The main deposits of kimberlite ores located in the regions of Western Yakutia are enriched at the ALROSA diamond extraction factories using a similar technology, in which the maximum completeness of extraction and safety of diamond crystals is ensured by the stages of schemes. The bulk of diamond crystals is extracted in the processes of heavy medium, sticky and foam separation, the effectiveness of which is determined by the properties of diamonds, kimberlite minerals and the media separating them. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies carried out by ICEMR RAS together with the largest universities in Russia, scientific and industrial enterprises of ALROSA. It is shown that the use of combined energy methods of destruction and removal of hydrophilizing formations on diamond crystals provides hydrophobization of their surface in the processes of sticky and foam separation. It has been established that the efficiency and economic indicators of the process of dense medium separation of diamond-containing raw materials are due to the stability of the technological properties of the weighting agent of the ferrosilicon medium and the suspension prepared on its basis. The method for modifying the corrosion resistance of ferrosilicon by nitriding its surface has been substantiated and tested. The proposed method makes it possible to create a protective shell on the surface of the granules, preventing their destruction upon contact with corrosive components of the water-air environment. Semi-industrial tests have established the possibility of increasing the extraction of diamonds into concentrates for sticky and foam separation by 4 and 5.2%, respectively. The results of laboratory tests have confirmed the possibility of reducing the corrosion rate of ferrosilicon by 5-6 times in the process of dense medium separation.
The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of the mutual influence of groundwater flow and results of human activities in the upland and lowland areas of Central Asia. The need for research was determined by the serious consequences of anthropogenic activities, which in recent years have required the inclusion of these tasks in the category of national security problems of the Central Asian States. Such tasks include, first of all, the extensive use of existing water resources in the Syrdarya and Amu Darya river basins, which was reflected in the well – known tragedy of the Aral Sea, the pollution of water resources during peaceful nuclear weapons tests, which negatively affected the state of the environment in East Kazakhstan, in addition-in the irrational use of water resources, including groundwater, on irrigated lands in Central Asia. These and other factors have determined the need to develop capabilities for predicting the state of both the aquatic environment and the influencing factors of human activity themselves. The solution of the problem presented in this article is based on the new fundamental scientific concepts developed by the authors, their own and attracted material of the results and is expressed in the proposed specific solutions.
Floods are considered to be one of the most costly natural hazards in the Lam river basin causing infrastructure damages as well as devastating the affected area and relatively high death toll. So prevention is necessary for shielding lives and properties. The flood management on the Lam River basin has been considering for many years to minimize damages caused by flooding. The flood hazard zoning map is one of the indispensable tools to provide information about hazard and risk levels in a particular area and to perform the necessary preventive and preparedness procedures. The multicriteria decision analysis based on geographic information systems is used to build a flood hazard map of the study area. The analytic hierarchy process is applied to extract the weights of six criteria affecting the areas where are prone to flooding hazards, including rainfall, slope, relative slope length, soil, land cover, and drainage density. The results showed in 91.32 % (20103.83 km2) of the basin located in the moderate hazard zones to very high hazard zones. Accordingly, this study also determined 4 vulnerability levels to agricultural land including low, medium, high, and very high. About 94% of the total area of agricultural land in the basin are classified into moderate to the very high hazard of flood vulnerability. The paper presents a method that allows flood risk areas in the Lam River basin to receive information about flood risks on a smartphone, making them more aware.
Abstract. The article presents the results of research on a comprehensive assessment of techno genic waste deposits located in the North Caucasus region, gives a brief description of the material composition of techno genic raw materials, element-by-element quantitative reserves that are part of the accumulated secondary georesources for their possible utilization, production of non-ferrous metals and raw materials for the manufacture of industrial building materials. The article considers the sanitary and ecological parameters of the functioning of man-made raw materials in complex orographic, meteorological and geographical conditions. The critical aspects of the preservation of techno genic waste deposits in the current anthropogenic conditions are identified. The risk factors for the removal of toxic and harmful geomaterials into the water area with significant harm to the flora and ichthyofaunal are identified. For a deeper assessment of the minerals contained in the extracted ore, a unified state register of techno genic waste deposits should be created, Taking into account the high fragmentation of all the above – mentioned process links at the present time , the owners, taking into account the current sanitary and regulatory requirements, must take adequate measures to ensure the regulatory and environmental requirements in accordance with the current Federal Law “On Production and Consumption Waste”. The need for complex processing of waste from mining and processing industries in the North Caucasus is also dictated by environmental aspects due to the high risk of the occupied
territories (they are located in floodplain terraced areas of mountain rivers) due to the flooding of mountain rivers, including the high vulnerability of resort and recreational and balneological complexes due to the negative impact of these negative sources. The assessment of the useful components contained in the extracted ore is currently not carried out in full, and the accumulated waste from processing non-ferrous metal ores is used in small volumes.
