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MONITORING LAND USE CHANGE PROCESSES IN KERMAN BASED ON MARKOV MODEL AND SATELLITE DATA

Afsane Shahriari, Ali Asghar Abdollahi, Ali Mehrabi, Mostafa Khabazi, Reza Derakhshani

Understanding the reasons for land use change over time is necessary for optimal planning and management of urban areas. Identification of alterations and the patterns they reflect allows prediction of future changes, and appropriate planning can then be undertaken. In the last two decades, the city of Kerman, Iran, has gone through several identifiable changes, including significant increases in its urban population and growth of its urban residential areas. As a result of population increase, provision for Kerman’s human needs, which requires extensive use of natural resources, will undoubtedly increase the demand for land resources, both in agricultural and non-agricultural sections. Due to the fact that development without planning leads to inappropriate use of lands and resources, the present study was set to contribute in planning through an analysis of land use changes in various areas of Kerman city between 1989 and 2017, and to predict probable changes during the next ten years through performing visible and near infrared data of Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI. Classification of land use classes, and analysis of methods and their changes, was carried out by ENVI 5.1 and IDRISI 17 software. Maximum likelihood method was selected for Image classification. Classified images were applied as input for Land Change Modeler (LCM). Results indicated that by 2017, LCM had approximately doubled, bare surface had decreased, and vegetation had significantly increased. Furthermore, the results of Cellular Automata (CA) Markov method in 2017 showed that according to the predictions the area of bare surface and vegetation have respectively decreased by 118 and 219 hectares and the area of builtup land had not changed significantly when compared with the base year 2017. This research is anticipated to help local managers better view on the addressed land use system for improved land use management strategies upon urban expansion balance.

Number of views: 331

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT AREAS ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES IN PRIOL’KHONIE AND ITS CONNECTION WITH WATER EROSION

V. A. Karavaev, M. J. Opekunova, S. V. Solodiankina, Yu. V. Vanteeva

Aim. Over the past decades, the recreational load in Priol’khonie has increased significantly, numerous new rec-reation centers have been built, which led to the expansion of the road network – since 1982, it has increased here by almost 13 times. Its growth contributed to the intensification of water erosion and deflation. In this regard, it is important to determine the dependencies of the development and activation of linear erosion on the intensity of the recreation impact of the Priol’khonie. Two study areas are selected for analysis that clearly differed in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance - highly developed, adjacent to Bazarnaya Bay and poorly de-veloped, which is located on the shore of Tutai Bay.
Research methods. The disturbance of the territory are estimated by the length of the roads, the density of the road network, the number, and area of housing, including, separately, intended for the reception of tourists. To obtain quantitative data, high-resolution space images of free access are used. During the fieldwork, the landscape descriptions of test plots in different landforms, accounting and description of linear erosion forms, installation of benchmarks  were made, also orthophoto maps were compiled using the the quadrocopter survey.
Research results. The area of the Tutay Bay is one and a half times larger than that of the Bazarnaya Bay and, with equal length of roads, the density of road network on the first study area out to be one and a half times lower than on the second. The area occupied by recreation facilities on TutaiBay is 1.75 times less than in the BazarnayaBay; the building density is three times lower.
Conclusions. The study showed that the main reason for the development of linear erosion in the Priol'khonie is the combination of natural geological and morphological conditions (thin loose deposits and light-textured soil with a shortened profile) with anthropogenic effects (spontaneous development of the road network) and, as a result, disturbance and destruction of the vegetation cover. In this case, the vegetation cover is a critical factor, since when it is disturbed in conditions of heavy rainfall, erosion processes intensify very quickly, as observations have shown in Tutai Bay.

Number of views: 245

LANDSCAPE DESIGN AND AESTHETICS OF HIGHWAYS IN MOUNTAINOUS CONDITIONS

A. L. Kortiev, C. D. Vaneev, M. M. Dryaev

Introduction. Roads, as large linear engineering structures in mountainous conditions must meet aesthetic requirements. The mountain landscape is created by nature and the road, as an anthropogenic element is wedged into this natural gift, sometimes negatively affecting the surrounding mountain landscape. In order to preserve for future generations the aesthetic properties of picturesqueness and integrity of the mountain landscape, it is necessary to rationally place the road as a linear transport structure, taking into account the best disclosure of the features of the mountain landscape. Purpose of research. Development of landscape design and aesthetic appearance of roads in mountainous conditions. Method of research. The research was based on the works of domestic and foreign scientists, who reveal the problems of landscape design of roads in mountain conditions, analysis and monitoring of construction of mountain roads in the conditions of RSO-Alania and RSO. Conclusion 1. Compliance with aesthetic and design requirements for road design conditions increases safe driving conditions and, consequently, reduces accidents and injuries. 2. The lack of scientific and technical support in the design, construction and operation of the mountain road leads to a weakening of requirements for aesthetics and design, which negatively affects the development of tourism and the economy of the region as a whole.

