The study of mountain areas has always been given great attention by science. However, the lack of a single model for the development of mountain areas leads to a variety of recommendations that may not always be consistent. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the natural resource potential and the level of economic development of the analyzed territory. To considers previously developed models of development and assess the possibility of their implementation and orientation. The purpose of this work is to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas on the basis of previously known models by extracting the most optimal solutions from them. As a working method, a logical analysis of a given subject area is proposed, in which the objects are different spheres that determine the level of development of mountain areas, and the signs are their characteristics presented in terms of the variable-valued logic of predicates. As the characteristics of the development of the territory can be the economy, social sphere, resource potential of development, etc., these areas of development in the formal formulation of the problem will be called objects. Description of the object (characteristics) is represented by a set of features that can accurately diagnose the desired object. The set of a number of objects and their features is a sample, which worked a certain number of algorithms (proposed models of development). The quality of each algorithm of the model is estimated by the Boolean function. None of the considered algorithms performed perfectly on the whole set of given objects. We propose a logical method for constructing a new algorithm (correction model), which is optimal for the entire set of recognized objects. The method is based on the construction of a new logical function of the classifier. The result of the study is an optimal model that includes the positive properties of the previously considered models and at the same time corrects their shortcomings. The proposed approach can be the basis for obtaining expert assessments and recommendations in order to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas.
Introduction. As you know, mountain areas in their development to some extent lag behind the plains. In fact, any undertaking in the highlands of an economic, social, agricultural or other nature aspects begins with the solution of the transport problem. At present, transport projects are subject to the requirements of high intelligence with innovative developments, safety, awareness of the road environment, comfort, environmental friendliness and quietness. If on the plain when choosing the directions of the road there are practically no restrictions than in mountain conditions the laying of the road faces a lot of difficulties of relief character, requiring the use of maximum slopes and small radii on the curves, as well as a certain geographical location of the gorge, which sometimes is frontal from the required direction of the road. On the slopes of these gorges to some extent surface exogenous phenomena were developed in the form of landslides, landslides, mudflows, avalanche-glacial and ice formations, the processes of collapse which complicate the design, construction and operation of the transport artery. Creating a transport project in such difficult mountain conditions is extremely difficult, but important. The urgency of this problem increases the need to present to the promising transport communications intelligence that is not yet sufficiently formed for mountain roads. The purpose of the work is to monitor the operation of mountain roads by accident on the example of the Transcaucasian highway (Transcam) and the application of existing rules and regulations in the search and design. Method of research. The research was conducted by the method of analysis of existing design developments, monitoring of mountain roads operation and accident rate. Research result. Complicated conditions of the survey and design of roads in mountainous conditions forced project implementers because of relief conditions to apply the maximum and the maximum allowable longitudinal slope, small radius curves, respectively, that during operation creates a hazardous traffic condition and leads to road accidents.
The purpose of the work is the development of information support and the structure of an information system in which based on the optimal filling of control data and their further processing, the effectiveness of assessing the sustainable development of regional economic complexes in mountain areas is enhanced. The creation of a structure for the sustainable development assessment system capable of ranking the causes of radical displacement and shifts of regional economic complexes beyond the "cone of admissibility" under which the irreversible changes occur is an actual national economic task. Methods. In the course of the research methods of mathematical modeling, economic analysis, experimental studies and data from the statistical service were used. To solve this problem based on the analysis of the research results, the structure of the system for assessing the sustainable development of regional economic complexes was scientifically substantiated, developed and tested. The developed information support system was based on the method of optimal filling it with information sufficient for analysis and processing working on the basis of the objective function. For processing control data on sustainable development of the region, the information processing method was adapted based on the introduction of individual parameters of the region under study. Results. Approbation of the work of the system for assessing the sustainable development of the region with the software developed at a number of industrial facilities in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (CBD) showed that the progressive development of the region is inextricably linked with the expansion of industrial and economic ties with other regions and countries. Therefore, the CBD is facing a radical industrial restructuring not only in connection with the growing demands of the consumer and manufacturing sectors of the domestic market, but in accordance with the requirements and conditions of sustainable development. Conclusions. The application of the system for assessing the sustainable development of the regional economic complexes coupled with the results of thr research and development activities can contribute to the development of scientific, technical and technological potential. The proposed information support makes it possible to assess the sustainable development of regional economic complexes in any regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the introduction of specific characteristics for the region under investigation, in databases.
