Although the current situation of the Iran’s land and the dominance of arid and semi-arid conditions cast a doubt on the existence of glacier reign in this land, there is evidence of geomorphological traces of glaciers in different areas of Iran indicating the function of glaciers in these regions.
Therefore, regarding these traces and evidences, the past climatic conditions can be reconstructed. Based on what mentioned above, this study mainly aimed to trace the climatic changes through the glacial traces and evidences on the Hezar Mountain.
Tracing the climatic changes indicates that the temperature of the study area was 6.58 °C colder than that of the current temperature during the period of glacial reign. In addition, the isopluvial map of the Hezar Mountain during the period of glacial reign indicates that the minimum rainfall at that time was 617 mm at the outlet of the basin and the maximum rainfall was 1340 mm at the highest part of the basin. On the other hand, glacier cirques, glacier valleys, and moraines were identified as the most characteristic geomorphological evidence of glaciers in the study area. Finally, laboratory indicators (granulometry), as a complement to glacier evidence, proved the existence of glacial sediments in the Tenguieh Basin. In addition, the permanent snow line was estimated at the height of 3326 meters in the Tenguieh Basin during the glacial reign and based on Porter’s cirque floor height et the height of 3333 m through the Wright method.
The social carrying capacity in tourism means the satisfaction of visitors with a particular recreational space. The social and psychological factors of the recreational space directly affect the visitor’s feelings. The level of satisfaction of visitors of gorge Sucha Bela is related to the difference between the perceived and expected number of visitors in the gorge, which is represented by two subjective levels (expected and perceptual level) of the tourism product. The paper aimed to quantify the social carrying capacity of Sucha Bela gorge in Slovak Paradise. The work methodology was based on primary and secondary data processing with the use of statistical methods. The result is the determination of correlation among real/excepted/acceptable meetings with other visitors and assessing the magnitude of the social capacity of the Sucha Bela gorge.
Utilizing the waste rock from mining activity to make block bricks is an effective solution to solve the environmental problems that they made. By theoretical basis and experiment, this research determined valid rates of waste rock (from wastes of disposal area of Thong Nhat coal mine), fly ash and cement conforming to standard block brick M100 to block brick M140 (according to TCVN 6477: 2011).
The development of polymetallic deposits of North Ossetia-Alania by traditional technologies is considered unprofitable. The intensification and increasing complexity of mining operations contributed to an increase in ore dilution and an increase in the yield of tailings. A significant environmental threat due to the manifestation of metal-induced toxicity actualizes the problem of tailings disposal. Known methods for the extraction of metals from tailings differ in the kinetics of the disclosure of metal ores in apparatuses that implement the physical principles of disintegration. Enrichment processes are modernized using hydrometallurgical and chemical processing, including leaching technologies. A common drawback of the proposed technologies is the formation of secondary metal-containing tailings, which does not solve the problem of waste-free utilization of ore mining and processing products.
The prospects for the involvement of tailings technogenic re-serves are associated with the conversion of mining to reagent leaching technologies in activators, for example, a disintegrator. In multivariate studies, 22% of lead and 76% of zinc in the tailings were recovered from the tailings of the slag dressing of the Sadon ores for one processing cycle in a disintegrator, and by repeated processing the contents were brought to the level of sanitary requirements. Geotechnological methods for producing metals in the region mastered earlier than others.
So, in 1974, at the Kakadur deposit of the Fiagdon group, the first in the world, an attempt was made to apply the technology of leaching the balance reserves of the entire deposit. To extract metals from the lost ores of the Sadon deposits, underground leaching of areas of lost ores with the circulation of solutions through wells from the surface is proposed. An increase in the production capacity of enterprises through the involvement of substandard resources provides profit when rich ores are processed traditionally, and poor and miserable ores are leached. In this case, the through recovery factor may exceed the value of extraction by conventional technology.
All the metals contained in the tailings are extracted into the solution, which, with the improvement of technologies for extracting metals from the solution, will ensure the profitability of the mining industry in the region. The technology has been stocked with tailings for several decades. The reality of metal extraction by leaching the lost ore reserves from tailings of enrichment and metallurgy is proved by many-year full-factor studies. The involvement of substandard metal-containing raw materials in operation provides a comprehensive effect, the main components of which are the improvement of the region, the receipt of valuable marketable products and the solution of social problems.
