Introduction. The increase in the production of hydrogen sulfide-containing gas in the Astrakhan field is an extremely urgent and promising task. Based on the current reserves of the field, the level of extraction of raw materials can be increased by 3-5 times relative to what has been achieved. One of the promising technologies that allows to significantly increase the extraction of hydrogen sulphide-containing raw materials when solving the problem of overproduction of sulfur and preservation of environmental requirements is the technology of injecting acid gases into underground layers. The aim of the research is to evaluate the efficiency of the use of new technologies at the Astrakhan gas condensate field. Research tasks. The tasks are solved on the basis of a comprehensive study of effective technologies for enhancing the sustainable development of the technical system of the oil and gas complex. Materials and methods of research. One of the main directions of pilot industrial works at the injection site is connected with the operation of injection wells, determination of the main parameters of their operation, design reliability and hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir and tubing. When creating a landfill, it is possible, both the construction of a new well, and the use of a well of an existing fund. Considering the fact that drilling a new well is associated with significant time and financial costs, in the context of this work a decision was made to use a well from an existing fund. As the injection well, the well was chosen according to the set of basic geological-technical and technological indicators: the lowest current reservoir pressure; the least working wellhead pressure; The presence of formation water in the production of the well; average values of productivity; good values of reservoir properties; good technical condition; proximity to the existing capacities of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. The formalized model of the injection well operation includes two main interconnected elements - the flow of the injected agent through the well tubing and the bottomhole formation zone. Acid gas, obtained in the desulfurization plants of highpressure gas, is used for pumping into the productive stratum as part of pilot-industrial tests of the new technology. The most preferable scheme is the organization of an experimental test site, in which the preparation of acid gas (its compression, drying and transfer to a single-phase liquid state) is carried out near or directly at the site of the enterprise. Next, a liquid stream of acidic components is transported through a pipeline to the landfill where a pumping station is installed to supply fluid at the mouth of the injection well with the pressure required for injection. The developed technology of preparation of acid gases for injection into the reservoir in the Astrakhan arch includes the following technological operations: compression of acid gas in 4 stages; interstage cooling of the stream, separation and discharge of the discharged liquid; drying of the flow of acid gases with a pressure of 3.5 MPa and a water content of 0.5-0.6% by volume. after the fourth stage of compressioncooling by a solution of triethylene glycol to a residual water content of not more than 0.01% by weight. Results. The project of sour gas injection technology has been implemented, which aims at the use of waste tanks and is characterized by relatively low productivity and low injection pressure at the wellheads. The project is designed for specific conditions, for which a large array of information is created. Before taking a decision on the large-scale introduction of technology at the Astrakhan gas condensate field, an experiment was conducted at the experimental industrial site, reliable baseline data was obtained that could economically and with minimum risk realize the technology of acid gas injection into selected objects
Goal. In this paper a study of power transmission lines operating in the "Two wires-to-ground" (DWS) mode, as well as four-phase lines (CHLEP) was made which were first mentioned in the 50s of the last century. These lines have greater bandwidth and reliability. To confirm the above results comparison with three-phase systems was carried out and the dependence on power losses on the lines regimes was determined. Methods. The research was carried out with the help of mathematical modeling. The algorithm and complex of the software solution with the help of the Mathcad system are compiled. Basis of constructing a mathematical model – is the canonical form of the method of nodal stresses, all elements of the network are decomposed into symmetric components. This algorithm is universal and can serve to calculate the parameters of a three-phase network with the number of nodes up to 400 in different modes of operation. Results and its discussion. It is shown that the DPZ lines have lower than other losses, the greater the transmitted power and the length of the lines. Thus, the efficiency of the system directly depends on the length of the air line. The modes of operation of four-phase power lines including fivewire lines are considered. Conclusions. The use of two-wire-to-ground transmission lines under current conditions is economically feasible due to significant losses in them as compared to three-wire lines at a voltage of 6-35 kV. The current reduction in the earth is possible with the use of four-phase power transmission lines consisting of two DPZ, in which the voltages on the same phases are opposite in direction. With the same loads, both circuits in the ground are absent, therefore, there is No power loss in the grounded phases. The introduction of an additional wire improves the reliability of a four-phase line to the reliability of a two-circuit three-phase line. By reducing the number of line wires in the proposed electrical system in comparison with two-chain three-phase line the electric energy and voltage losses are reduced, decreasing the cost due to the lower expenditures on line construction(five wires instead of six).
