Currently, the most impactful method of reservoir development for efficient oil recovery is water flooding. The main objectives of this method are to maintain reservoir pressure and increase the final oil recovery rate. However, formation damage caused by suspended particles in injected water always occurs during water flooding, thus leading to injectivity decline. This also gives rise to higher injection pressures, above the maximum injection pressure than the surface facilities can provide. Relatively little consideration is given to formation damage in the process of well control optimization. In this study the effect of formation damage caused by clay particles dislodged by low salinity injection water on the well production performance is predicted by coupling an analytical model with a reservoir numerical simulator. This method is applied in a Niger Delta type field model to evaluate its effectiveness. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict accurately effluent concentration profiles, permeability changes during reservoir water flooding, and the evolution of the filter coefficient with time using bed filtration model. In this study, model predictions for different particle and pore size distributions of particles are in agreement with experimental data.
Underground mining of ore deposits, sub-floor caving systems with end ore output are widely used but losses and dilution limit their application area. In the underground mines of Russia, they are the main ones in the extraction of iron and phosphate ores, for example, in the Krivorozhsky basin, Mountain Shoria, mines of the Nizhne-Tagilsky plant, and at a number of large non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. Systems with massive collapse are used in deposits of powerful and medium power. The treatment space is not supported (with the exception of the formation of chambers or slots to collapse the rest of the block in some systems), the breakdown is predominantly borehole, sometimes using controlled self-collapse. The goal of improving the parameters of caving development systems is to develop recommendations for reducing economic damage from lowering ore quality. The chess layout of the treatment faces of the diamond-shaped form is considered. The proposed technique uses the condition of inscribing the release figure into the contours of the beaten and produced ore layer. The maximum allowable for economic reasons ore dilution is determined taking into account technical, technological and technical and economic factors. The stages of mining the ore section are ranked as: drilled section; broken ore layer before release; release figure corresponding to the output of pure ore; a release figure corresponding to the interim release and a release figure corresponding to the final release. The results of calculating the release indicators for the moments of release are the basis for managing the quality of the ore extracted during the release process. Extraction rates taking into account dilution by rocks may be proposed to be determined graphically. Correct methods for calculating ore dilution, production rate and losses are proposed. Ore caving technologies have priority in the extraction of metal ores. Reducing losses and dilution is a reserve for increasing the efficiency of this high-performance technology. The proposed methodology for calculating the extraction indicators improves the accuracy of designing the parameters of the development system, which optimizes them taking into account the nature of the contact of ore with the host rocks, thereby allowing the use of this technology. The new methodology for calculating the parameters of the sub-floor caving system and the analytical, empirical and graphical possibilities of its implementation are applicable in the design and operation of mining and processing enterprises. The proposed technology is a reserve for obtaining an economic effect during the modernization of mining and related industries.
On the example of one of the large enterprises at the foothill zone of the North Caucasus – LLC Kavdolomit, which provides leading enterprises of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries with dolomite, the need for replacing the dry method for collecting small particles of dolomite flour, including nanoparticles, in bag filters that are unable to capture particles by size it is shown less than 1 micron due to the structure of the fabric on a promising wet method of dust collection. At NCIMM (STU) on the basis of the patented design of the distribution plate, a jet bubbler design has been developed in which a foam regime effective for trapping small particles is created due to the impact of gas-liquid jets without the use of surface-active substances. It is known that the mechanism of bubble formation in the bubblers is determined by a large number of parameters and is extremely complicated; therefore, the development of a mathematical model of the air bubbles formation is important for the theoretical assessment and prediction of the results of the bubbling process initial stage and for obtaining data for the design of the industrial jet bubblers. The process of bubble formation from the vertical slots of the bubbler caps is considered in stages. 1st stage – opening the windows of the slots of the cap. The formula for determining the static pressure requires to open the windows of the slots and the initial opening of the slots. 2nd stage – the formation of air bubbles. The process of separation of the bubble from the window of the cap slot is considered, provided that the forces acting on the bubble at the time of separation are equal. As a result, the formula is obtained for determining the rate of air outflow from the slot needed to detach a bubble. Based on the obtained mathematical model, a methodology has been developed for calculating the parameters of the air bubbles formation process in the jet bubbler: the initial opening of the slots, the static pressure under the cap of the cap and the rate of air flow from the slot. A comparison of the calculated value of the velocity of air outflow from the slots of the cap with the literature data for the velocity values in the holes of the bubblers indicates the adequacy of the obtained mathematical model.