Researches on the regularities of the natural and technical system’s functioning of the mining and processing complex are becoming more relevant in connection with the task of modernizing production and the economy of Russia as a whole. Due to the significant volume of poorly structured data, it is more difficult to regulate the effective functioning of production processes, social and natural complexes which would ensure the sustainable development of mountain territories.
The purpose of researches. A comprehensive analysis of the application of effective technologies for the extracting a useful component of mining and processing complex for ensure complete mineral mining with the least losses and contamination of various morphological groups of ore bodies.
Study purposes. The desired goal and tasks are solved on the basis comprehensive research problems of the efficiency upgrading of mining complex technical system. For this purpose, a system is being developed for selecting effective technologies in winning areas of mine sites and ore mines under conditions of mountain territories.
Research results. The results of conducted researches allow us to make decisions effectively for the right choice of effective technologies for the mining and processing complex. A feature of this research is that the proposed method can be used in the mineral assets of North Caucasian mountain territories.
Conclusion. Promising problems in the development of mineral deposits include: integrated development of the subsoil, reproduction of resources in the subsoil, maximum extraction of elements in the processing of ore bodies with complex morphology. The use of effective technologies will radically reduce losses and dilution in extraction of mineral resources.
The authors calculated the indicators of losses and dilution for the period of experimental program development, which show the dynamics of changes in these indicators as the system is developed. Research Dynamics Impressions The dynamics of research shows that indicators close to the calculated ones appear only from 2018 as the system is put into full power. At the same time, they are not yet indicative to the end, since none of the sub-levels and the full-height floor haven’t been worked out. Final conclusions about these indicators can only be made after the floor has been fully worked out. In 2019–2020, the system was further developed at the ore mine and was implemented in the design version on the sub-levels of the upper horizons throughout the ore trend.
The dump zinc clinker of the Electrozinc plant contains copper, iron, carbon, precious metals and is a valuable technogenic raw material for the production of these metals. Clinker can be recycled at smelters, such as mine and bubble ovens. Non-ferrous metals are extracted into matte with its subsequent processing. The low productivity of furnaces and the complexity of the use of raw materials significantly reduce the economic performance of the process. Improving the technical and economic indicators of clinker utilization is possible due to its preliminary separation according to magnetic and flotation properties by mechanical enrichment methods. The amount of clinker is enough to organize a small mining enterprise for this purpose. Based on the results of laboratory and semi-industrial studies, a technological scheme for the mechanical separation of clinker into commercial coal and iron concentrates, as well as copper gold-containing industrial product, has been developed. The first is to isolate the coal concentrate by magnetic separation directly in the vicinity of the clinker storage area.
For the processing of the magnetic fraction, it is advisable to use the production facilities of the existing concentration plant. For example, the retrofitting of the Urupsky concentrator with magnetic separators provides the possibility of separating flotation coal concentrate, copper intermediate and iron concentrate according to the existing technological scheme.
The thermophysical properties of technogenic coal concentrate allow its use in the Waelz process. Iron concentrate and copper by-product can be processed at a copper plant with the extraction of copper and precious metals at the level of 95%. Tails from the processing of the metal fraction can be sold to enterprises of the construction industry, for example, as a mineral additive in the production of cement or as fluxing additives in copper smelting.
For the implementation of the project for the disposal of clinker, capital costs associated with the acquisition of mining and transportation equipment, equipment for fine crushing and magnetic separators will be required. Operating expenses are determined on the basis of data from enterprises operating similar equipment, as well as costing of ore processing costs in the conditions of the Urupsky concentrator. Operating transport costs were taken into account, taking into account the logistics adopted in the project. The calculation shows that the sale of marketable products will allow you to get a net discounted income in a period acceptable to the investor.
Introduction. Practical tasks put forward before science the need to develop a comprehensive physical theory of an underground explosion, one of the important stages of which is the formation of a camouflage cavity in soils and rocks.
