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REGIONAL PATTERNS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS MIGRATION IN THE LANDSCAPES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

T. V. Degtyareva, A. А. Lichowid, A. V. Lysenko, Yu. Karaev

The purpose of the study is to identify the peculiarities of chemical elements migration in the system "soil – soil-forming rocks" in the regional geo – systems of the North Caucasus with the one type biological cycle and heterogeneous soilforming rocks. As the regional geo – systems are high-altitude geo – botanical zones of high-mountain, mid-mountain and low-mountain physical and geographical sub domains landscape of the northern slopes of the greater Caucasus. Research methods: The object of study is the regional structure of chemical elements migration which are considered on the example of two high-altitude zones of Labino-Teberda landscape district allocated in the Western Caucasus within the Elbrus-Kazbek Alpine sub domain. To determine the intensity of chemical elements migration in the high-altitude zones, the coefficient of radial differentiation R, reflecting the genetic relationship of the soil with the soil-forming rock was used. The allocation of par genetic associations of chemical elements with the same regional structures of migration between the soil and heterogeneous soil-forming rocks within the boundaries of the high-altitude zones of the LabinoTeberdinsky district was performed by the cluster analysis. On the basis of the available data on high-altitude zones of all landscape districts of the mountainous, mid-mountainous and low-mountainous sub domains of the northern slopes of the greater Caucasus, a comparison of the regional structures of chemical elements migration was carried out. Research results: In geo – systems of the regional level with the same type of biological cycle and non-uniform soilforming rocks the regional structure of chemical elements migration are formed. They represent a certain sequence in changing the element migration intensity between the soil and heterogeneous rocks within the boundaries of the highaltitude zone. Different intensity of radial migration depends on the number of mobile and strongly bound compounds of the chemical elements. Their formation occurs in the rocks and soils during the long course of complex processes of rocks weathering and soil formation with a complex combination of factors of internal and external chemical elements migration. Conclusions. In geo – systems with the same type of biological cycle and heterogeneous soil-forming rocks within the physical and geographical sub domains of the northern slopes of the greater Caucasus, the peculiarities of regional structures formation of chemical elements migration have been developed. In the mountainous and mid-mountainous sub-regions, moving from the Western to the Eastern Caucasus during the formation of regional structures of chemical elements migration, the role of the biogenic factor is weakening and the influence of the lithogenic factor is increasing. All over the low mountains and foothill plains sub-regions (in the Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus), the biogenic factor is of primary importance for the majority of chemical elements in the formation of the regional migration structures.

Number of views: 337

MAINTAINING SOIL FERTILITY: A METHOD FOR ORGANIC FERTILIZER PRODUCTION FROM CROP FARMING WASTE

V. V. Kireeva, T. G. Rasskazova, N. M. Serbulova

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the opportunities for production of a liquid organic fertilizer from the waste left after processing of alfalfa herbage, and its influence upon preservation of fertility in the black soils of the Ciscaucasian region. Methods. To produce the fertilizer, we used the phytomass of Medicago sativa ('Manychskaya' variety) grown as forage grass and mown during the budding stage and blooming stage beginning. Herbage was wet-fractionated (including disintegration and fractioning of alfalfa vegetative mass) and dehydrated by means of mechanical compression producing press cake and green juice used further for green protein concentrates. Brown juice also generated in the process was a by-product, which used to be considered a waste. In our studies, brown juice was employed as a raw material for production of a fertilizer for the fields where alfalfa herbage had been harvested. During the study of brown juice applicability, we assumed the volume corresponding to the brown juice amount gathered from a unit of area within a season to be the reference fertilizer application volume. Results. It was established that brown juice from alfalfa herbage contains material quantities of nitrogen, ash constituents, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and other compounds necessary for their replenishment in soil and adequate nutrition of the plants cultivated there. During chemical analysis of soil composition, priority was focused on active forms of humus, phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen as the components most readily available for plant nutrition and thus also acting as productivity indicators. Performed analysis demonstrated that the levels of chemical elements increased following fertilizer distribution due to the return of substances extracted with the gathered herbage reaching practically the same level as in the initial soil samples collected in the vegetation period beginning (typical productivity levels of black soils in the Ciscaucasian region). Fertilizer application while alfalfa was still growing resulted in herbage yield increase observed throughout 3 hay cuttings in comparison with the control plot. The method designed for complex utilization of vegetable resources allows to produce besides animal feeding stuff a liquid organic fertilizer minimizing soil depletion and maintaining its productive capacity.