Introduction. It is known that advanced modern statistical filters cannot hold all small solid inclusions in oil due to their negligible size. At the current level of mechanical engineering, the centrifugal method of separating oil from solid inclusions is the most effective and promising way of high-quality oil refining. With this separation method, the centrifugal force acting on each solid particle of the mixture stops it on its way to the oil intake hole, and then transfers this particle to the sludgecollecting place. An analysis of the literature on the problem of separation of oil with solid inclusions shows that the theoretical provisions of the centrifugal separation process have not yet been developed, and there are no design formulas that allow the selection of the overall dimensions of rotating elements and the frequency of rotation of these elements providing highquality oil separation. The scientific developments of this article fill this gap in the field of application of the centrifugal separation method. The purpose of the research is to develop a mechanicalmathematical model of the centrifugal process for cleaning small solid impurities from the connecting rod journals of the crankshaft of an internal combustion engine of mining machines. Research Methodology. To develop a mechanical and mathematical model, the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines was simulated based on boundary value problems for the differential equations of incompressible fluid flow in a cylindrical tube and the differential equations of motion of small solids in a fluid. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the movement of the liquid in the tube and the forces of resistance to the movement of the solid in the liquid are taken into account. As input parameters, the obtained mechanical-mathematical model contains all the overall dimensions of the device elements and its rotation frequency. Research results. The resulting set of calculation formulas makes it possible to calculate the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the entrained solid particle and thereby select the neck rotation frequency so that solid inclusions do not advance to the oil drain hole, and particles created by the centrifugal force move to the sludge-collecting place. This will ensure high-quality centrifugal cleaning of oil from solid inclusions. The results of the obtained calculation formulas were implemented on a computer. The following important conclusions were obtained: at the above values of the input parameters of the device to ensure oil separation, the neck rotation speed should be At a rotation speed in the device, a reverse hydraulic process occurs, i.e. the oil flows from the area to the area through the tubes. According to the obtained calculation formulas, computer calculations were performed with the above numerical values of the input parameters. The frequency of rotation of the neck varied within. As the frequency increases, the ejection rate decreases sharply. This decrease is due to the fact that the centrifugal force slows down the flow rate of oil in the tube and at the same time, the ejection of particles from the tube is inhibited. The results of the presented computational experiments show that in a wide range of variation of the rotation frequency, the particle acceleration sharply increases within and is pressed against a cylindrical surface. Conclusion: 1. A mechanical-mathematical model of the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in the oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines has been developed. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the move
In this paper we consider the importance of the environmental component of the reproduction process and preservation of ethno-cultural characteristics and lifestyle of the modern composition of the indigenous peoples of the North (Evenki) in the Trans-Baikal Territory. The author argues that the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of the Evenki community, which is an ethnic minority in the areas of residence, is possible provided that the resources of the hunting and fishing fauna of the local population are restored and rationally provided that the Evenki have special rights to them. The nature of the development of the territories, which affects the features of the conservation and reproduction of biological resources in the mountain taiga landscape zone of the region, depends on the institutional environment for hunting nature management that has formed here so far. It is noted that the weakening of the state’s attention to the sphere of nature management in the post-socialist period and the shift in the emphasis of national policy to the sphere of supporting cultural and socio-demographic processes among the indigenous population led to the degradation of the natural resource base of the traditional way of life in most regions of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the reduction in the number of the main hunting and commercial animal species worsens the socio-economic situation of the indigenous population, which remains connected with traditional activities. The purpose of the article is to assess the role of formal and informal institutions in creating the conditions for the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of Evenki Trans-Baikal Territory. Research materials. The results of interviews with representatives of the municipal authority, the Indigenous Peoples' Association of Evenki (Trans-Baikal Territory) of the TransBaikal Territory, hunting users, heads of hunting farms, chairmen of Evenki communities and ordinary hunters, data on the lease of forest plots, the number of hunting and hunting animals, the number and employment of the population, provided by the relevant State services and departments in the region, as well as the results of studying the transformation of formal and informal environmental management institutions and its consequences for hunting e-fishing activities of the indigenous population. A map showing all the main actors of hunting nature management in the areas of traditional Evenki residence and substantiating the use of an institution-oriented approach to solve the tasks posed during the study was created using GIS technologies. Conclusions. The institutional environment formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory is not very effective in resolving the problems of the development of ethnic nature management in the mountain taiga zone and requires further development in order to strengthen control over the number of commercial animal species and create mechanisms for their sustainable use. The author offers some recommendations that can ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East to hunting as a traditional activity.
