The purpose of this study is predicting and modeling of future changes in the Rafsanjan area, using remote sensing and GIS. The multispectral satellite data obtained from Landsat 5 (TM), 7 (ETM+) and 8 (OLI) for the years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2016, were used respectively. The supervised classification technique was applied to multitemporal Landsat images. Rafsanjan city was classified into four major LU classes including urban areas, pistachio gardens, bare-land, and salt. Change detection analysis was performed to compare the quantities of land use class variation between time intervals. The results revealed both increase and decrease of the different LU classes from 1986 to 2016. Generally, the conclusions indicate that during the study period, Urban areas and pistachio gardens have increased by 6.89% (18.47 km2) and 12.76% (34.18 km2) while bare-land and salt have decreased by 13.43% (35.97 km2) and 9.96% (26.68 km2), respectively. In order to predict the future land use changes map, we used the Land change modeler tools of IDRISI software. Consequently, the predicted land use map of 2022 was prepared based on the trend of 30 years of land use changes and effective variables.
The article presents the principles of geo-ecological monitoring developed by the authors. The complex geoecological approach allows to estimate transformation of landscapes under the influence of dangerous natural processes taking into account the anthropogenic component. Сartographic method is the main method in monitoring. In addition, the study of photographs and multispectral space images is carried out in the MultiSpec Program is carried out in order to identify areas of landscapes with different degrees of transformation of the dangerous processes. As a result, the authors identify three stages of monitoring. At the same time, methods and techniques of monitoring are defined for each stage. Тhe principles of territorial division developed for mapping and zoning of dangerous processes: the creation of the so-called hydrograph-geomorphological framework. A number of classifications have been compiled to assess the vulnerability of the territory to dangerous processes in their inventory: dangerous natural processes, conditions and factors of their formation, types of land use. The parameters for assessing the impact of dangerous processes on individual components of the landscape (terrain, vegetation, soil) are presented for passportization of monitoring objects. At the same time, it is sites of formation of dangerous processes act as objects. The criteria of distribution of the main units of formation of processes on priority and frequency of inspection, and also classes of danger of economic objects in a zone of action of these processes are given for creation of a monitoring network and ranking of sites. In the future, this approach allows to develop measures for prevention, control and protection from dangerous processes. At the same time, the area assessment of the territory's exposure to the dangerous process can be carried out on the basis of classifications of conditions and factors of formation of processes, as well as the principles of territorial division. This assessment allows the removal of part of the territory with a high degree of danger from use in its development. Moreover, a number of economic activities that lead to the activation of processes may be prohibited in the further development of the already developed territory. The results of the passportization and ranking of monitoring objects allow you to choose the optimal variant of the control measures with dangerous processes and to reduce their impact on the landscape to an acceptable minimum. The territory acquires the status of potentially safe with this geoecological approach.
Features of the torrential processes happening on the territory of Greater Caucasus are investigated. A brief description of the geomorphologic structure of the Greater Caucasus is given. It was established that the combination of favorable morph-tectonic, geo-morphological, climatic, litho-logical and other conditions for the passing of gravitational-fluvial processes created the prerequisites for the dominance of processes such as mudflows, which are often repeated and lead to catastrophic consequences. From the analysis of the data on the mudflow-forming precipitation, it is established that the mudflows on the territory of the republic are formed with precipitation in the amount of 20 mm and more per day. The extreme values of mudflow-forming rains on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus are 20–188 mm, but in the region of the north–eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus and Gobustan 20–132 mm. To estimate the synoptic situations leading to the formation of mudflows, the classification of atmospheric circulation types according to Dzerdzeevsky B.L. was also used. It was established that the mudflows in Azerbaijan are mainly formed under the subtype 12a (subtype of the northern meridional circulation) and 13l (the subtype of the southern meridional circulation, which prevails in the summer). As a result, based on the interpretation of aerospace images (ASI), a map-scheme of the mudflow hazard was drawn up on the 5-point scale within the Azerbaijani part of the Greater Caucasus, where zones with a high (once in 2–3 years, 1 strong mudflow are possible) — V, with an average (once in 3–5 years, 1 strong mudflow is possible) — IV, with a weak (once in 5–10 years, 1 strong mudflow is possible) — III, with a potential mudflow hazard — II and where no mudflow processes are observed — I.
The purpose of the study is to prove the necessity and possibility of extracting metals from coal tailings during the recultivation of the coal mines surface. It can be achieved by creating a technological process and a complex of equipment for extracting metals from waste to the level of sanitary requirements. Research methods include the analysis of the mechanism of influence of waste products on the ecosystems of the environment and technological schemes of enrichment and extraction of target chemical elements during the reclamation of dumps. Results. The problem of complex use of coal wastes is formulated. Differentiated by regions and deposits of the region, the properties of coal-containing tailings of the beneficiation were investigated and systematized, as a basis for their utilization during the mine surface recultivation. The typification of burned rocks according to their function in tailings storages is proposed. The mechanism of the impact of waste dump products on the ecosystem of the environment is described. Differentiated by consequences and factors of influence of waste dumps on the environment are ranked. It is shown that wastes from the enrichment of coal, ash, and slags from coal-fired power plants can be used for industrial production of products and materials. Noted the requirement for the use of coal tailings only after the extraction of metals from them to the MPC standards. The quantitative value of the content of chemical elements in the dumps of coal mines is given. Identified technical solutions for the rehabilitation of the mine surface. The role of tailing dumps in the creation of a new, almost unlimited mineral and raw material base for the production of metals using new technological schemes for enrichment and extraction of chemical elements is shown. Conclusion. Traditional technologies for the extraction of metals do not solve the problem of wastelessness, since metallic impurities in coals are the product of natural leaching of ores enclosed in mineral matrices, and can only be extracted by applying high energy during innovative leaching processes.
