods according to the nearest meteorological station. Research results. The research on correlation of mean month and season indicators of air temperature on meteorological stations Terskol (Kabardino-Balkaria) and Klukhorsky pereval (Karachay-Cherkessia) has shown high coherence of climate parameters in the region. The research of change in the annual course of air temperature in the region reveals that minimum shift since January for February in 1981–2000 in the highlands of Karachay-Cherkessia. Dynamics of average annual amplitude of air temperature shows statistically doubtful increase. In the explored region the maximum of 10-year mean values are at the beginning of the research period. The same is for 30-year means. The exception makes the summer parameter of 1981–2010 in Terskola which exceeds initial values on 0, 07 °C. At the beginning of the period (in 1951–1960), all seasonal anomalies of mean decade temperature, exceeds norm. The situation repeats only in 2006–2015 (except for winter anomaly in Terskol). Conclusion. Climatic characteristics and indicators of their dynamics in mountainous areas of the republics are close thanks to small distance between them and to location in the same altitude zone. It gives the grounds to consider the climatic regularities of activization of dangerous processes revealed in more studied areas of Kabardino-Balkaria for all considered territory. At all observed fluctuations of climatic indicators of air temperature in mountainous areas of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia their change doesn't exceeds the standard deviation of levels during 1951–2015.
This field research based on the seven Biosphere reserves of Asturias, looks for identify: i) the perception of sustainability among their tourists, and ii) the sociodemographic factors linked to the propensity to increase expenses in sustainable accommodations as a proxy variable of environmental motivation. A personal survey - based on a convenience sampling - is used to find the answers to the research questions posed. The respondents' perceptions of sustainability were analysed using the best-worst scale method. Experiencing nature in an intense and deep way was considered the most important aspect of sustainable tourism, while dealing with the culture of the host region was perceived as the least important aspect of sustainable tourism.
The identification of relevant sociodemographic factors was carried out through a simple regression model. Age, housing category and family income have a positive effect on the propensity to spend more on sustainable accommodations. On the contrary, neither gender nor training seems to have a significant impact on the propensity to spend on sustainable accommodations.
Purpose: analysis of changes in the industry structure of Jewish Autonomous Oblast at the present stage of its development based on using of its natural resource potential. Methods of researches: systematic approach, historical and geographical that were used to carry out retrospective analysis of the regional economy development, as well as the main stages of land use development in the region were identified; statistical analysis. Results of researches: The development of the region is reflected through the formation of various types of land use on the territory. Analysis of the land use development reveals the fact that the natural resource potential has always been one of the leading factors in the development of the south of the Far East of Russia, and in particular in the current territory of Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO). Soil and mineral resources were already the most demanded in the early stages of regional development. The natural resources of the mountain landscapes of the region were involved in the economy simultaneously with the ones in lowlands. Gold and forest resources were the most significant. Mineral resources of the JAO are various and numerous. The deposits of more than 20 types of minerals were explored in here including large deposits of iron ore, manganese, tin, gold, graphite, brucite, magnesite, zeolites, constructing materials, etc. In terms of number of deposits and occurrences, as well as concentration of minerals the JAO is one of the richest territories of Russia. During the pre-reform period and from the USSR collapse until the 2010s the JAO was different in industrial structure of the economy compared with other eastern regions of Russia. It was characterized by the predominance of manufacturing industry. Then services of public administration and social services took leading positions in the structure of the GRP. The mining industry focused on the extraction of iron ore, brucite, limestone, tin, magnesite, graphite and gold is getting main in the modern industry of the JAO. Conclusions: Due to the current implementation of large investment projects in the mining industry and transport infrastructure the JAO’s environmental management is acquiring classic features of resource-oriented regions. They include increasing the contrast of space development, improvement of the road net of the region that is oriented now on links with Asian countries.