A Council of Europe Ordinance of 2000 obliged government structures of various levels to protect and care for cultural landscapes designated as human-inhabited territory, which characteristics express the mutual long-term influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The concern is caused by the fact that since the second half of the 20th century, with the growth of mechanization, automation, and chemilization, the cultural landscapes of both the lowland and mountain regions have undergone particularly strong changes. The Alpine mountain region is considered as a benchmark in which the traditional economic activity in mountain areas, with its regional differences, keeps on co-existing with the current rapid development of technology, innovations and the increasing influence of external capital. However, the problems inherent in all the mountainous regions of Europe (desertion of rural settlements and outflow of population, declining role of agriculture and increasing role of tourism) are also characteristic of the Alpine region. The article deals with the territory of the northern, marginal part of the Alps, belonging to Germany – the Bavarian Alps. The Bavarian Alps occupy only 1.7% of the Germany territory but for Bavaria, this Alpine area is closely linked to its identity. In Alpine Bavaria, traditions, dialects, folklore are being preserved. The farmers land plots here are bigger than in other parts of the Alps, as well as the number of livestock. Population outflow in the Bavarian Alps is less than in some provinces of the Italian or French Alps. The Bavarian Alps is an area of developed, highly specialized and high-tech meat and dairy farming. But at the same time it is an area of sophisticated mass tourism – both, winter and summer. There are practically no original natural landscapes in the Bavarian Alps, since with the arrival of Bayovars, from about the 9th century, agricultural development of the territory began, and by the Middle Ages all suitable areas had been developed. Thus, all existing landscapes are cultural landscapes, the result of natural development and human impact. The cultural landscape of Bavaria, attractive for tourists and so important for the preservation of the natural balance, is supported primarily by farmers. Therefore, the main task is to prevent the desolation of mountain regions, the preservation of rural settlements and the rural way of life. Factors contributing to the preservation of the cultural landscape could be divided into external (political or legislative) and "internal". The external factors include: government subsidies of various levels (starting from the Council of Europe) to farmers; land law protecting the integrity of agricultural land; community rights to land and property management; building codes and regulations that preserve the architectural integrity of rural settlements. The “internal” factors in support of the Bavarian cultural landscape are hidden in the very system of rural life. These are traditions, customs, dialects. Traditions are worked out for centuries, passed down from generation to generation: housekeeping skills, crafts, customs, ceremonies, cuisine, etc. Traditions in Bavaria are very strong, as are the dialects. These factors unite people, create a connection with the place of residence with nature which is reflected in the cultural landscape.
The purpose of this article is: 1) to show that the economy is neither the only nor the dominant factor in the sustainable mountain development; 2) consider the integration of the cultural needs of society with the goals of sustainable development; 3) describe the history of the occurrence (17th – 18th centuries) of the Old Believer’s SMD ethno-cultural model Belovodye and its relevance for the SMD Agenda of modern Russia. Methods of researches: analytical review of literary sources The article contains 3 key blocks: 1) Introduction - the issue of the integration of culture and the relevance of this issue to the mountain regions of Russia; 2) a brief overview of the history of the ROC schism in the 17th century, the emergence of two Russian sub-ethnic groups - the New (Nikonians) and Old Believers, as the basis for the emergence of a SMD model “Belovodye”; 3) specific examples of the history and features of the development of Old Believer communities in Altai and the Far East. The “Belovodye” model is a unique example of the SMD strategy, where ethno-cultural traditions and work ethics (affairs) are the main drivers of development. Its vitality and attractiveness in the 21st century is confirmed by numerous examples from the life of the Old Believer’s Russian diaspora in the most diverse natural and cultural landscapes of Russia and the world - Altai, Sikhote-Alin, Transbaikalia, North and South America. Such a model of life and management in the mountains is organic to the nature of the mountains. It is based on effective local management of local resources. The success of the SMD of the territory and the community is possible if there is a “political will” of the State that supports, through legal, economic and investment mechanisms, such a development model. In conclusion, the author poses the following questions: • How relevant and is there a future for the Old Believer model of “Belovodye” in the mountains of Russia? • Is the process of convergence of the preserved culture of the Russian subethnos of the Old Believers possible with a complex picture of a changing world - the world of numbers, modernization, artificial intelligence, climate change, etc.? • In what format can a powerful layer of Old Believer culture be integrated into the modern Russian SMD Agenda?
