The purpose of this work is the development and evaluation of technological solutions and measures to ensure ecological safety and preservation of the surrounding area, especially the nearby Teberdinsky state biosphere reserve, during the construction and operation of the Aksaut mining and processing plant on the basis of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit. Method of research. Analysis of mining and geological conditions and studying the experience of development of deposits of nonferrous metals, evaluation of the ecological situation of the territory of occurrence of the deposit. Results. According to the results of the research it was established: - for ensure ecological safety and preservation of the surrounding area is recommended that the underground method of development of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit of systems with the tab of the developed space and the ascending order of excavation of ore bodies. The most rational is the use of a system of horizontal layers with a dry or hydraulic tab and the use of self-propelled machinery. The most rational is the use of mining system of horizontal slicing with a dry or hydraulic backfill and the use of self-propelled machinery. Alternative options are a chamber-and-pillar system with the leaving of non-attracted pillars or a system with a hardening tab to maintain the hanging side. - the scheme of ore processing of the deposit involves deep enrichment with a high yield (up to 99%) of dry tailings and flotation sludge. To eliminate the adverse impact of sludge storage on the environment, sludge should be placed in the developed space, with the appropriate pre-thickening and dehydration of sludge. - the opening of deposit is recommended by adits and transport slope, while refusing the carrying out of vertical shafts. Given the existing transport communications and prospects of their development in the highlands, it is advisable to focus on road transport concentrate to its processing facilities. - for the construction of the underground mine and transportation of products of the mining and processing plant, it is necessary to reconstruct the existing road to the village Zelenchukskaya with a length of about 70 km. Along with servicing the needs of the plant, the road will improve the transport accessibility of the district and expand the development opportunities in the region of other sectors of the economy of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. Conclusions. The proposed technical solutions and organizational measures allowing economic efficiency and ecological safety to mining of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit.
The aim of the work is to solve one of the important problems of sustainable development of mountain areas, providing for the development of mining enterprises of high-performance, intelligent automated production management systems (ACS P). The methods used in the work: the method of system analysis, methods of control theory technical objects, methods of mathematical modeling event situations, the method of the theory of fuzzy sets, etc. The results of the work. Based on the analysis of the literary sources chosen way forward for sustainable development of mountainous areas, providing for the introduction of mining enterprises with the purpose of meaningful ACS P improve both efficiency of production of these enterprises, and improve the environmental well-being of the territories adjacent to the enterprises. A flowchart of ACS P, as well as structural diagram and operation algorithm of ACS TP with improved functionality were developed. These ACS TP correspond to many conditions and mining development is a significant part of ACS P. Designed for ACS TP the intelligent subsystem elimination of production risks (SEPR), defining emergency situations. The algorithm of action and the functional scheme of this SEPR are offered. The work is also developed for the information support of ACS TP intelligent data collection system, one of the subtasks of which is the collection of information in digital form from control and measuring devices that perform the function of measuring the parameters of the process at all its stages. The main functions of the developed process control system are defined: identification of the probabilistic reasons causing production risks in technological processes; selection of the best solution to eliminate the current negative situation; selflearning, which predetermines the development of intellectual capabilities of the process control system, which is performed on the basis of fuzzy logic. An important part of the work is the development of blocks that are part of the SEPR, the development of the structure of their interaction and algorithms for their operation. The names of the blocks: a visualization block, the block decision, the processing unit prior decision, the evaluation unit situation unit classification of the situation, "say" about the importance and complexity of the tasks specified blocks. Conclusions. The main conclusion of this work is the high desirability of introducing developed APCS in mining enterprises to successfully meet the challenges of sustainable development of mountainous areas and infrastructure conservation in mountain regions. Other findings of the work are: the proposed work approaches to ensure the well-being of mountain territories and increased mining operations, including enhancing the safety of workers, apply for enterprises available in plain areas; the design principles of ACS TP, including those involving enhancement of intellectual ability (capacity) of the individual blocks of ACS TP, apply when designing ACS for many industries, with design of ACS for scientific research.