The aim of the study is to assess the bioclimatic conditions in the territory of the Kodar national park and to identify periods that are comfortable for organizing sightseeing and extreme tourism and other active types of recreation. Research methods: Based on the methods for assessing the thermal comfort of the climate, bioclimatic indicators were calculated which are indirect indicators reflecting the conditions for the implementation of tourist and recreational activities. Effective temperature, equivalent-effective temperature and Bodman weather severity index were used as the main indicators. With the use of the ArcGIS software complex, a geographic information model of the study area was created, a spatial analysis of the distribution of the calculated indicators by heights was carried out, and maps of their distribution over the territory were constructed. Research results: The analysis of the obtained values of effective and equivalent-effective temperatures made it possible to determine the main features of the bio-climate for different periods of the year. It was established that the main feature of the climate is its low comfort throughout the year and the seasonality of the distribution of values. Short conditionally favorable summer period, short periods of sub-comfort in autumn and spring and a long winter period of cold discomfort were revealed. The interpretation of the obtained values of indicators was carried out on the basis of thermal sensitivity criteria. Throughout the year, the performance of effective temperatures do not reach the optimum. The authors propose a regional scale of thermal sensitivity. The range of values (from –12 °C to +12 °C), which is suitable for the development of extreme tourism and other active forms of recreation. Thus, a comfortable season for outdoor activities in the Kodar national park is a period from may to mid-October. Analysis of the spatial distribution of bio-climate indicators showed that the most comfortable conditions are limited to altitudes from 550 to 1100 m and orographic boundaries of the Verkhnecharskaya basin, the basin of Lake Nichatka and the valley of the Kuanda River. Bodman index calculations confirmed that severe uncomfortable conditions are observed from November to March. Mitigation of the severity of the weather occurs in May. Special attention is paid to the analysis of opportunities for the development of tourism in the national park. It is proved that, despite the extreme natural conditions, the territory of the Kodar national park is promising for the development of active tourism, including «tourism in the North» or «winter tourism».
Introduction. Special attention has always been paid to the preservation of natural landscapes with the smooth integration of the road route into the relief of mountainous terrain in the Russian Federation. The design of linear objects of transport construction should be accompanied by scientific and technical expertise, i.e. with the participation in the design of scientists or scientific organizations involved in road safety. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct a spatial analysis of the road and the surrounding landscape. Method of research. The basis of the research was the works of domestic and foreign scientists revealing the problems of landscape design of roads in mountain conditions. Research result. As a result of human activity, the landscape can be modified, violating the harmonious forms of the environment by the discrepancy of the structures under construction, or their unsuccessful placement in the natural relief. Properly and competently designed road can improve and diversify the landscape, if it is approached creatively and make it new harmonious elements. Thus, long-term observations of the operation of roads in mountain conditions give grounds to strictly adhere to the principle of harmonious combination of road elements in the allotted lane in order to preserve the environment and ensure safety in case of landslide phenomena. Conclusion: 1. The article makes a certain scientific contribution to the methodology of road design in mountain conditions. Special attention is paid to the mistakes of road designers when straightening the tracks, in the plan and in the profile. 2. It is established that to reduce the accident rate of vehicles and injuries of road users mountain road should be laid with a harmonious introduction of its elements in the landscape space of the mountain area. 3. The article in the form of guidelines is useful for designers of roads and trails laid in mountain areas.
The high seismic danger for the town and its agglomerations is confirmed by the spatial confinement of the territory of Alagir to the zone of the possible seismic source (PSS) at the intersection of the Vladikavkaz and Ardon regional seismically active deep faults, the catalogue of historical seismic events and modern seismic activity. Starting from 2015, seismic events do not decrease, but on the contrary, their number increases to three events during the day, covering the area of manifestation along the entire expected width of the Vladikavkaz fault from Ingushetia to Kabardino-Balkaria and noticeably concentrating in the Ossetian sector of the fault. Three earthquakes on the same day were noted near Alagir in 2015; seismic events in this territory were recorded in 2016. On May 25, 2017, a seismic event was recorded near Alagir with a magnitude of about 3.0; on October 18, 2018, two events per day were recorded with epicenters at a distance of 58 and 36 km from Vladikavkaz; on December 8, 2018, between Alagir and Ardon (near the villages of Kadgaron, Ramonovo and Tsalikovo) a seismic event with a magnitude 3.3 occurred; on April 12, 2018, and April 26, 2018, seismic events occurred near the town of Alagir; on February 16, 2019, two events per day with magnitudes 3.5 and 3.7 occurred and on February 21, 2019, two events with M = 3.4 were registered. All these seismic events are united by the sublatitude zone of their confinement, which coincides with the spatial position of the Vladikavkaz fault, which is convincing evidence of the seismic activity of this territory at the present time primarily due to the activity of the Vladikavkaz fault. This fact proves the need to conduct continuous monitoring of the seismic situation and forehanded taking preventive measures.The article provides a detailed description of the Ardon and Vladikavkaz regional seismogenic deep faults using the data from the latest results of their research; the article also describes the engineering-geological and geomorphological conditions of the town territory based on a set of data on the physical and mechanical properties of soils and the results of engineering and geological and seismic zoning, that is provided with the attached schematic maps.