Nowadays, transported tunnels are widely developed and built in Viet Nam. Transported tunnels are usually designed with twin tunnels (two parallel tunnels) and they are driven at the moment curing excavation to increasing the speed of excavation. However, in the fact because of technical - economic conditions one tunnel is excavated and following the future we are going to expand tunnels or build new tunnels near the old tunnels. Today, drilling and blasting method is used for many cases during excavation tunnels. Vibration is released in the processing of blasting that has influence on the old tunnels. This paper introduces assessment the values of vibration of blasting pressure on the stability of tunnels during expansion excavation new tunnels near the existing tunnels.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the possibility of the Sadon deposits development modernization to ensure cost-effective production of non-ferrous metals and the restoration of the potential lost as a result of economic reform. The goal is achieved by solving a number of problems through experimental studies and expert opinions. Research methods include conventional methods of substantiation of innovative solutions, including: analysis of the development indicators of Sadon mines in the historical section, experiment on laboratory disintegrator and local metal-containing minerals and forecast of prospects of innovative technologies at the level of engineering solutions. The results of the study include the information necessary to make decisions on the reconstruction of the concept of development of Sadon mines in depression. The resource base of Sadon is time in the bowels of the Republic about 2% of reserves of lead and about 5% of the forecast resources of the P1 category of Russia. In the developed space of the mines there are 1 million tons of ore with a content exceeding the planned content of the present time. At the time, the fields with positive results mastered the technology with leaching of metals. It is established that the cause of the crisis of mines in North Ossetia is the mismatch of technology development principles of resource conservation, accompanied by increased losses and higher prices of products. The revival of the potential of the mines is possible with the conversion of development technologies with leaching, including the activation of metal extraction processes in the disintegrator. It is shown that environmental problems are being solved when mining waste is involved in the processing along with the replenishment of the mineral resource base. Announced the principle of combining the technologies of selective mining of different sorts of ores when rich ore issue to the surface and processed at the plant, and the rest is leached in blocks and stacks. The technology of utilization of primary processing tailings of the extracted raw materials with extraction of metals from them to the level of sanitary requirements by the impact on the mineral raw materials at the same time of mechanical and chemical energy in disintegrators is proposed. Conclusion. The goal of metal production modernization is achieved using technologies with leaching of metals including the impact of both mechanical and chemical energy on the mineral raw materials.
Purpose. Development and creation of a mathematical model of environmental sustainability of the transport system in the mountain region which would allow to systematize and formalize the processes of the transport systems impact on the environment and the reverse impact which in turn would allow to comprehensively assess the environmental sustainability of the system "mountain transport – the environment", to develop specific measures to increase it. Methods. The analysis algorithm of the transport system ecological compatibility in the mountain region is based on the simultaneous analysis of the transport system functioning, the state of the environment and the assessment of their mutual influence on each other, expressing the level of ecological compatibility of the transport system in the mountain region. Assessment of techno-genic impact of the transport system on the environment is made by comparing the real values of the influence parameters with the normalized ones. Assessment of the possible impact of the environment on the transport system is also made by comparing the real parameters of influence with the permissible ones (for example, the probability of manifestation of an environmental risk, possible damage, etc.). If the actual characteristics in both cases fall within the limits of the permissible values, the ecological compatibility of the transport system is fulfilled. Results. The developed mathematical model and analysis algorithm of the transport system sustainability in the mountain region using a set of 2 matrices: the influence of anthropogenic factors of the transport system on the natural environment and the impact of environmental hazards in the mountainous region on the functioning and sustainable development of the transport system. The analysis algorithm of the transport system ecological compatibility in the mountain region based on the simultaneous analysis of functioning of transport system, a condition of environment and an assessment of their mutual influence on each other expressing level of ecological compatibility of transport system in the mountain region is given. The probabilistic model of ecological compatibility and the method of its analysis are offered. Summary. The matrix model and the proposed method of the transport system ecological compatibility analysis in the mountain region allows the most complete qualitative and quantitative assessment of both the techno-genic impact of the transport system on the environment and the dangerous impact of natural anomalies (environmental risks) on the transport system, maintaining the environmental compatibility of the transport system of the mountain region at the proper level, is a prerequisite for sustainable development of mountain areas. The given method of mathematical description of ecological interaction of transport system and environment can be used in the analysis of ecological compatibility of other techno-genic objects.