The objective of this study is to assess the surface subsidence due to mining activities at a study site in Upper Silesia Region (Poland). For this purpose, the geodetic time-series monitoring data was used from the period of 3 years (2009–2012). KnotheBudryk theory was adopted for the influence of underground mining on the subsidence and inclination whereas the rigid body condition method was used to evaluate the stable of buildings. The final inclination values, computed from the rigid body method, are few times bigger than the prediction of the Knothe-Budryk theory. Therefore, we conclude that computation of rigid body condition would be a proper tool to verify the predicted inclinations from deformation models like Knothe-Budryk theory
The purpose of the work is to assess the mining conditions of application of technological schemes of fastening workings in the preparatory work and the establishment of effective technological schemes of holding and fixing the contours for the preparatory workings in the coal mines to improve the stability of their contours. The idea of the work is to establish technological principles for managing the stability of mine workings contours taking into account the manifestations of the mountain pressure of the adjacent massif and changes in its geo – mechanical state. The widespread introduction of technological schemes for beztselikovuju dredging of reservoirs has led to high cost of borrowing workings, the need for the workings at the worked-out space. The behavior of rocks of the coal seams roof of the Karaganda basin is determined by their composition, physical and chemical properties, stratification and fracturing. The direct roof of coal seams is most often represented by mudstones, less often siltstones and in isolated cases sandstones, the main roof is usually composed of sandstones. The soil of coal seams is dominated by mudstone. The method of solving the tasks on the basis of the analysis of domestic and foreign experience in the development of technological schemes of mining in the conditions of reservoir mineral deposits; technological and technical evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions in industrial conditions. The work was carried out within the framework of research works on the theme "development of effective technology of preparatory workings with anchorage, taking into account the stress-strain state of the rock mass". In carrying out this work, we used a set of methods of experimental and theoretical research and the following conclusions: - the presented methodical approach will allow to make a choice of effective ways and means of fastening of mine workings for coal mines and generalized passports of fastening of workings-to form a database that can be considered as a basis and prerequisite for the creation of progressive standard technological schemes of workings and justification of the parameters of fastening and maintenance of workings; the peculiarity of the presented approach to technology, systems and means of contour fastening is that it allows the most effective use of the bearing capacity of the host rocks, which significantly reduces the material consumption and the cost of the support, increases the stability of the contours and reduces the defect of the cross sections of the supported workings.
The study of mountain areas has always been given great attention by science. However, the lack of a single model for the development of mountain areas leads to a variety of recommendations that may not always be consistent. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the natural resource potential and the level of economic development of the analyzed territory. To considers previously developed models of development and assess the possibility of their implementation and orientation. The purpose of this work is to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas on the basis of previously known models by extracting the most optimal solutions from them. As a working method, a logical analysis of a given subject area is proposed, in which the objects are different spheres that determine the level of development of mountain areas, and the signs are their characteristics presented in terms of the variable-valued logic of predicates. As the characteristics of the development of the territory can be the economy, social sphere, resource potential of development, etc., these areas of development in the formal formulation of the problem will be called objects. Description of the object (characteristics) is represented by a set of features that can accurately diagnose the desired object. The set of a number of objects and their features is a sample, which worked a certain number of algorithms (proposed models of development). The quality of each algorithm of the model is estimated by the Boolean function. None of the considered algorithms performed perfectly on the whole set of given objects. We propose a logical method for constructing a new algorithm (correction model), which is optimal for the entire set of recognized objects. The method is based on the construction of a new logical function of the classifier. The result of the study is an optimal model that includes the positive properties of the previously considered models and at the same time corrects their shortcomings. The proposed approach can be the basis for obtaining expert assessments and recommendations in order to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas.
Introduction. As you know, mountain areas in their development to some extent lag behind the plains. In fact, any undertaking in the highlands of an economic, social, agricultural or other nature aspects begins with the solution of the transport problem. At present, transport projects are subject to the requirements of high intelligence with innovative developments, safety, awareness of the road environment, comfort, environmental friendliness and quietness. If on the plain when choosing the directions of the road there are practically no restrictions than in mountain conditions the laying of the road faces a lot of difficulties of relief character, requiring the use of maximum slopes and small radii on the curves, as well as a certain geographical location of the gorge, which sometimes is frontal from the required direction of the road. On the slopes of these gorges to some extent surface exogenous phenomena were developed in the form of landslides, landslides, mudflows, avalanche-glacial and ice formations, the processes of collapse which complicate the design, construction and operation of the transport artery. Creating a transport project in such difficult mountain conditions is extremely difficult, but important. The urgency of this problem increases the need to present to the promising transport communications intelligence that is not yet sufficiently formed for mountain roads. The purpose of the work is to monitor the operation of mountain roads by accident on the example of the Transcaucasian highway (Transcam) and the application of existing rules and regulations in the search and design. Method of research. The research was conducted by the method of analysis of existing design developments, monitoring of mountain roads operation and accident rate. Research result. Complicated conditions of the survey and design of roads in mountainous conditions forced project implementers because of relief conditions to apply the maximum and the maximum allowable longitudinal slope, small radius curves, respectively, that during operation creates a hazardous traffic condition and leads to road accidents.