The study of interregional integration problems is an actual national economic task for any country. The economic, technological, resource, financial, informational, and other types of the interaction between two or more regional actors determine the interregional integration. Many works of both foreign and Russian authors are devoted to the study of various aspects of interregional integration. But these work spaid little attention to the development of the research methods of the interregional integration as a complex system. This is necessary to substantiate management decisions that contribute to the effective integration. The purpose of the research was to develop a cognitive tool consisting of models, methods, software that allows to simulate the structure and behavior of a complex system. The task of this article was to present the developed cognitive tool, which complements the existing cognitive modeling schemes of the complex systems with fuzzy data processing methods, the calculation of the integral indicator of the interregional integration efficiency, the risk assessment of integration processes. Number of results of imitational cognitive modeling of interregional economic integration were present. The study was conducted on the information concerning the interregional relations in the Southern Russia. A brief description of the basic elements of the theory of cognitive modeling of complex systems, a detailed diagram of the stages of cognitive modeling of the interregional economic integration, an example of a cognitive model, examples of analysis of various properties of the system, and scenarios of situations on this model were presented in this article. The results of the computational experiment to determine the stability, allocation of paths and cycles of the model, pulse simulation scenarios are illustrated. Comparison of all the results of a computational experiment and their correlation with information on the interregional relations allows one to speak about the fact that the model data do not contradict the real data. So, the use of the cognitive tools allows one to increase the validity and consistency of management decisions aimed at ensuring the effective functioning of the system. These studies belong to the direction of "Artificial Intelligence" in the composition of the cognitive sciences and are intended for use in the creation of the intelligent decision support systems.
The results of comparative tests of the regrinding mill DR-500, the ball mill MShT 2700x3600 and the core mill MS 300x200operation with the regrinding of the sands of copper-pyrite middling’s under the conditions of the Urup mining and processing plant are presented. As a result of the tests, the relative grindability of copper-pyrite middling was established in the grinding regimen DR-500 according to the calculated grade, -0,074 mm = 0,86, and according to the calculated grade.-0.2 mm = 0.90. The hypothesis about the selective mechanism of the material destruction along the planes of the mineral fusion with the vein minerals of the host rock was confirmed. As a result of the comparative tests of the regrinding mill DR-500 and the core mill MS 300x200, the data were obtained for the extraction of copper into the concentrate: the core mill was 85.1%; 2,614 and grinding mill 89,67%; 2.403. The mineralogical study of the polished sections showed that the grains of the useful mineral when grinding in the mill for regrinding DR-500 are larger and better disclosed than when grinding in the rod mill MS 300x200. The comparative tests of the regrinding mill DR-500 and the MSC 2700x3600 mill in the closed cycle with hydrocyclone showed that the most effective circulation load of 207% for the DR-500 mill is achieved with water consumption of 1.46 t / h. In this case, the specific productivity of class, -0.074 mm and the content of this class in the grinding product have the maximum value. It was revealed that in order to obtain more fine grinding of ore in the DR-500 mill it is desirable to use a closed grinding cycle with classifying devices.
One of the basic industries development aspects is to increase the completeness of minerals extraction from the subsoil in the extraction of coal from thin and ultrathin layers. At the same time, the creation of modern efficient mining equipment for the development of lowpower coal seams is becoming one of the most important problems of coal production. The solution to this problem is possible by combining plow and combine technology with the differentiation of operating parameters of the excavators. In the present work, the idea of improving the efficiency of the dredging machine based on the use of technology of coal extraction in lava by vibration. The stages of the research included the development of a mathematical model of the functioning of the working body of the machine and determine the energy intensity of the destruction of rocks. It was found that the reduction in the specific energy intensity of the process of separation of minerals from the face can be achieved through the use of units that combine the advantages of treatment combines and plow plants. It is determined that the condition for the effective destruction of the coal mass is a mode of operation when the trajectory of the cleaver is not ahead of the path of the cutter. Working and dynamic parameters of the process and measurement of the load on the Executive body were determined at the experimental stand simulating the vibration effect on the array: the total power spent on the rock separation is in parabolic dependence on the feed rate of the excavation machine, and the effect of applying vibration effects on the destroyed face begins to affect significantly at a feed rate of more than 10 m / min; specific energy consumption for the separation of the whole are in quadratic dependence on the value of the ratio of the width of the whole to its height. The parameters of the working body are taken on the basis of the condition of ensuring a given performance at optimal grade and minimum energy consumption of destruction; vibration cutting of the working body of the dredging machine is effective if the oscillation amplitude of the working tool is greater than the maximum chip thickness separated by the cutting tool. The adequacy of the proposed mathematical model of the working body of the excavation machine is confirmed by bench studies of the efficiency of vibration cutting of minerals. Parameters of vibration exciters of radially directed vibrations of the working body are recommended for use in the development of design documentation of the excavation machine for use in the extraction of mineral raw materials and mining in the mining industry and related sectors of the economy.