The subject. The proposed article examines socio-economic and ecological situation in the border mountain regions of southern Siberia. Goal. To analyze the status and dynamics of socio-economic and ecological situation in the border mountain areas of southern Siberia. Methodology. Methodological framework study presented methods of grouping, aggregation, comparative, structural, and logical and statistical analysis, graphical method. The relationship of the investigated phenomena and processes from an institutional component of the regional economic development mechanism dynamics of socio-economic processes was examined. The socio-economic and environmental indicators carried out on the basis of end-to-end methodology for the synthesis of indicator based on integrate three equivalent indicators: level of socio-economic development, the level of ecological status and the level of human development, from which directly and indirectly depends on the ecological future of the territory and society in general were analyzed. Results. The proposed method to map the territory among themselves; develop a strategy for their development based on a comparison of selected indicators; predict the ecological sustainability of border regions of southern Siberia. On the basis of this methodological approach the level of socioeconomic development, ecological condition and human development in the regions of Siberia was estimated . The main problems identifi ed socio-economic and environmental sustainability of mountain territories of Siberia. Scope results. The analysis results of problems in the socio-economic and environmental sustainability may be taken into account in the formulation of development programmes for individual territories of Southern Siberia. Conclusions. The research identifi ed the main problems of socio-economic and ecological situation in the mountainous regions of Southern Siberia. Multidimensional classifi cation of regions of the Siberian Federal District on the major indicators of socio-economic development, environmental condition and level of human potential was carried out. Four types of territories, given their characteristics were highlighted. Border mountain regions of southern Siberia were relegated in the group with low and very low levels of socioeconomic development, human development and environmental condition. The proposed article would cause concern among the economists, as well as members of the public.
This research work examines the mineralogy of Yegbata bituminous deposit and presents and in-depth analysis of the compound type distribution of organic components of maltenes, elemental analysis of alphaltenes and composition of bitumen extracted from various tar sand intervals.
The Javakheti Volcanic Highland, located in the central Caucasus, is part of the ArabiaEurasia continental collision zone. The area is characterized by active tectonics and volcanism. Features of seismic activity and parameters of seismic regime in the volcanic highland of Javakheti during the period of 2005–2017 were studied in this work. High seismic activity (a=4.44) had been characteristic for the Javakheti Highland during the indicated period. From the Gutenberg-Richter relation, b is equal to 0.8, which means that the seismicity of this area is due to weak earthquakes. The epicenters of earthquakes with ML≥3.0 magnitude are located either along active faults or in areas adjacent to them. The distribution of hypocenters shows that seismic events have mainly occurred up to the depth of 20 km, which coincides with the earthquake depths in the Caucasus. Seismic activity in this source area has been characterized by a staged pattern of more passive phases followed by active ones.
Purpose: to study the influence of technogenic load and anthropogenic impurity in free air on indicators of health of the population with identification of cause and effect dependence, to develop sanitary and hygienic recommendations about improvement of a surrounding medium, strengthening of health of the population in sustainable development of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. Methods. Methodological approach of air quality research is based on the detailed analysis of structure and seasonal dynamics of pollution on route posts of observation and on padding points of selection of single tests. During the researches sample were drawn in reference points on territories of the republic and the analysis of emissions of pollutants from stationary sources was carried out. On reference points according to state standard specification 17.2.3.01-86 samples of air for definition of dioxide of nitrogen, white damp, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, phenol, formaldehyde and suspended matters were selected. Results (discussion): It is established that the tendency of air impurity concentration accumulation is observed for the free air in KChR expired, more than 15-year period, bulk emission of pollutants in the atmosphere of KChR in an annual cycle increased more than three times (from 19,2 to 58,1 thousand tons/year), at the same time by 2,4 times the common incidence among the population of the republic increased. Indexes of incidence of the period of 1994-1999 significantly differ from that, received by us from 2012 for 2016. The incidence of respiratory organs increased by 1,4 times, nervous system – by 1,8 times. Significantly indicators of diseases and other classes of incidence, narrowness of correlative communications with environmental factors at the same time very high raised. Conclusions. Depending on the prevailing kind of activity in areas of the republic increase in level of the corresponding classes of diseases is noted. At the developed sanitary and epidemiologic and ecological situation in territories of municipal units of Karachay-Cherkessia as shows the geoecological analysis it is possible to expect body height of incidence and abundance of diseases, the bound to increase in anthropogenic impurity in the air environment in the nearest future. At the same time indexes of health will allow to improve evidence-based ecologo-economic, technological and sanitary and hygienic actions for quality management of the air environment due to decrease in intensity of influence of risk factors. This task as it is represented by the authors can be solved by creation of a regional geographic information system.
The study of altitude-zone of mountain landscapes has a rich history. However, the allocation of mountain systems from the general natural structure of the Earth has not yet been ensured by the appropriate methodology, the seeming specificity of mountain landscapes does not have its strict justification and terminology. At the present stage of increasing the importance of mountains in the context of global changes, it is necessary to coordinate research and develop a generally accepted conceptual framework. The russian mountain landscape studies, which have rich methodology and experience, face the danger of being unnoticed in world research. Steps are required for convergence of positions, first according to well-known terms denoting the main altitudinal zones. The simplified schemes of high-altitude zoning in the various geographical belts can serve as a basis for further generalization. It seems that the most universal for different regions of the world can be the four main high-altitude stages that carry the signs of both climate and terrain. First, lowest stage, colline. It is separated from below from landscapes, which are often referred to as "planar". The second stage characterizes typical mountain landscapes (montane). The upper limit of this stage, as a rule, is indicated by the upper limit of forest spread and the upper limit of permanent settlement. The third stage - alpine - follows a higher montane and includes landscapes where it is possible to grow non-forest vegetation. In Russian landscape science, the term “alpine”, as a rule, refers to the designation of the forms of macro relief, as well as to the allocation of alpine meadows as subzones of the high-altitude mountain meadow landscape zone. In this respect, the international definition is broader, since it includes all landscapes above the upper boundary of the forest. In arid areas, where the distribution of forests is limited by natural and climatic factors, the boundary between the second and third stages is not expressed. The use of the terms "alpine" and "subalpine" in the Eastern Caucasus, in the mountains of Central Asia and other arid territories does not always reflect the specificity of local landscapes. Finally, the fourth stage - nival - is the least controversial. It stands out in almost all classifications as a step that completes the entire spectrum of high-altitude landscapes and denotes an area above the upper limit of the distribution of vegetation. In the Russian landscape science, it corresponds to the nivalglacial type of landscapes.