A great number of various factors to a different extent impact iron ore treatment, properties of mineral composition of ore and parameters of technological equipment being some of them. To solve the problem of improving performance of a concentration plant in terms of the concentrate, it is required to elaborate effective scheduled procedures, upgrade technological equipment, develop methods of control over concentration processes considering technological properties of ore fed. There is suggested a method of improving efficiency of magnetic concentration of iron ore under the action of high-intensity ultrasound. There are established dependencies between physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical characteristics of iron ore slurry solids and their behavior in technological flows under controlled ultrasonic vibrations, this enabling simulation modelling of the process and specification of optimal controlling actions. The research object is assessment of characteristics and control of iron ore magnetic concentration on the technological line of the ore concentration plant. The research subject is the cyber-physical system based on using impacts of highintensity ultrasound on slurry solids to assess characteristics of iron ore magnetic concentration. Obtained dependencies and mathematical models of the non-linear spatial process of high-intensity ultrasound propagation in the iron ore slurry enable implementing the method of assessing characteristics of iron ore magnetic concentration and due to this increase efficiency of the mentioned operations. There are suggested methods of calculating intensity of high-intensity ultrasound in a certain point of the measurement area in order to perform forecast displacement of ground ore particles and changes of the fraction composition of slurry solids under the controlled action of high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations. The developed method and the software-engineering complex for its implementation enable restoring a function of distributing ground ore particles by sizes, forecasting results of technological operations and forming controlling actions.
Abstract. The method of outdoor installation of explosive charges is usually used in the destruction of rocks in conditions in which the method of drilling and blasting using borehole or borehole charges is difficult to apply due to objective conditions. The productivity of rock destruction by the outdoor installation of a concentrated charge is very low. This is due to the fact that such an explosion is characterized by a large loss of energy in the environment. The destruction of rocks by an explosion using shaped charges (CW) to destroy the rock is one solution to increase the useful energy of the destruction of the rock compared to charges placed outside. To achieve the optimal effect of destruction of the rock by cumulative charges, it is necessary to, so that for each type of rock, a specific type of shaped charges can be determined with the appropriate performance and efficiency of the use of explosives. The stronger the rock, the more efficient the short-circuit should be, and vice versa. Thus, for effective rock crushing, it is necessary to develop and produce a number of different types of shaped charges. The use of shaped explosive charges allows you to increase the utilization rate of the useful energy of the explosion and increase the destruction zone of the rock. At a fixed mass of the explosive, the destructive effect of the explosive charge placed on the surface of the rock, it depends on the shape of the charge and the geometric parameters of the charge. Shaped charges with an eccentric hemispherical shape have a coefficient of use of the useful energy of the explosion for the destruction of rock, more than 2.4 times compared to conventional concentrated charges of the same mass.
Introduction. The huge energy costs of fine and ultrafine grinding operations have led to numerous studies aimed at developing new devices and methods for producing powdered materials. The first way leads to an increase in specific productivity while maintaining energy consumption at approximately the same level. The second way allows not only to increase the specific productivity, but also to reduce the specific energy consumption, since with a decrease in the exposure time, the body is more easily deformed and destroyed. The grinders in which the intensification of the destruction process is carried out in the first way can include planetary and vibrating mills. The second method of intensification is used in jet and various types of centrifugal mills. It is determined that vertical centrifugal mills are the equipment of a new type that can effectively perform grinding operations at high technological indicators and low energy consumption. The purpose of the research. Development of measures for obtaining a finely dispersed product by destroying mineral raw materials in vertical centrifugal mills by mechanical means. Research methodology. The paper uses a comprehensive research method: analysis of the state of grinding equipment according to literary and patent sources; development of mathematical models of the movement of bulk material in the working space of a vertical centrifugal mill based on the Navie-Stokes equations; computer modeling of the movement of the crushed material using the OpenFOAM package for solving hydrodynamic equations; a solver program was created to perform calculations, implementing the SIMPLER algorithm and using the MRF model; laboratory experiments; granulometric method for the analysis of grinding products; fractional analysis of crushed material with a grain size of 0.08 mm using an X-ray analytical centrifuge ВrооkhаvеnBI-ХDС. The development of measures for the effective evacuation of the crushed product from the working space of a centrifugal mill was evaluated by comparative tests of mills using various design solutions. Research results and discussion 1. It is established that vertical centrifugal mills are the devices of a new type capable of effectively performing grinding operations at high technological indicators and low energy consumption. 2. A mathematical model of the movement of bulk material in the working space of a vertical centrifugal mill has been developed based on the Navier-Stokes equations, which allows determining the speed and direction of movement of material layers at any point in the working space, the energy costs for their movement, the influence of the height of the material column on the nature of its movement in the space above the rotor. 3. The directions of increasing the efficiency of grinding mineral raw materials in a vertical centrifugal mill are determined by reducing the number of radial ribs installed in the cavity of the mill rotor; making cutouts in the radial ribs of the rotor, in the area near the rotor hub; installing coaxial rings in the working space of the mill above the rotor. 4. A method of effective evacuation of the crushed product from the mill body by installing additional screening surfaces in the peripheral part of the working space of the mill has been developed. 5. For the first time, the distribution of the granulometric composition of fine and medium - dispersed crushed product obtained as a result of processing lump dolomite in a centrifugal mill was obtained. It was found that particles with a size class of -0.08 + 0.03 mm are absent in the output of the crushed product from the mill. Conclusions. A mass-produced vertical centrifugal mill will find its effective application at enterprises of the Russian Federation for the preparation of powdered materials and will allow to obtain a significant effect by r