Number of views: 319

DUST AND GAS EMISSIONS FROM THE DUMPS SURFACES OF THE LIQUIDATED MINES OF THE MOSCOW COAL BASIN

M. V. Gryazev, N. M. Kachurin, G. V. Stas

Purpose. The work deals with the problem of minimizing the negative impact of the tailings of coal mining and processing on the ecosystems of the environment by optimizing the parameters of the construction and operation of the dumps. Methods. The object is achieved by a method of mathematical modeling aero – gas – dynamics processes based on the system of Reynolds equations in the flow of air masses of waste rock dumps. Results. The simulation parameters of aero – gas – dynamics processes in the flow of waste dumps of atmospheric flows were obtained using O. Reynolds equations describing the flow of the viscous, compressible heat-conductive gas in threedimensional formulation which consists of the basic conservation equations. On the basis of the simulation results the generalized geo – ecological model of technological periods of coal mining by underground method is formulated which is a matrix of the physical models of dust and gas pollutants emission processes in the environmental ecosystems and their mathematically formalized description. It is shown that the intensity of dusting rock dumps depends on a number of factors, the main of which are the dispersed composition, dust humidity, as well as the direction and speed of the wind. The analysis of the results of the computational experiment determined that during the transfer of the gas pollutant its concentration under wind action in the simulated space changes slightly. It was found that the intensity of dust deposition in the area of mines is determined by the value of the dust soaring rate and the value of the sedimentation coefficient. Summary. The territory of the studied mines is polluted mainly with lead. Calculation aero – gas – dynamics processes parameters of waste dumps flow on the basis of Reynolds equations in three-dimensional formulation gives correct results.

Number of views: 337

DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES OF NORTH OSSETIA ON THE BASIS OF A NEW REGIONAL CURVE OF DYNAMICITY COEFFICIENT

Zaalishvili V. B., Rekvava P. A., Melkov D. A.

The Northern Caucasus that is characterized by moderate seismic activity refers to areas with high seismic hazard potential. In the process of investigation the Kolka glacier in 2002, it was found that the maximum earthquake effect for example in the mountainous regions of North Ossetia was reaching 10–11 points. Analysis of instrumental data shows that even within the same region, the intensity, duration, and predominant period of oscillations may vary. Moreover, it was later found out that the fault in the southern part of the city of Vladikavkaz, the capital of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, can be a source of a strong earthquake with a maximum expected magnitude of M = 7.1, which can form 9-10 points intensity values directly in densely populated city. This circumstance should be taken into account in seismic design and practical construction. Seismic safety is the basis for the sustainable development of mountain areas. In conditions of moderate seismic activity, when there are practically no records of strong motions in the area of interest, different models of generating synthetic accelerograms are used. One of the methods is a stochastic one based on probabilistic models taking into account regional features of earthquake sources. To simulate the effects, a quasi-stationary or amplitude-nonstationary model is used. Components of the seismic action are represented as a product of a stationary random function and a deterministic envelope. Synthetic accelerograms were obtained for the most dangerous for the territory of the city of Vladikavkaz city seismic zones. Curves of the dynamicity coefficient and the corresponding envelope were constructed, taking into account the particular locations of the sources of possible earthquakes on the investigated territory, accounting for which will increase the safety of the population. In the interval of periods T = 0.1–0.4 s expected seismic effect is 1.6 times higher than the standard curve of the dynamic coefficient. for average values, the excess is 1.3, in the interval of periods T = 0.4–2.0, the calculated maximum values are within the calculated curve. For the first time, a regional dynamic curve was obtained which can be successfully used in earthquake-proof design and practical construction.

Number of views: 311

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MINING SYSTEM AT THE FINAL STAGE OF UNDERGROUND MINING VEIN GOLD DEPOSITS OF THE URALS

M. V. Rylnikova, K. I. Strukov, E. N. Esina

At the present stage of development of mining systems as a result of long-term exploitation of gold ore deposits in the Urals, there is a reduction in the volume of reproduction of the resource base, a decrease in the qualitative characteristics of mined ores, the complication of geomechanical conditions, expressed in the increase in the intensity of manifestations of mountain pressure in a dynamic form, the rise in the cost of production, the complication of the environmental situation and social problems in the developed mining region. At the same time on the final stage of development of balance reserves have significant undeveloped, which can be effectively engaged in the use of natural and man-made reserves of different kind of security, barrier, carrier, and safety pillars, backfill areas, areas of collapse, the stocks at greater depths, in remote areas of the field. In addition, it was previously off-grade ore accumulated technogenic raw materials, completed the excavation and formed the mined-out area, man-made landscape. It is proved that the concept of field development at the final stages of operation should include the restructuring of reserves and compensation for the impact of negative factors in the refinement of the field through the introduction of resource-saving and energy-efficient geotechnologies. It is shown that the full disclosure of the potential of the resource base and ensuring the sustainable safe and harmonious development of the mining enterprise at the final stage of field operation are inextricably linked with the rational use of non-renewable natural and man-made sources of energy and the transition to the use of renewable sources.

Number of views: 290

PARABOCHEVSCIY RESER FLORA AND ITS SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS

Umarov M. U., Gapaev Y. C., Taisumov M. A.