Objective. The scholarly paper aims to develop the more effective PDC-bit. The selection of the best drilling bit for the specific drilling conditions is one of troubles that oil-and-gas services companies have to face during well construction. Nowadays many different drilling bits being in use for various application well drilling are produced. Now we don’t have an all-purpose rock destruction tool for efficient drilling of any drill ability grade rocks, many specialists and industrial establishments in all the world work to create such drilling tools. Such tools using would help to reduce round-trip operations and as result to improve the drilling speed. The drilling bits cost is about 5% of the well total cost but they are the main ingredient of the well construction economy.
Method of researches. The known drilling bits designs observing permitted to develop the stabilizing double deck cutting-shearing PDC-bits design calculate the basic technological parameters and describe their work with account of the geomagnetic field influence over the drilling fluid. Results of researches. Research results permitted to create the best stabilizing double deck cutting-shearing PDC - bits design and calculate the basic technological parameters of drilling bits work. Conclusions: 1. The drilling bits design optimization permits to achieve the optimum axial load value and the rational value of unit contact bottom-hole pressure during well boring. 2. In accordance with research of the mechanics of medium and above-average drill ability rocks destruction the bit basic design driving up the well construction efficiency was developed. Recommendation. Authors think, the drilling bits will be multi function in the very near future, in the first place in terms of cutting point-equipping take into account rocks drill ability grade, and certainly subjected to different physical and other fields influence, to improve its strength. Herewith they will be changed structurally, than means, all cutting parts will be movable, field replaceable, hydraulic system will improve and all the hydraulic nozzles will be movable. In this way the drilling speed will grow, the vibration down the hole will lower, borehole cleaning will improve, pressure on the bit will be smoother and as a result the rocks drilling unit cost will be lower.
The aim of the work is to create a mathematical model of the movement of droplets (particles) in the turbulent air flow in the vertical pipe of the ventilation shaft of the mine (mine). The use of ore (mine) ventilation pipes of different cross-sections allows more efficient and energy-intensive to organize ventilation in the faces. However, the use in the mountain (mine) workings of abundant water irrigation to combat dust and ensure acceptable temperature conditions of people's stay leads to increased humidity (90% – 100%) in the atmosphere of deep mines, which in turn at temperature differences between the bottom-hole horizon and the earth's surface leads to abundant droplet formation and deposition of water masses on the inner surface of the ventilation pipe of the issuing shaft of the mine. Water, flowing down the walls of the pipe, enters the counterflow with the upward flow of exhaust gases, which leads to failures in the ventilation system and emergency situations in the mine ventilation system. In order to understand the process of deposition of droplet liquid in the vertical pipe of the ventilation shaft of the mine (mine), this article presents a corresponding mathematical model of the movement of droplets (particles). The influence of forces acting on the droplets in the upward ventilation flow is considered. Based on Newton's second law, a system of differential equations of the first order is derived and as a result of its solution the trajectories of droplets (particles) in a vertical pipe are obtained by numerical method. The motion graphs of particles (droplets) distributed over the entire section of the pipe, distributed in the boundary layers of the air flow and turbulent zone are presented. The process of subsidence of droplets on the inner wall of the vertical ventilation channel of the outstanding shaft of the mine (mine) is justified and the dependence of the place of subsidence of droplets on their radial location in the plane of the cross-section of the pipe is established.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)