Analysis of existing theoretical and experimental studies has shown that the mathematical basis of existing geographic information systems is not able to solve the problem of identifying avalanche hazard zones for mountainous areas.
To solve this problem, in presented research paper it has been developed the mathematical basis for the geographic information system of avalanche zoning in mountainous areas. This basis is formed on a mathematical model of the freshly fallen snow stress-strain state on the slopes of mountainous territories. During the development of the model, the follow-ing assumptions were made: freshly fallen snow is heterogeneous; structural components of snow (ice crystals, snow pellets and hoarfrost) are anisotropic; deformations are elastic; structural components interact with each other through an elastic field; the elastic properties of the structural components and the external stress field are considered known from the experiment; unknown is the stress field in the structural components. Texture components are snowflakes. In some cases, they are adjacent to each other, in others – are at a distance from each other. To develop this model, a systematic approach is used. Freshly fallen snow is divided into two nested subsystems of structural and texture levels. The mathematical model responsible for the structural level of freshly fallen snow is reduced to a system of equations in tensor values. This system includes: the equilibrium equation; Hooke's law in general tensor form, that written relative to local and average values; dependence between deformations and displacements. A complex self-consistent field method is used to solve this system of equations.
As a result, final expressions for calculating stress tensors and effective elastic modules are obtained. The main difference of the proposed solution method is the simultaneous consideration of the own field and the field induced by other in homogeneities. The mathematical model responsible for the texture level also reduces to a system of equations in tensor form. The solution of this system of equations allows one to obtain final expressions for calculating the effective elastic compliance tensor and the effective elastic modulus tensor. All obtained solutions allow carrying out avalanche zoning in mountain territories on the basis of stressed-strain condition.
Introduction. Widely distributed on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the mountain-forest belt is formed under the influence of various factors. At the same time, the territory is constantly exposed to various anthropogenic factors. A large number of settlements, household facilities are located here and their number is growing every day.
Materials and research methods. For a qualitative study of exodynamic processes in the mountain-forest belt of the north-eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the method of decoding space images obtained using a spectrodiometer (MODIS) installed on NASA satellites was used. At the same time, the results obtained in the period of previous studies and, inter alia, by other authors were taken into account. The work also used field research data, assessment methods based on GIS technologies, data from aerological and ground-based meteorological stations in the research area. In order to assess the geoecological situation on the basis of primary information, the choice of representative (characteristic) forests with varying degrees of exposure to anthropogenic impact was of great importance.
Research results. It was determined that mountain forests undergo transformation under the influence of various factors, and an analysis of these causes plays a large role in optimizing the use of forests. Thus, deforestation leads to drying out of water sources and intensification of soil erosion on the slopes.
Some areas with sparse forest cover, steep slopes and inconvenient for cutting, shrubby areas are used for grazing. In steep areas where the soil cover is protected only by shrubs, soil with a disturbed structure undergoes erosion with high speed. Within the forest belt, such sites are widespread in the Tahirjal river basins in the Gusar district, and in the Shabran region in the Gilgilchay and Atachay river basins. Deciphering aerial photographs revealed a number of destructive landslides in the research area, especially in the Velvelichay river basin. In this case, a transition from one process to another is observed. Area landslides are characterized mainly by surface deposits.
Conclusion. We can come to the conclusion that it is advisable to carry out construction work outside the territories of active manifestation of exogenous relief-forming processes. At the same time, it should be noted that the indices of landscape homogeneity of landslide massifs indicate the formation of a complex landscape structure and make it possible to determine the direction of environmental measures.
When constructing vertical shaft shafts in unstable flooded rocks at significant depths, it is impossible to do without blasting to develop rocks in the face. However, blasting often leads to emergency damage to freezing columns. In this case, there is a pattern that the destruction occurs in the zones of contact of the rock layers, and in the homogeneous massif there is no destruction. Therefore, the aim of the work is to determine the technological conditions of penetration under which destruction occurs and to determine the mechanism of column destruction.
To solve the problem posed in the article, a set of research methods was applied: processing statistical data on the causes of emergencies, stating the problem of the development of wave processes during blasting in a layered array, proving the effect of an increase in energy density in the boundary layer of rocks with different acoustic impedances.
Based on the studies and evidence, an explanation of the mechanism of column destruction in the contact zone of different-speed rocks is proposed. A method for calculating the pressure at the front of an explosion shock wave is proposed, which destroys a freezing column in a well in the contact zone of different-velocity rocks.
Conclusion: the compression effect of a frozen drilling fluid located in the gap between the rock wall of the well and the freezing pipe is revealed, the further mechanism of compression and flattening of the freezing pipe with a dent is explained.