Sustainable development of the mining enterprise is provided by the use of technical solutions aimed at fundamental changes in the direction and volume of economic activity. The sustainable development of the mining and processing complex is not possible without the use of advanced solutions in the field of deep enrichment and optimization of the tail economy of processing plants. The criteria for the implementation of appropriate solutions and technologies in the end are economic indicators. As an alternative to the traditional approach to the financing of technical solutions in the field of projects in the field of subsoil use is project financing. In this case, there is an optimal distribution of risks between all participants involved in the project, and a large return is provided by effective maneuvering of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional forms of financing. The advantages and expediency of the method of project financing of technical solutions in the field of subsoil use, the implementation of which at the stage of development has ambiguity in terms of obtaining and distributing profits. The potential participants of project financing in the development of solid mineral deposits and reconstruction of quarries and the elimination of mining. The main and alternative technical solutions to ensure the sustainable development of mining enterprises are shown and evaluated on the example of the Bereznyakovskoye gold ore deposit and the Korkinskoye brown coal deposit located in the Chelyabinsk region. The area of application of traditional and project financing in the field of subsoil use is substantiated taking into account the distribution of risks and ensuring the requirements of the legislation. It is shown that the scope of project financing is much wider than traditional approaches to providing financial resources for technical solutions, but in modern conditions it is more limited by environmental factors. This confirms the need to apply project financing methods in the context of sustainable development of mining enterprises as an alternative to traditional approaches to the financing of the mining industry and private solutions in it.
Presentation of knowledge about bionanosystems (BNS) and transformation of this knowledge into technical data is an urgent problem of the development of bionanorobotics (BNR). For one of the most promising ways of controlling BNR systems as nanodevices - software control - one can use cognitive-target modeling, the possibility of which is due to the formation in BNS of intermediate states arising in the process of formation of complex nanostructures without external influence. Objective: ensuring the adequacy of models of BNS and of the representativeness of scientific visualization, data exchange, and the definition of criteria for processing semistructured data and parameters of the BNR system. Methods: infocognitive technologies, programming environments, micro-nanosystem-based electronics, bionanotechnologies, cognitive-target modeling. Results: The cognitive infocommunication system (CICS), which is a traditional infocommunication system with additional elements for providing cognitive functionality: monitoring and information gathering, intellectual activity, decision making, etc., can serve as an instrument for implementing these tasks. The CICS consists of the physical, information and cognitive part, where the physical part is energy supply and technical systems for transferring information from source to consumer, information - data, knowledge, methods, cognitive produces intellectual activity in the analysis of situations, evaluation and decision-making, and all these parts act on macro-, micro- and nano-levels. As a practical example of the integration of CICS with BNR, a schema is proposed of the concept of a medical online service that operates on the Internet can be an intellectual expert system that, according to the data of bionanosensors provides information on the current status and diagnosis, forecasts, with a high degree of confidence and speed, using the available knowledge bases and expert community development of the condition and recommendations on the beneficial effect on the health of the observed patient. The offered service is also applicable for remote monitoring problems solving of the hematological status and reproductive capacity of valuable breeds of cattle in the high mountains of the North Caucasus such as mountain yaks. Conclusions: Integration of the subsystem of sensors and actuators of the lower level of CICS with BNS technically allows interaction of CICS with the objects of the investigated BNS, and thus solve the problem of cognitive-target modeling of BNR. The programmatic control of the target BNS can be accomplished by transferring some of the functions of the upper level systems to the lower level while preserving the possibility of controlling these functions during the operation of the CICS. In BNR, bionanosensors and bionanoeffectors, as lowlevel devices of CICS, can develop similarly to macro- and micro-sized devices. Biocompatible nanostructures can perform the functions of bionanosensor devices by signaling the state of target biosystems depending on the state of specific factors of the observed biosystem. Information from the bionanosensors can then be translated in various ways from the nanoscale to micro- and macro-systems. The proposed form of online service has a high practical significance for the sustainable development of healthcare, agriculture and nature-conservation of mountain territories in the new techno-economic paradigm.