During the reformation period, technical solutions are relevant, allowing to increase the level of production profitability in the current difficult economic conditions. In due time, North Ossetia met the needs of Russia and the USSR in lead completely and in zinc by 2/3. Not having the opportunity to revive the former rates of the mineral production, North Ossetia is developing a new direction for its hydrocarbon production. The proposed solutions are based on the works of professor Ostroushko IA, who proved the presence of metals in the host mineral resources as a mineral base for the development of innovative technologies. The aim of the study is to substantiate the possibility of restoring the economic potential of the region through the diversification of technologies for the development of hydrocarbon deposits and a tool to achieve the goal is the extraction of metals from the rocks containing oil and gas. Metals, more than fifty kinds of metals, are dissolved in oil. The presence of metals in the host rocks was confirmed by the method of furrow testing of the workings. The possibility of leaching metals from intact metal-bearing rocks is confirmed by the practice, for example, of the Kakadur-Khanikomskoye field (RSO-A). This phenomenon can be used for leaching oil and gas containing natural and man-made geological and man-made structures after the extraction of hydrocarbons from them. Using only the traditional oil production technology does not ensure the competitiveness of field exploitation and needs technological diversification, which consists of the production of a new commercial product - metals extracted from the walls of the voids formed by the extraction of hydrocarbons by leaching. The resulting value-added product increases the profitability and competitiveness of the main production. The mineral base of diversified production increases almost unlimited. The advantages of the method are its cost-effectiveness and the possibility of developing reserves that are inaccessible for traditional technology. The diversification option involves the extraction of oil and reagent leaching of metals in two stages. As oil is extracted, voids are formed, the collapse of the walls of which increases the permeability of the reagents into the micro cracks of the excavation walls rocks during leaching. The economic concept of diversifying the development of oil and gas fields is to combine the processes of obtaining the main and additional commercial products.
Analyzed the promising direction of implementation of the state plan for the extraction of coal in Vietnam largely depends on the efficiency of further industrial development of the potential of the Quang Ninh coal basin. An analysis of the limitations of the application of technologies, depending on the complexity of the mining geological and mining technological conditions of the Quang Ninh coal basin, is given. Analyzed the possibility and feasibility of using the room and pillar method based on the analysis of foreign experience in mining coal seams. An innovative technological scheme of highly efficient mining of medium thick inclined coal seams with a diagonal disposition of the line of face with the use of self-moving supports along articulated joints was proposed. A block diagram of the choice of mining method is based on the angle of dip classification of coal seams.
The thesis is put forward that the progress of Kazakhstan is connected, first of all, with the availability of natural resources; long-term practice, covering the complexity of management; development of protective mechanisms to defend national interests. Kazakhstan's experience in industrial and innovative development can be useful for developing countries, as it clearly shows how the transformation processes take into account the specifics of the country, its geopolitical position, traditions and mentality. Further development of the geological industry of Kazakhstan, the key criterion for the efficiency of which is the increase in proven mineral reserves, due to the intensification of production and increasing the depth of processing. Along with the improvement of geological and geophysical research, the economic side of geological exploration plays an important role. In light of the above, the article aims to substantiate the directions of improving the geological and economic assessment of the pyrite-copper-lead-zinc Deposit of Kusmuryn. Objectives: to show the effective steps of state regulation of the geological industry of Kazakhstan; to summarize the results of geological and economic assessment of the copperlead-zinc Deposit Kusmuryn; to justify the need to improve the geological and economic assessment of deposits in accordance with international standards and taking into account socio-economic, geological and geographical factors. Information and factual base of research-materials of the legislative and regulatory framework of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the results of scientific research of the field Kusmuryn, own calculations of the authors. The validity and reliability of the results are determined by comparative analysis, the use of reliable economic and geological information about the raw material base of Kazakhstan, the Kusmuryn Deposit, the use of a set of modern methods of scientific research, taking into account regional climatic and geological conditions. The results of geological and economic assessment of the Kusmuryn field can be attributed to the category of promising, in the medium term it is planned to enter the field of underground mining. In order to improve the geological and economic assessment of deposits proposed to deepen the feasibility study of permanent conditions, developed on the basis of materials already completed exploration, financial analysis. For the growth of scientific evidence of geological and economic assessment of mineral deposits and optimization of decisions on their further operation, specific indicators are proposed. In conclusion, the article shows how the planned effective measures of state regulation of the geological industry will affect the quality of exploration, their innovative component, and in general, the sustainability of regional development.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)