Number of views: 303

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATE OF THE LONG-TERM FLUCTUATIONS OF THE RIVER MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES OF ARMENIA AND UKRAINE UNDER OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

V. G. Margaryan, V. A. Ovcharuk, M. V. Goptsiy, G. A. Borovskaia

The purpose of this work to study, to analyze and identify the patterns of long-term fluctuations of maximum water flow at the rivers of Armenia mountain areas and Ukraine in the context of global climate change, perform a comparative analysis. To achieve this goal, the results of actual observations of Armhydromet and Ukrainian HMC, available literature sources were collected, processed and analyzed.
As a result of the analysis of the dates of observation and the values of the maximum runoff, it can be noted that in the territories under consideration the genesis of the annual maximum discharge is different. For the mountain rivers of Armenia, the highest values of raising the level and discharge of water are typical during the spring flood, while for the rivers of the Ukrainian Carpathians its are observed during the passage of summer and winter floods. The impact of climate change on the dynamics of the maximum annual rivers flow is also not clear; on the territory of Armenia, the tendency of decreasing values of the maximum flow prevails,  in Ukraine while negative  and positive trends are observed practically equally. The obtained results open up prospects for further joint research, in particular, on the development of regional methods for calculating the maximum runoff of ungauged rivers.
Findings.• Studying the laws of the formation of maximum river flow in the context of regional and global climate changes is an urgent task of modern geographic science; • Analysis of data on annual runoff maxima showed that the territory of Armenia is most characterized by the dates of passage of the maxima in the spring-summer period, while in the Ukrainian Carpathians, floods can occur throughout the calendar year; • Temporary trends during multi-year maximum water flow rates are not straightforward. Negative trends prevail in the territory of Armenia, negative and positive trends are equally characteristic for the rivers of the Ukrainian Carpathians; • The presence of stable links between annual maximums and river catchment areas shows the possibility of developing a methodology for determining the maximum costs of unexplored rivers in Armenia and the Ukrainian Carpathians.

Number of views: 267

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SOILS SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS AND THE CAUCASUS TO POLLUTION WITH LEAD, CHROMIUM, COPPER, NICKEL AND OIL

D. I. Moshenko, A. A. Kuzina, S. I. Kolesnikov

Mountain and foothill black soils of the Caucasus are rare and even unique soils. They have special properties that distinguish them from plain black soils, have water, temperature and air regimes favorable for crop production and are actively used in agriculture. At the same time, mountain soils and ecosystems are particularly vulnerable. Significant differences in the ecological and genetic characteristics of mountain and foothill black soils from plain analogues necessitate an independent assessment of their resistance to chemical pollution and the development of regional maximum permissible concentrations (rPDK) of pollutants in these soils. Heavy metals are the priority pollutants polluting mountain and foothill soils of the Caucasus (TM) and oil.
HM are the most dangerous environmental pollutants due to their high toxicity and ability to accumulate in the environment. Sources of HM pollution of mountain and piedmont soils of the Caucasus are their deposits, motor vehicle emissions, thermal power plants, waste water, landfills, etc.
Oil and oil products are highly toxic, highly polluted, and highly migratory. Sources of soil pollution by oil and oil products are the development and operation of oil fields, ruptures of oil pipelines, unauthorized tapping into oil pipelines, gas stations, boiler houses, etc.
The aim of the study is to compare the stability of flat and mountain black soils of the Central Caucasus and the Caucasus to contamination with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil; the establishment of indicative values of the maximum permissible content of HM and oil for the development of regional maximum permissible concentration.
Research methods. Tthe objects of study were the types and subtypes of soils: black soils ordinary (Stavropol territory, Kochubeevskiy area, s. Kochubeevskoe), leached black soils (Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the Habezsky district, the village of Ali-Berdukovskiy), ashed black soils (Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the Habezsky district, the village of Kosh-Khabl). Soil contamination was simulated in laboratory conditions. This study investigated the effects of heavy metals (HM): lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and oil. HM was applied to the soil in the amount of 1, 10, 100 MPC (100, 1000 and 10,000 mg/kg, respectively), oil – in the amount of 1, 5, 10% of the soil mass. HM was introduced into the soil in oxide form: CrO3, CuO, NiO, PbO. Oil pollution was produced in moist soil. Further, contaminated soil samples were placed in vegetation vessels at a temperature of 20-22°C, with the maintenance of soil moisture by weight at 25%. 
Biological parameters in soils, such as determination of the activity of oxidoreductases (catalase and dehydrogenase), calculation of the total number of bacteria, cellulolytic activity of the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, phytotoxic properties of soils and other indicators, were investigated according to conventional methods. In order to combine a large number of studied soil parameters, an integral indicator of the biological state of the soil was developed and implemented.
Research result. Pollution of black soils of the Central Caucasus and the Caucasus with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil, as a rule, leads to a decrease in the values of all biological indicators: the number of bacteria, the activity of soil enzymes, the deterioration of plant growth and development. The degree of decline in biological indicators of soil condition depends on the genetic properties of the soil, the nature and concentration of the pollutant. Both foothill and mountain black soils of the Caucasus have shown relatively high resistance to pollution by heavy metals and oil. According to the degree of resistance to pollution with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil black soils of the Central Caucasus and the Caucasu