Abstract. Introduction. The result of many years research of the university scientific community in the field of topical issues of complex processing of natural and man-made mineral raw materials was the creation of a scientific school “Dynamics of working bodies of machines and equipment for fine grinding of rocks” under the leadership of Professor Dmitrak Yu. V. Research results. The dynamic parameters of the grinding bodies are determined directly in the mill grinding chamber which ensure the contactless transmission of information from the grinding ball to the receiving device. A new method of materials self-grinding and the design of a vertical centrifugal mill based on it has been developed. The mill tests during the grinding waste from the production of ceramic products (the battle of insulators, crushed mullite bricks) showed high efficiency and prospects. The tests of a laboratory vibrating mill with one grinding chamber and a rotor diameter of 250 mm for grinding dolomite were carried out. The experiments have shown the possibility of creating vibrating mills for solid materials grinding. In the development of the work of I. N. Plaksin on the flotation of ores with the jet movement of products in the scheme tested by him together with employees in the conditions of the Tekeli processing plant, the modes of joint processing of ores and gold placers were developed at the NCIMM (GTU). It was established that with the unprofitable individual development of alluvial gold mining waste, a positive economic effect can be obtained through their joint processing with ore gold reserves by fine-tuning the concentrate extracted from man-made raw materials by gravitational enrichment methods at a stationary processing plant. It is proved that the addition of the gravitational technology of alluvial gold extraction by flotation methods provides an increase in annual gold production by ~38 % due to the additional extraction of “resistant” forms of gold for gravitational methods. It has been proved in laboratory conditions that the waste slag of the Copper plant of “Ltd. MMP Norilsk Nickel” can be disposed of by joint processing with the ore of current production. It is established that the technology development using metal leaching is promising for the development of Sadonsky plant deposits.
The article provides an overview of different type of water settlement treatment systems in the open cast extractives industry and provides descriptions of the potential hazards from fine particles and suspended solid pollution as a result of mining operations, concentration and process waste management which determines that a lack of mine process utilization leads to fines accumulations in the working areas. Several solutions and alternative means are offered for utilization and re-use of settled material, consisting of fines/dust/silt components within various industries and agricultural enterprises, such as manufacturing artificial soil and culture media for the use as bio-filtration. The article also explores the potential technical, economical and legal challenges identified as well as the issues of the use of mining fines commercial utilization including taxation regimes, insufficient product specification and necessity for additional treatment of the material.
Aim. The basis for the optimal development of mountain regions is the regulation of anthropogenic impact on natural land-scapes. The purpose of the study is to assess the state of natural landscapes of the highlands of the Central Caucasus and substantiate effective mechanisms that regulate economic activity in territories adjacent to nature conservation ones. On the example of the Karasu river valley, which is representative of the Northern macro slope of the Greater Caucasus, analyzes the features of anthropogenic impact in the form of recreation, tourism and grazing.
Research methods. The key method of this research is the making of maps showing the landscape structure of the area under consideration, the spatial features of the location of exogenous processes and types of nature management.
Using the above maps, the features of the geological and geomorphological basis and landscape structure of the Karasu river valley were identified, the features of modern nature management were characterized, the consequences of anthropogenic impact on natural landscapes were assessed, and the management approach were formulated to reduce the negative impact on the nature of mountain areas.
To assess the land cover, high-resolution satellite images were used, according to which the difference vegetation in-dex was calculated, which most clearly distinguishes the main types of the cover.
Results. Within the boundaries of the study area, the role of shrub-meadow vegetation of the subalpine zone, which performs a water-retaining function, is especially significant. The destruction of land cover due to overgrazing, the construction of capital facilities, and other types of economic activity without the necessary protective engineering and land reclamation measures favors the development of destructive exogenous processes. The border of the reserved and non-reserved territories is smooth (not sharp).
Conclusions. The gradual transition from landscapes with a reserved regime to landscapes with different uses requires a revision of the concept of nature protection in the direction of developing measures on the principle of “protection in use.” Particular attention should be paid to the conservation of sub-alpine meadows, alpine meadows and wastelands, bog complexes, which have a high species diversity, the presence of endemic species and are small in area. The main environmental measures for these communities are state monitoring and the maximum possible reduction in anthropogenic impact.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)