Parabochevsky State Biological Reserve was founded in 1963 in the valley of the r. Terek (Chechen Republic) on an area of 12.0 thousand hectares. But information about its nature including flora is very limited. The purpose of the work. The study of the composition and systematic analysis of the flora, the identification of rare, relict and resource-useful species. Research methodology. Floristic studies were carried out in 2012–2015 in different seasons of the year along routes covering different sites and habitants of the reserve. To clarify the types 3-volume determinant A.I. Galushko "Flora of the North Caucasus" (1978–1980) was used. The attention is paid to the systematic composition of the flora, the presence of relics, rare and economically useful species. Results. The reserve has revealed 266 species of vascular plants from 205 genera and 71 families. The largest families – Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Apiaceae, Malvaceae – accounted for 111 (54.1%) genera and 145 (64.4%) species. The largest are genus, including by (Artemisia, Centaurea), 4 species (Potentilla), 3 species each (Allium, Crataegus, Inula, Populus, Trifolium, Salix, and Viola). 2 species contain 40 genera. A total of 50 (24.4%) genera numbered 115 (43.2%) species. In the remaining 155 genera – one type. The Red Book Books (Allium paradoxum, Althaea officinalis, Amygdalus nana, Cephalanthera damasonium, Cucubalus baccifer, Cydonia oblonga, Eryanthus ravens, sites, sites, sites, sites, sites, sites, sites, sites, sites . woronowii, Salvinia natans, Tulipa biebersteiniana, Vitis sylvestris), other rare species (Allium ursinum, Chelidinium majus, Сlematis orientalis, Listera ovata, Physalis alkekengi, Oenothera biennis, Orobanche, you will also be looking for what you are looking for, if you are looking for what you and also your company is looking for, if you are looking for what you and also your company is looking for, this is what you and your company will be looking for. and tertiary relics (Euonymus europaea, Carpinus caucasica, Cornus mas, Corylus avellana, Lonicera caprifolium, Populus hybrida, Pyrus saucasica, Quercus robur, Rubus caesius, Sambucus nigra, Tilia cordata, Ulmus suberosa, herbal – Alliaria officinalis, Allium paradoxum, Arum maculatum, Convallaria transcauca sica, Humulus lupulus, Tamus communis, etc.). Conclusions. The flora of the reserve which is rich in systematic composition (266 species from 205 genera and 71 families) contains many relict, rare and economically useful species, most of which should be protected and reproduced.

Number of views: 325

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DJANKUAT GLACIER EVOLUTION IN PRESENT-DAY CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

О. О. Rybak, Е. А. Rybak, I. А. Кorneva, V. V. Popovnin

Glaciers in the Caucasus have been continuously shrinking during the 20th and in the beginning of the 21st century. Mountain glaciers provide up to 70% of the total river runoff in the adjacent territories. Realistic prediction of future glacial run-off is a key problem of water supply in mountain and piedmont regions. The task of prediction can be solved by means of dynamical modeling of mountain glaciers. Because of lack of regular observations, it is feasible to focus on several reference glaciers in the region and to further extrapolate modeling results on the whole glaciated area. In the paper, we report about application of a 3D higherorder ice flow model coupled to a surface mass-balance model for carrying out prognostic numerical experiments aimed at simulation of future dynamics of Djankuat Glacier. Djankuat is a typical valley glacier on the northern slope of the main Caucasus chain. It is one of the most studied glaciers in Russia, which has been continuously monitored during the last fifty years. From the point of view of completeness and duration of observations, Djankuat is an ideal glacier for mathematical modeling. Considerable parts of the ablation zone of Djankuat are covered with debris. Heat and physical properties of the debris layer are very different from those of ice. Debris layer determines ablation rate and run-off regime. Dependently on thickness, it can accelerate ablation or totally isolate ice cover from melting. To force the model, we utilized observations from the nearest weather stations (Terskol and Mestia), as well as accumulation and ablation field measurements as controls. In the prognostic numerical experiments, we simulated possible Djankuat evolution until the year 2100 under stationary climatic conditions. We established that geometry of the glacier in imbalance with the climatic conditions of the decade 1999–2008 years. To reach the equilibrium, the glacier will need nearly half a century taking into account insulating role of the debris partially covering ablation zone. In case debris cover is not considered, the glacier does not reach equilibrium until the end of the current century. Supraglacial moraine is responsible for 20–65% reduction of the annual melting under the debris layer dependently on its thickness. For the whole glacier, with the debris cover taken into account, the annual amount of melt water reduces by 9-10% when the glacier equilibrates with climate.

Number of views: 390

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE MAGNETIC SEPARATION PROCESS

Morkun V.S., Morkun N.V., Tron V.V., Dotsenko I.A.