Goal. The purpose of this paper is to compare landscape maps and descriptions of landscapes of Afghanistan which were compiled at different times and to explain the differences from the point of view of modern landscape science. Methods. The available data of the landscape structure of Afghanistan are analyzed by comparative-geographic and comparative-descriptive methods. The first landscape studies of Afghanistan were conducted at the peak of confrontation between the Russian and British empires during the so called «Great Game» in the XIX century. However, the first scientific description of the landscape structure of the country appeared in the 1920s as a result of the expeditions of N. I. Vavilov and D. D. Bukinich. The main natural regions of Af- ghanistan were identified, a number of earlier sectoral studies on geo-botany, ethnography, geology, etc. were tested and supplemented and the agro-potential of different landscapes of the country was characterized. The first map of landscapes was published by A. A. Polyak in 1953, and although in many terms it was similar to the scheme of Vavilov, some land-scapes were combined, some new complexes were presented while the descriptions and the methods used corresponded to those of academic science. The next important step in the study of the landscape structure of Afghanistan was the release of the first National Atlas in 1985 (the second National Atlas was published in 2014), where a map of natural land- scape types was compiled according to all canons of Soviet landscape school. In 2014-2015, using previously published materials and modern sources and data of remote sensing, the author compiled a more detailed map of the generic of natural landscapes of Afghanistan. Results. On the basis of comparison of historical and modern landscape maps we conclude that some discrepancies seen among them could be explained by dynamics of some landscape complexes due to anthropogenic factor. Conclusions. The data on the landscape structure (2) have not lost their relevance. In some cases, even earlier sources are relevant [5–7]. Nevertheless, some of their discrepancies can be explained not only by differences in the method of compilation but also by historical transformations of the landscape complexes themselves, which is proved by a number of examples.
The aim of the work is to study the changes in mineralization and general rigidity, as the main indicators of water quality in the high-mountain part of the Cherek Bezengiysky. The investigated section of the r.Cherek Bezengiysky is located on the territory of the Kabardino-Balkarian high mountain state nature reserve, at a considerable distance from sources of anthropogenic impact, therefore, the chemical composition of water is formed only under the influence of natural factors characteristic of this high-altitude catchment area. These indicators of water, river basins with a natural hydrochemical background are of particular interest in the development of water quality standards. In the sampled water samples, in the main phases of the water regime (winter low and summer high water), such indicators as mineralization, total hardness and electrical conductivity were determined. The work presents the results of monitoring studies since 2004. Probabilistic statistical methods can be used to analyze the distribution of spatiotemporal changes in these indicators with no less reason than for water flow, since the chemical indices found in river waters are just as random and independent quantities in the multi-year section, as well as river runoff, since their variation over time depends on a large number of random factors. In connection with this, when analyzing the changes in the mineralization values and the total rigidity along the r.Cerek Bezengiysky, we used the results of systematic, long-term observations that did not change the method of sampling and analysis of water samples, the water regime of the watercourse (regulation, water intake, etc.) . Based on the results of statistical data processing, correlation dependencies between mineralization and general rigidity, mineralization and electrical conductivity have been established, which will allow to optimize the process of monitoring hydrochemical data and can be used in the de-velopment of regional or basin water quality indicators. Using the linear trend method, the trends of long-term changes in mineralization in the water of the high-mountain part of the r.Cherek Bezengiysky in the main phases of the water regime are estimated. Graphs and regression equations are given. New materials of hydrochemical observations on previously unexplored water bodies of the mountain-glacial basin will contribute to understanding the features of the formation of the hydrochemical composition of the region's water bodies. The results of the study make it possible to identify the features of the formation of the chemical composition of waters in the previously unexplored, inaccessible part of the mountain-glacial basin of the r. Cherek Bezengiysky and can be used to inform water protection activities, while developing regional or basin water quality indicators.
We propose a model of potential land users, which allows quantifying the efficiency of a number of mechanisms of agricultural land distribution for mountainous land-hungry regions. Land users are represented as economic agents with bounded rationality and subjective utility functions. The model calculates allocation efficiency and budget efficiency as independent values and thus allows us to better determine the applicability of a specific land distribution mechanism. The model has considerable flexibility and can be adjusted to specific agricultural technology and soil types. An analysis of the efficiency of using closed form auctions for the distribution of farmland conducted for the test region showed that, with both a simple first price tender and a Vickrey auction, the optimal allocation of land is achieved in the model. The use of lottery mechanisms, on the contrary, leads to losses of allocative efficiency. As for the budget revenues, the use of lottery mechanisms leads to much smaller losses of budgetary efficiency in comparison with simultaneous closed auctions of the first and second prices. Of all the mechanisms considered, the use of the repetitive Vickrey auction leads to the smallest losses of budget efficiency in the model.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)