The aim of the study was to assess the resources of the Caucasus high – mountain maples for forest planning and efficient use. The high-mountain maple Acer trautvetteri Medw., remains little studied among forest-forming species and features of the structure of stands stocks and properties of wood, plant raw materials, non-wood products have not yet been studied. In the Caucasus high-mountain maples occupy the Northern slopes of the ridges at altitudes from 1 to 2,2 thousand m. The structure of high-mountain maples, stocks and structure of raw materials deposited in these plant communities depends on the height above sea level. Based on the results obtained, the zone of distribution of the Trautfetter maple along the vertical profile is conditionally divided into three zones: the upper belt (above 1600 m above sea level), the middle belt (from 1301 to 1600 m above sea level) and the lower belt (up to 1300 m above sea level). It is established that high-mountain maples are a source of various medicinal and technical raw materials of a vegetable origin, food plants, good base for beekeeping. The greatest number of useful for human species of plants is concentrated in the lower tiers of high-altitude maple trees. Most of the types presented here are polyresource ones. Resource plant species are represented by the main life forms-trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. The most represented in klenovnik are herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. To food plants include more than 50 species, 69 species of medicinal, melliferous 73, to technical plants 61 views. It is established that the majority of resource species do not form continuous thickets, the projective cover on a particular forest area is most often about 5 %. This makes it impossible to organize the use of a certain list of resource species on an industrial scale. On the other hand, with a yield and reserves, allowable current rules and regulations, procurement polyresource types feasible and economically justified. At each forest site, regardless of soil and groundwater conditions at the same time grow to dozens of resource species of plants. In this regard, the procurement of food and medicinal raw materials in separate tracts is possible. Stocks and yields of a particular type of plant in a particular forest area is determined primarily by forest growth conditions, which primarily depend on the height above sea level and other elements of the relief. As the height above sea level increases, the number of resource species is changing towards their decreasing. Changes not only the number of species, but also stocks of raw materials, the yield of individual species. The distribution of the species also depends on a variety of other factors: exposure and slope steepness, composition, height, density of the tree stand, closed treeshrub canopy, etc. In order to preserve the mountain forests and high-mountain maples in particular, it is necessary to study their features and structure, establish the types of resources, stocks and yields. Effective management of mountain forests will allow to implement the tasks of their use and increase their environmental, soil protection, raw materials and other functions.
Objective. For the purposes of scientific research, by definition, basic properties and characteristics of explosives, explosion parameters and its impact on the environment the laboratory of destruction of rocks mining Institute UB RAS purchased the device "DATATRAP II" which allows determining the speed and duration of detonation, detonation pressure when testing powder, granular and emulsion explosives. The purpose given in the article results of the research was the testing of this measuring equipment at the test site, and in the technological wells. Methods. For this purpose we used a comprehensive method of research involving the synthesis and analysis of scientific literature and conducting experiments. Results. On the basis of instrumental measurements of velocity of detonation held to blow up the blocks in the technology well and field tests in mines of JSC "EVRAZ KGOK", OJSC "Uralasbest" in the quarries "Sibay", "Autumn", "Sibayskiy limestone", "Anniversary", "Orenburg minerals", "Khaibulinsky" and "left Bank" approved methods for determination of basic characteristics of emulsion explosives. Conclusion. The conducted instrumental measurements using a measuring equipment "DATATRAP II" with the aim of determining the detonation characteristics of emulsion explosives "Fortis" brand name "Eclipse" and "Advantage", "Nitronit" brands "of e-70 and e-100" during the instrumental measurements in technological blasting wells in mass explosions, in vertical and horizontal cylindrical charges of high EXPLOSIVES in field tests, and for determining the actual intervals of delay between the boreholes allowed us to obtain more accurate and additional measurements of the basic properties of EXPLOSIVES. Tested EE allowed us to determine the magnitude of velocity of detonation not only in field tests of individual charges, but also in several technological blasting wells with multi-channel parallel connection of the probe cable into the wells and simultaneous measurement of the actual interval of delay between the boreholes. The obtained experimental data allow to determine the compliance of explosives to quality control standards, specifications and to optimize the rational parameters of drilling and blasting operations.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)