The stress-strain state of the rock and massif was assessed from the consolidating stowing by the finite element method. Studies have shown that an increase in the underworking span leads to an increase in stresses in the previously filled space. In the central part of the block, in the area where fractured rocks transit to solid, increased stresses are confined with sy ≥ (2÷2,5)γН, then the stresses decrease to an average level. It was revealed that when using continuous chamber development systems, a rectangular prism is formed in the edge part of the stowing array, the lateral face of which is an outcrop of the stowing in the treatment mine, the stability of which is determined by the condition of non-destruction of the prism in the stowing array. A new experimental method has been developed for calculating the normative strength of the filling mass, taking into account the influence of lateral deformation restrictions and hardening of the filling mass during volumetric unequal compression, which allows increasing the measurement accuracy. It has been established that with the developed technology of excavation of worked-up ores sections, the lower part of the chamber is supported by beaten and stained ore, and the stability of the upper part is increased due to the intensive filling of the worked space and reduction of the standing time of the open chamber. The technology provides high stability of the worked out space and allows to reduce ore loss and dilution.
In the supply-demand chain, small deposits (ore deposits with balance reserves of up to 10 tons of gold and placer deposits with reserves of up to 0.5 tons) are the least popular among subsoil users. The reason for the low development of low-volume reserves is that individual exploitation of such geo-resources is low-cost and even unprofitable. Low profitability of involving low-volume stocks in economic turnover is associated with a small volume of products produced, which is not sufficient for recouping the costs of its production.
The solution of the problem of involving technogenic gold-containing resources in economic turnover with obtaining an economic effect will allow increasing the amount of metal delivered to GOKHRAN by 20-30 tons annually for 10-20 years. The existing ready-made infrastructure and preliminary data on gold reserves increase the investment attractiveness of these objects. At the same time, when processing ores of indigenous gold deposits, the main losses of metal with dump tails are associated with its "physically" persistent morph type - small and thin gold which is an urgent task to reduce.
The organizational mechanism for the development of unprofitable objects is to combine into a group for joint processing of deposits with small reserves, for example, man-made placers of gold with available ore reserves of gold. The technology of ores enrichment and gold placers consists in the separation of a gold-containing product from technogenic raw materials by gravitational methods of enrichment at mobile complexes which is further processed using the technology of an existing stationary ore extraction factory.
The use of concentrate gold as a carrier mineral makes it possible to extract 92.63% of gold from the raw material against 87.36 % for individual processing of ores. In this case, the yield of the concentrate directed to cyanidation is reduced from 6.14 to 4.777 %. The reduction in the number cyanided concentrate reduces the operating cost by saving chemical reagents required in the cyanidation of concentrates and disposal of tailings.
The tailings storage facilities for mining and processing enterprises are an unused mineral base for the production of commercial products for the sectors of the economy in the con-text of the systemic crisis of the 90s. The quantity and quality of tailings in the storages of mining enterprises in the North Caucasus is determined by the application of open-cast mining technologies. To justify the possibility of obtaining marketable products from enrichment tailings on a screw lock, a composite sample of enrichment tailings from Mizur factory was studied using a standard method. During the main separation the tails are differentiated by the weight of the fractions. The tails of both fractions differ in the amount of iron oxides that are introduced by iron-containing minerals. Due to the excess of iron oxides and the lack of aluminum oxides and alkaline oxides, tails cannot find unlimited application in industry, and their use is dangerous and economically unprofitable. Comprehensive studies using the existing arsenal of methods have determined that non-metallic tails, after appropriate training according to standard methods, can be used without restrictions on sanitary conditions in the glass industry, construction, paint and varnish and metallurgical industries. The unlimited use of all tailings is prevented by the presence of metals in metal-containing ore fractions. Extraction of metals to a level acceptable by sanitary requirements is ensured by leaching the tailings in activators of the disintegrator type, where the application of high energy violates the energy balance at the molecular level and activates the leaching process. The efficiency of the extraction of metals from tailings is confirmed by studies in the processing of ferruginous quartzite and coal.
An important advantage substantiated by the work of SKGMI researchers is the non-waste technology of mechano-chemical activation of metal leaching from tailings. Utilization of enrichment tailings forms an ecological and economic effect on the cost of the obtained metals, obtaining raw materials for the construction industry and reducing environmental damage.
The development of enrichment tailings disposal technologies helps to restore the potential of mining enterprises lost in the course of reforms for survival in an emerging market.
Purpose. Determination of rational modes and parameters of vibration separator operation on the basis of physical and mechanical properties of components of separated mineral raw materials to ensure high efficiency of vibration separation.
Technique of researches. Selection of rational parameters and estimation of operation efficiency of vibration separator were carried out by means of mathematical simulation of real vibration process. For this purpose, a mechanoreological elastic-viscoplastic model of mineral raw material particles was used. The motion algorithm of the model was presented as a block diagram. Various stages of movement of the particle model along the vibration organ were considered: movement in contact with the vibration organ by sliding, free movement at the flight stage. Based on the obtained mathematical model and presented algorithm, computer research programs were developed.