In this regard, it is relevant to assess the expansion rates of the camouflage cavity due to internal pressure, the time of its expansion to a complete stop of the contact boundary of the cavity with the medium and its final radius.
The aim of the study is to develop an analytical mathematical model of the expansion of a spherical cavity in soils and rocks due to internal pressure.
Research мethod. The physical model of the medium assumed the replacement of the experimental tensile and shear diagrams by linearized diagrams, and to obtain a mathematical model we used the basic principles of the theory of elasticity and plasticity, as well as the model of “plastic gas” under the assumption of incompressibility of the medium. The mathematical model of the expansion of the spherical cavity included three stages: hydrodynamic, plastic deformation of the medium and the propagation of elastic disturbances.
Discussion research results. It is shown that the pressure at the boundary, expanding due to the internal pressure of the spherical cavity, can be determined by the ratio whose coefficients A, B, and C are functions of the parameters of rocks and soils.
The developed model is distinguished from the existing ones by its relative simplicity, logical uniqueness, the ability to carry out calculations according to simple analytical dependencies, taking into account the basic properties of the medium during elastic and plastic deformation with compaction and hardening. At the same time, dividing the process of expansion of the spherical cavity into three consecutive stages makes it necessary to carry out calculations for all stages preceding the considered one.
Conclusion. Based on the idealized diagram of “plastic gas”, a physical model of the behavior of soils and rocks under dynamic loads and a mathematical model of the expansion of a spherical cavity in these media are developed. The dependences for calculating the radial stresses in the medium during the expansion of the camouflage cavity due to internal pressure are obtained and an algorithm for their calculation is developed.
Bioclimatic constituent of natural recreational potential of the territory defines comfortability of perception and welfare of a human. Aim of this work is definition of potential positive and negative impacts of different climatic factors and their dynamics in piedmont areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians, important recreational region of our country. Bioclimatic constituent of natural recreational potential is evaluated from comfortability of climate for healthy human body and life activity point of view. Materials and methods of research. The work is based on the results of modeling of mean daily values of air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity by RCP4.5 scenario (RCP4.5 – Representative Concentration Pathways; pathway of change of greenhouse gases emission concentrations for its average level) from 2021 to 2050 year and data of Climatic Cadastre of Ukraine (1961 –1990) on three stations of piedmont areas of Carpathians. Research results and discussion. There has been fulfilled research of possible bioclimatic potential of the Ukrainian Carpathians and trends of its dynamics till 2050 subject to development of RCP4.5 climate change scenario. Evaluation of bioclimatic peculiarities of this area has been done due to complex indices characterizing thermal state of human: equivalent-effective temperature, indices of severity of climate (Bodman index, coerced temperature, face skin temperature, conditional temperature) and indices of continentality of climate. There has been done analyses of potential anomalies of mean perennial climatic characteristics according to the norm. Conclusion. The complex bioclimatic indices will allow to form new conditions and opportunities for improving quality of life and safety of human. Equivalent-effective temperature in piedmont of the Ukrainian Carpathians in average annually will raise relatively to climatic norm, and in Transcarpathia it will decrease. Though during warm period of the year is mainly expected to be increased in the whole area, which will lead to improvement of recreational conditions and may attract more holiday-makers. Comfortable conditions (moderate warm and warm) here are possible from April to October with maximum in summer season. Values of expected bioclimatic indices in average during winter will stay in the same limits as norm, though their anomalies can be both negative and positive. Thus, in this scenario of climatic changes there is no forecast of substantial deterioration of winter recreational activity conditions. The results of research may be used for developing of strategy and plans for adaptation for climate change on both national and regional levels.
Modern tourism development trends are characterized by the growth of tourist flows, the emergence and development of a wide range of means of transportation, vehicle-to-population ratio and, as a consequence, increased tourist mobility of people. These trends expand the geographical boundaries of travel and make regions, including mountainous, which were not previously visited by tourists, accessible.
The country's transport system, ensuring the accessibility of tourist facilities in mountainous areas, has a positive impact on the economy, standard of living and quality of life of the people living in these regions. At the same time, modern transport infrastructure and intensified transport flows negatively affect the condition of mountain ecosystems, sometimes leading to their complete degradation, which reduces the attractiveness of these areas for tourists and deprives these regions of the possibility of sustainable development in the future.