Number of views: 269

SYSTEM APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SUPPORT FOR AVALANCHE ZONING GIS BASED ON THE STRESS- STRAIN STATE OF SNOW ON THE SLOPES OF MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES

K. V. Khalkechev

Analysis of existing theoretical and experimental studies has shown that the mathematical basis of existing geographic information systems is not able to solve the problem of identifying avalanche hazard zones for mountainous areas. 
To solve this problem, in presented research paper it has been developed the mathematical basis for the geographic information system of avalanche zoning in mountainous areas. This basis is formed on a mathematical model of the freshly fallen snow stress-strain state on the slopes of mountainous territories. During the development of the model, the follow-ing assumptions were made: freshly fallen snow is heterogeneous; structural components of snow (ice crystals, snow pellets and hoarfrost) are anisotropic; deformations are elastic; structural components interact with each other through an elastic field; the elastic properties of the structural components and the external stress field are considered known from the experiment; unknown is the stress field in the structural components. Texture components are snowflakes. In some cases, they are adjacent to each other, in others – are at a distance from each other. To develop this model, a systematic approach is used. Freshly fallen snow is divided into two nested subsystems of structural and texture levels. The mathematical model responsible for the structural level of freshly fallen snow is reduced to a system of equations in tensor values. This system includes: the equilibrium equation; Hooke's law in general tensor form, that written relative to local and average values; dependence between deformations and displacements. A complex self-consistent field method is used to solve this system of equations. 
As a result, final expressions for calculating stress tensors and effective elastic modules are obtained. The main difference of the proposed solution method is the simultaneous consideration of the own field and the field induced by other in homogeneities. The mathematical model responsible for the texture level also reduces to a system of equations in tensor form. The solution of this system of equations allows one to obtain final expressions for calculating the effective elastic compliance tensor and the effective elastic modulus tensor. All obtained solutions allow carrying out avalanche zoning in mountain territories on the basis of stressed-strain condition.

Number of views: 251

RESEARCH OF ECO GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITION OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS OF NORTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF GREATER CAUCASUS WITH USE GIS-TECHNOLOGIES

N. Sh. Eldarov

Introduction. Widely distributed on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the mountain-forest belt is formed under the influence of various factors. At the same time, the territory is constantly exposed to various anthropogenic factors. A large number of settlements, household facilities are located here and their number is growing every day. 
Materials and research methods. For a qualitative study of exodynamic processes in the mountain-forest belt of the north-eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus, the method of decoding space images obtained using a spectrodiometer (MODIS) installed on NASA satellites was used. At the same time, the results obtained in the period of previous studies and, inter alia, by other authors were taken into account. The work also used field research data, assessment methods based on GIS technologies, data from aerological and ground-based meteorological stations in the research area. In order to assess the geoecological situation on the basis of primary information, the choice of representative (characteristic) forests with varying degrees of exposure to anthropogenic impact was of great importance. 
Research results. It was determined that mountain forests undergo transformation under the influence of various factors, and an analysis of these causes plays a large role in optimizing the use of forests. Thus, deforestation leads to drying out of water sources and intensification of soil erosion on the slopes. 
Some areas with sparse forest cover, steep slopes and inconvenient for cutting, shrubby areas are used for grazing. In steep areas where the soil cover is protected only by shrubs, soil with a disturbed structure undergoes erosion with high speed. Within the forest belt, such sites are widespread in the Tahirjal river basins in the Gusar district, and in the Shabran region in the Gilgilchay and Atachay river basins. Deciphering aerial photographs revealed a number of destructive landslides in the research area, especially in the Velvelichay river basin. In this case, a transition from one process to another is observed. Area landslides are characterized mainly by surface deposits. 
Conclusion. We can come to the conclusion that it is advisable to carry out construction work outside the territories of active manifestation of exogenous relief-forming processes. At the same time, it should be noted that the indices of landscape homogeneity of landslide massifs indicate the formation of a complex landscape structure and make it possible to determine the direction of environmental measures.