The developed adaptive system controlling magnetic separation of iron ores allows reducing the period of searching for the objective control function, maintaining the optimal ratio of the concentrate yield and the grade contained under conditions of changing quality of initial ores and the equipment state. There are determined conditions and the best parameters of searching for the extremum in the system of adaptive control over iron ore magnetic separation under disturbances and noises in controlled signals. They can be achieved when deviations of static and dynamic characteristics from rated ones do not exceed ±25%.

Number of views: 338

COMPLEX LANDSCAPES PECULIARITIES USE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MOUNTAIN TERRITORIES

A. Giyasov, Z.R. Tuskaeva, I.V. Giyasova

Purpose. In order to develop the architectural typology of the residential buildings and their planning organization for the development territories, the analysis of the problem of the sustainable development of mountainous territories, taking into account the uniqueness of the natural and ecological landscape of the built-up areas in the difficult territories, the specific climatic features due to local conditions of the landscape was carried out. The article deals with the features of designing and improving the volume-planning structure of cities and residential buildings in the complex territories, taking into account the orographic features of the structure and climatic conditions of the area. The problem of the mountain region development for the purpose of planning structure of the inhabited formations and settlements considering the local climatic features is studied. In the practice of complex areas urban development, there is a significant gap in the field of the urban environmental studies in terms of the comfortable eco-environment for cities and settlements formation, characterized by a complex orographic situation, causing specific local climatic conditions. Methods. The study area of the complex topography with morphological, microclimatic and bioclimatic positions with the identification of the urban maneuverability of the relief situation, updated, expanded and refined is shaped in the framework of the design procedure . On this basis, the method of organization of spatial and architecturalplanning structure of cities, settlements and buildings was carried out. Results. Based on the study of domestic and foreign experience in the design and construction of buildings and buildings on complex terrains the problem of shaping the terrain to identify the areas of the potential construction were generalized and systematized. Using the method of background evaluation and method of assessment of local special climatic conditions formulated landforms for urban development elaborated by the authors. For the purpose of the sustainable development of mountain relief, taking into account the uniqueness of the natural and ecological landscape of built-up areas on difficult terrain, as well as the specificity of climatic features due to local landscape conditions, the existing architectural typology of residential buildings and their planning structure for development areas is systematized and refined. The methodological proposals for planning the spatial structure of urban development, design of housing and residential complexes, the method of layout in the landforms and relative to the slope were developed. The classification of the terrain according to the degree of complexity, as well as the materials of urban science, covering the features of the formation of the urban structures and construction of buildings in areas with complex terrain allowed to estimate the impact of complex terrain on the planning and design solutions of urban design. Conclusions. The developed methodological proposals for the planning – spatial structure design of residential buildings, housing design and residential complexes, the method of layout in the formation of the relief and the slope are scientific and practical skills for the sustainable development of mountain areas.

Number of views: 356

GROUND VEHICLE MODULES FOR SOLVING THE TASKS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN THE MOUNTAINOUS AREAS

B. S. Aleshin, A. I. Chernomorskiy, E. D. Kuris

The purpose. This paper is devoted to the generalization of the theoretical research and uniaxial wheeled modules (UWM) development results, conducted at the department of “Automated complexes of orientation and navigation systems” of the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). This work is aimed at the development of UWM as efficient vehicles for solving various monitoring tasks in the steady developing areas, in particular – mountains and foothills. It includes monitoring the state of pavement dynamics, roadside natural formation and engineering structures as well as the airfield infrastructure and the surrounding airspace. The methods. In the UWM structures development process we used the gyroscopic stabilizers construction methods, in particular, the method of ensuring UWM’s platform invariance to the inertia forces arising from its arbitrary movement along the space-time trajectory (STT). The generalized UWM’s mathematical model is obtained based on the second kind Lagrange equations for non – golonomic systems. When forming the signals for UWM platforms angular orientation control and stabilizing them in the horizon plane, we used inertial, gyroscopic, gravitational and flywheel methods and their combinations. For the stable UWM’s movement along given STT all structures use two-circuit control method. The results. The functional features defining the variants of the UWM structures and including the number of platform’s degrees of freedom relative to the wheels set’ axis, as well as the ways to control its angular orientation are summarized. A generalized UWM mathematical model has been constructed, and the particular UWM models can be derived from it. It is proposed to use a unified approach to the UWM movements along given STT control system construction. Common UWM’s software and hardware features are revealed. Presented UWM simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technical solutions. Conclusion. The generalizations of the work done at MAI was carried out, in particular, UWM structures development, mathematical models development, the formation of ways to control the angular orientation and stabilization of UWM platforms, development of the motion control algorithms for UWMs moving along given STT. In general, we have created the toolkit that makes it possible to effectively select one or another type of the developed UWMs in relation to the current monitoring task requirements.

Number of views: 284
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ISSN 1998-4502 (Print)                                                            ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)