As a result of the numerical experiment, the mathematical model determined the main parameters and modes of operation of the equipment, providing the required technological characteristics of the process of enrichment or classification of mineral raw materials.
When solving the task of detecting rational operating modes and parameters of the vibration separator, the adjusted parameters of the equipment varied according to the specified plan.
At the same time, the optimization criterion was the angle of divergence of the paths of movement of the separated particles.
Study results and discussion Mathematical model of movement of mineral raw material particles has been developed to study process of movement of mineral raw material particles on working member of vibration separator. In the course of studies to identify rational operating modes and parameters of the vibration separator, ranges and order of variation of parameters according to the experimental plan were determined, and efficiency of separation was evaluated. At the same time optimization criterion is angle of divergence of paths of separated particles motion. Algorithm of mathematical model functioning is developed and presented in the form of logical block diagram including considered conditions and equations of model motion. The logic of its functioning is discussed in detail. Based on the algorithm and mathematical model, research computer programs are developed. They allow to solve the problems of studying the vibration process of interaction of mineral raw materials particles with the vibration organ and optimization of the separator according to the main parameters.
The research object. The proposed article discusses the state of energy resources and the emission of greenhouse gases in the countries of Central Asia. The possibility and prospects of countries for the widespread involvement of alternative energy sources are considered on the example of the intensification of research and applied work on the development of technology for producing hydrogen by the electrolysis of idle discharges of water from reservoirs in the Republic of Tajikistan.
Research objective. Analysis of the fuel and energy resources state of the region of Central Asia, assessment of the potential possibilities of alternative energy sources indicating the need for their widespread use to mitigate climate change and preserve the snow and ice resources of the region.
Methodology research. Extensive use of archival and up-to-date data on potential energy resources in Central Asian countries, assessment of renewable energy resources and their ability to displace organic energy sources and a significant contribution to climate change mitigation and the preservation of snow and ice resources in the region.
Research results. It is shown by analysis the fuel, energy potentials, and greenhouse gas emissions of the countries of the Central Asian region that the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals requires the widespread introduction of alternative energy sources. The technological scheme of hydrogen production as a representative of green energy is presented and its principal applicability in a wide range of industries and, primarily, in providing vehicles with environmentally friendly fuel is shown.
Conclusion. Thus, as a result of the conducted analyzes of the fuel and energy sector state in the countries of Central Asia, their share in the total number of greenhouse gas-factors of climate change has been established on the need to accelerate the production technology of green energy. It has been established that the Central Asian region has all the necessary capabilities for a sharp reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
The enormous hydropower potential in upstream countries and a wide network of agro-industrial industries in the lower reaches creates a favorable condition for the development of the region and its contribution to the achievement of sustain-able development goals. The widespread involvement of hydropower and other types of alternative energy sources (solar, hydrogen) leads to a sharp increase in the energy supply of industries and small enterprises, populations in the foothills and mountain settlements, and the development of farms. To implement such measures, it is necessary to establish an appropriate intergovernmental body and develop legal, economic regulatory standards.
The complex development of mining industry, science and higher education plays a decisive role in the successful development of mining regions. Success in the field of subsoil use is possible only with the training of appropriate specialists with knowledge of modern mining Sciences, and only in this case can real progress in the development of mining production be achieved. Therefore, the achievements of mining Sciences should be made a mandatory part of the educational process with studying existing and promising geotechnologies. Modern problems of effective development of mining education are determined by the gap between modern achievements in science, production and the state of the educational process as a whole. The development of mining operations requires new content of training, the development of mining Sciences and the necessity of combination of various physico-technical and physico-chemical processes for a more comprehensive exploitation of mineral resources requires a more complete implementation in the educational process knowledge of such basic disciplines as physics, chemistry, theoretical and applied mechanics, biochemistry, genetics, microelectronics, and robotics, all require experts of wider profile, with a more profound and universal education. Developing and making mining design decisions requires a risk-oriented approach with deep knowledge of risk theory, mathematical statistics, system modeling, and programming.
An example of the experience of interaction of the gold mining company JSC “UGС” with scientific and educational organizations, the result of which was the formation of a strategy for the integrated development of gold deposits in the Urals at the final stage, the development of the logistics scheme of mines to ensure stability of operation. It is shown that successful development of mining territories is possible only on the basis of coordination of the interests of the owner of the subsoil, subsoil users and the population of mining regions with the coordinated development of higher mining education and science and the leading role of mining companies.
Risk management concept is a good instrument for systematic approach to the problems of the rational land use. Measures for risk reduction could be legislative; organizational and administrative; economic, including insurance; engineering and technical; modelling; monitoring; and informative. Engineering and technical methods are very important for rational land use planning and landslide risk management and reduction. Monitoring system organization and construction are two of the most important methods for natural hazard forecasting, prognosis, and early warning
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)