Cultural landscapes of the North Caucasus were created by the work of many generations of the Highlanders from regions of the Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus, and in the native habitats of indigenous ethnic groups with distinctive environmental practices. The originality of cultural landscapes was formed as a result of adaptation of traditional types of nature management to the unique landscape mosaic, and is expressed in the unique combination of residential complexes, mountain agricultural terraces and pastures with natural surroundings. An analysis of the literature and the experience of studying key mountain areas in the Galanchozh, Itum-Kalinsky and Sharoy regions of the Chechen Republic show that the current state of cultural landscapes can be characterized as critical with the ongoing destruction and ruinization of the former settlement, revegetation in some parts of landscape-economic areas and intensive uncontrolled pasture load in others.. The abandonment and desolation of the historical habitats of the mountain peoples are caused by the collapse of local communities, the loss of control over resources by local residents, the formation of a new enlarged "cutting" of land use, depopulation, the emergence of resource and tourist-recreational forms of exploitation of the territory. This phenomenon is proposed to be considered as a “mountaineering” of the Caucasus, in the sense that this sequence of events was realized (in various national invariants) in the second half of the 20th century on the vast space of the "Alpine arc". The specificity of the postmodern scenario of the North Caucasus development was manifested in the fact that the leading factor in the alienation of resources and the destruction of traditions was not private capital, but errors in public administration that led to a shift in the native ethnic areas, including due to the eviction of mountain ethnic groups, which led to more than a quarter-century gap in the traditions of staying in the enclosing landscape. The sequence of destruction of the cultural landscapes of the mountains is closely related to the features of their inherited structure: the distant and high-altitude villages and their adjacent landscape-economic area, the most vulnerable part of which is the mountainous terraces, become unused. The degradation of the cultural landscape entails the loss of the whole set of eco-service functions — environment-stabilizing, life-supporting, intangible, which contradicts both immediate aims and the long-term prospects for the region’s socio-economic development of the region. At the same time, in a number of regions of the North Caucasus, and especially in the mountainous part of the Chechen Republic, there is a "return" movement (approved, and partly initiated by the authorities) to traditional high-mountain habitats ("historical roots"), during which the efforts of private business and volunteers restore sacred centers (designed to serve as new points of growth) and there are the first signs of the re-development of the territory (small farms, seasonal shelters and roads) – a process that can be called "nativization".
The inventory and analysis of high-altitude flora is a necessary condition for assessing the state of fitbit, determining trends in its changes and the impact on the integrity of the habitant, as well as for the correct understanding of flour -genesis, forecasting in many theoretical and practical areas, determining the prospects for the use of resource-useful species and the preservation of phyto-diversity. The article highlights the results of long-term (2010– 2017) studies of Alpine rock scree flora of the Central and Eastern Caucasus. The data on endemic species are given. In the present flora among 384 species 107 (27.9 percent) are endemic species; 33 (8,6%) species strictly endemic species (22 steno endemic and 11 euro endeliks), 74 (19.3 per cent) of sub endemic ones. Kinship relations of different species, as well as their origin are established. An analysis of endemism species show that there are different types of endemic species, noted their importance for the solution of close genetic issues. The analysis of flora endemism of the Central and Eastern Caucasus showed that the studied flora has rather high degree of originality, almost every tenth of its species is endemic for this territory. The leading families of the systematic spectrum play an outstanding role in the formation of the endemic component of the flora, they account for about a quarter of endemics of all categories, the dominant role belongs to three families Campanulaceae-Caryophyllaceae-Fabaceae. Data on the genetic and geographical relationships of 22 steno endemic and 11 angelics are provided. The formation of the endemic core of flora should be geographically associated with the Elbrus mountain range and mountain ranges of the right bank of the Samura, in total, the largest number of endemics of all categories is concentrated in the floristic regions of the East Caucasus. The vast majority of endemic species are neo endemics which were formed on the Caucasian genetic basis, the fourth part of the species are polio endemics showing the Armenian-Iranian-Turanian ties, weak ties can be traced with the Central Asian territories.
To create innovative zones for the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, as well as methods of their use in various spheres of human activity, the analysis of the processes occurring during the extraction of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions of wastewater of mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises with natural products is performed The aim of the work is to analyze the possible mechanism of extraction as well as to evaluate the possibility of technical use of vegetable oils on the example of extraction of lead ions by vegetable oils. Method of research. The following types of vegetable oils were used as extractants: sunflower, olive, corn. Extraction was carried out from individual aqueous solutions of Pb (II). Extraction was carried out with different pH solutions. During extraction the pH value was kept constant, adjusting it to a predetermined value. For greater confidence in achieving equilibrium extraction results were evaluated every two days. For the most intensive mass transfer, the extraction process was carried out with intensive mixing of the solution and the extractant for a given time. Upon completion of the process, the mixing system was transferred to the separating funnel for settling and more complete separation of the mixture. Results and discussion. The sedimentation dynamics and system stratification after extraction of lead for three types of oils within 24 hours, pH 11, B:O= 1:3, SISC= 5 g/dm3 . When saponified in an alkaline medium (pH ≥ 10), vegetable oils are broken down into glycerin and fatty acids. Reacting with heavy metal hydroxides, glycerin creates metal glycerates – chemical compounds similar to salts. The volume of the extract as a result of extraction with Pb (II) olive oil increases from five to ten percent of the extractant volume. When settling the system after extraction for more than 24 hours, delamination is manifested into the main three phases: the oil phase from above, the water phase from below and the intermediate mesh gel structure of the hydroxocomplexes of divalent lead with the components of water and oil between them. Summary. From the intermediate phase (gel) it is possible to extract ions of lead and/or its compounds which gives the prospect of possible technical use of vegetable oils for the wastewater solutions treatment at the mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)