The work substantiates the necessity and possible directions of ecologisation of the transport component of the tourist product in order to ensure sustainable development of mountainous areas. The development of the global tourism industry is accompanied by the deterioration of the habitat, which is peculiar to not only urban agglomerations, but also of mountainous areas. Growth of vehicle-to-population ratio and passenger traffic, caused by increased tourist mobility, is accompanied by an intensification of negative impacts on various elements of ecosystems. In this regard, the search for ways of ecologisation of the transport component of the tourist product for sustainable development of tourism in mountainous regions is a relevant scientific and technical problem.
The objective of the article is to substantiate the necessity and search for the directions of ecological modernization of the transport component of the tourist product for mountainous areas.
The information base was made up of scientific publications of domestic and foreign authors on the problems of "green" modernisation of the tourism and transport industry as its most important component; data of the Federal and regional state statistics services, analytical materials of national and international environmental organisations. In this paper, the retrospective analysis of the statistical data received from open sources for the five-year period was applied.
The growth of the tourist flow to the Krasnodar Region was accompanied by a corresponding increase in traffic flows and passenger traffic. In 2016, the volume of road transport alone increased to 310.1 million people. Over the past five years, the transport sector has been growing steadily (+275%). Its contribution to the regional tourist product reached 10%.
The level of vehicle ownership in the region is quite high and amounted to 306 vehicles per thousand people in 2016. Insufficient development of public transport and the lack of a restriction system at the regional level has led to the fact that the majority of the informal sector, which accounts for up to 60% of the tourist flow, uses personal vehicles to travel to the sea and ski resorts of the region, which makes it difficult to assess and regulate this segment.
The most important condition for the environmental modernization of transport is the setting of relevant goals and objectives in the strategic documents of regional development, their vertical and horizontal matching with national, regional and sectoral strategies, programmes and plans. Practice shows the lack of coordination between the concepts of transport system development and its ecologisation at the regional level with the national goals and strategic objectives. This leads to aggravation of environmental problems, including reduction of atmospheric air qu
The relationship between the nature of the spring flood and the geological history of the drained territories is studied. The main method of research is system analysis. As it was established, the Upper Kolyma catchment area displays both simi-larities in its physico-geographic environments and differences in its geologic histories. Its left side is related to the Inyali-Debin Synclinorium and its right side is related to the Ayan-Yuryak Anticlinorium. The Permian-Mid Jurassic terrigenous sequences of these structures are similar by their composition and were forming in turbidite conditions. Since the upper Jurassic through the lower Cretaceous, when the Indighirka-Omolon Superterrane and the North Asian Craton were interacting, the synclinorium was subject to intense shifting and collisional pressure impacts, which had caused inner defects in rock-forming minerals, whereas in the territory of the Ayan-Yuryak Anticlinorium the same processes were less important.
The results of geologic events, which proceeded in these territories more than 130 000 000 years ago, were that the processes of hydrolysis of silicate and alumosilicate rocks and their alteration to clay minerals had a greater significance in the Inyali-Debin Synclinorium than in the less active anticlinorium area. So, slopes have their debris and gruss soil cover usually consisting of loam and sandy loam rocks. Hypergenic and tectonic fractures have clay infillings. In the early June, depth of thawing is usually less than 10 cm over valley slopes.
Melt and rain water form slope drainage, with its evaporation value 20-30 % greater than in the right-side catchment area. Within the Ayan-Yuryak Anticlinorium area, the rock weathering products are coarser by their fraction; therefore the thawing depth of frozen layer is everywhere more than 20 cm as soon as at the end of May. The slope run-off of melt and rain water transforms into the subsurface drainage type without any significant evaporation and ground saturation loss. Therefore, the Kolyma right-side tributaries have their maximum flow module 20-30 % in average higher than the left tributaries. The paper as well presents other differences in flow parameters as due to peculiar geologic histories of the left-side and right-side territories. Proceeding from all this said above, we conclude that, in order to predict calculation water maximums in high-water seasons, researchers must take into consideration both physiсo-geographic features and area-specific geologic histories.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)