Number of views: 266

RESEARCH OF RESONANCE PHENOMENA IN FROZEN ROCKS WITH VARIOUS SPEEDS OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES USING RELAY TYPE WAVES

V. N. Krynkina, A. V. Kuzina

When constructing vertical shaft shafts in unstable flooded rocks at significant depths, it is impossible to do without blasting to develop rocks in the face. However, blasting often leads to emergency damage to freezing columns. In this case, there is a pattern that the destruction occurs in the zones of contact of the rock layers, and in the homogeneous massif there is no destruction. Therefore, the aim of the work is to determine the technological conditions of penetration under which destruction occurs and to determine the mechanism of column destruction.
To solve the problem posed in the article, a set of research methods was applied: processing statistical data on the causes of emergencies, stating the problem of the development of wave processes during blasting in a layered array, proving the effect of an increase in energy density in the boundary layer of rocks with different acoustic impedances.
Based on the studies and evidence, an explanation of the mechanism of column destruction in the contact zone of different-speed rocks is proposed. A method for calculating the pressure at the front of an explosion shock wave is proposed, which destroys a freezing column in a well in the contact zone of different-velocity rocks.
Conclusion: the compression effect of a frozen drilling fluid located in the gap between the rock wall of the well and the freezing pipe is revealed, the further mechanism of compression and flattening of the freezing pipe with a dent is explained.

Number of views: 210

SUBSTANTIATION PARAMETERS OF DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR UNDERWORKED DISSEMINATED ORES

O. Z. Gabaraev , N. G. Valiev, Y. A. Majstrov, I. A. Zasseev

The stress-strain state of the rock and massif was assessed from the consolidating stowing by the finite element method. Studies have shown that an increase in the underworking span leads to an increase in stresses in the previously filled space.  In the central part of the block, in the area where  fractured rocks  transit to solid, increased stresses are confined with sy ≥ (2÷2,5)γН, then the stresses decrease to an average level.  It was revealed that when using continuous chamber development systems, a rectangular prism is formed in the edge part of the stowing array, the lateral face of which is an outcrop of the stowing in the treatment mine, the stability of which is determined by the condition of non-destruction of the prism in the stowing array. A new experimental method has been developed for calculating the normative strength of the filling mass, taking into account the influence of lateral deformation restrictions and hardening of the filling mass during volumetric unequal compression, which allows increasing the measurement accuracy. It has been established that with the developed technology of excavation of worked-up ores sections, the lower part of the chamber is supported by beaten and stained ore, and the stability of the upper part is increased due to the intensive filling of the worked space and reduction of the standing time of the open chamber. The technology provides high stability of the worked out space and allows to reduce ore loss and dilution. 

Number of views: 259

ORGANIZATIONAL MECHANISM AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF PLACER GOLD MINING WASTE

S. I. Evdokimov, T. E. Gerasimenko, Y. V. Dmitrak, K. K. Baymatov

In the supply-demand chain, small deposits (ore deposits with balance reserves of up to 10 tons of gold and placer deposits with reserves of up to 0.5 tons) are the least popular among subsoil users. The reason for the low development of low-volume reserves is that individual exploitation of such geo-resources is low-cost and even unprofitable. Low profitability of involving low-volume stocks in economic turnover is associated with a small volume of products produced, which is not sufficient for recouping the costs of its production.
The solution of the problem of involving technogenic gold-containing resources in economic turnover with obtaining an economic effect will allow increasing the amount of metal delivered to GOKHRAN by 20-30 tons annually for 10-20 years. The existing ready-made infrastructure and preliminary data on gold reserves increase the investment attractiveness of these objects. At the same time, when processing ores of indigenous gold deposits, the main losses of metal with dump tails are associated with its "physically" persistent morph type - small and thin gold which is an urgent task to reduce.
The organizational mechanism for the development of unprofitable objects is to combine into a group for joint processing of deposits with small reserves, for example, man-made placers of gold with available ore reserves of gold. The technology of ores enrichment and gold placers consists in the separation of a gold-containing product from technogenic raw materials by gravitational methods of enrichment at mobile complexes  which is further processed using the technology of an existing stationary ore extraction factory.
The use of concentrate gold as a carrier mineral makes it possible to extract 92.63% of gold from the raw material against 87.36 % for individual processing of ores. In this case, the yield of the concentrate directed to cyanidation is reduced from 6.14 to 4.777 %. The reduction in the number cyanided concentrate reduces the operating cost by saving chemical reagents required in the cyanidation of concentrates and disposal of tailings.

Number of views: 271
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)