The purpose of the work is the development of information support and the structure of an information system in which based on the optimal filling of control data and their further processing, the effectiveness of assessing the sustainable development of regional economic complexes in mountain areas is enhanced. The creation of a structure for the sustainable development assessment system capable of ranking the causes of radical displacement and shifts of regional economic complexes beyond the "cone of admissibility" under which the irreversible changes occur is an actual national economic task. Methods. In the course of the research methods of mathematical modeling, economic analysis, experimental studies and data from the statistical service were used. To solve this problem based on the analysis of the research results, the structure of the system for assessing the sustainable development of regional economic complexes was scientifically substantiated, developed and tested. The developed information support system was based on the method of optimal filling it with information sufficient for analysis and processing working on the basis of the objective function. For processing control data on sustainable development of the region, the information processing method was adapted based on the introduction of individual parameters of the region under study. Results. Approbation of the work of the system for assessing the sustainable development of the region with the software developed at a number of industrial facilities in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (CBD) showed that the progressive development of the region is inextricably linked with the expansion of industrial and economic ties with other regions and countries. Therefore, the CBD is facing a radical industrial restructuring not only in connection with the growing demands of the consumer and manufacturing sectors of the domestic market, but in accordance with the requirements and conditions of sustainable development. Conclusions. The application of the system for assessing the sustainable development of the regional economic complexes coupled with the results of thr research and development activities can contribute to the development of scientific, technical and technological potential. The proposed information support makes it possible to assess the sustainable development of regional economic complexes in any regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the introduction of specific characteristics for the region under investigation, in databases.
The subject. The proposed article examines socio-economic and ecological situation in the border mountain regions of southern Siberia. Goal. To analyze the status and dynamics of socio-economic and ecological situation in the border mountain areas of southern Siberia. Methodology. Methodological framework study presented methods of grouping, aggregation, comparative, structural, and logical and statistical analysis, graphical method. The relationship of the investigated phenomena and processes from an institutional component of the regional economic development mechanism dynamics of socio-economic processes was examined. The socio-economic and environmental indicators carried out on the basis of end-to-end methodology for the synthesis of indicator based on integrate three equivalent indicators: level of socio-economic development, the level of ecological status and the level of human development, from which directly and indirectly depends on the ecological future of the territory and society in general were analyzed. Results. The proposed method to map the territory among themselves; develop a strategy for their development based on a comparison of selected indicators; predict the ecological sustainability of border regions of southern Siberia. On the basis of this methodological approach the level of socioeconomic development, ecological condition and human development in the regions of Siberia was estimated . The main problems identifi ed socio-economic and environmental sustainability of mountain territories of Siberia. Scope results. The analysis results of problems in the socio-economic and environmental sustainability may be taken into account in the formulation of development programmes for individual territories of Southern Siberia. Conclusions. The research identifi ed the main problems of socio-economic and ecological situation in the mountainous regions of Southern Siberia. Multidimensional classifi cation of regions of the Siberian Federal District on the major indicators of socio-economic development, environmental condition and level of human potential was carried out. Four types of territories, given their characteristics were highlighted. Border mountain regions of southern Siberia were relegated in the group with low and very low levels of socioeconomic development, human development and environmental condition. The proposed article would cause concern among the economists, as well as members of the public.
This research work examines the mineralogy of Yegbata bituminous deposit and presents and in-depth analysis of the compound type distribution of organic components of maltenes, elemental analysis of alphaltenes and composition of bitumen extracted from various tar sand intervals.
The Javakheti Volcanic Highland, located in the central Caucasus, is part of the ArabiaEurasia continental collision zone. The area is characterized by active tectonics and volcanism. Features of seismic activity and parameters of seismic regime in the volcanic highland of Javakheti during the period of 2005–2017 were studied in this work. High seismic activity (a=4.44) had been characteristic for the Javakheti Highland during the indicated period. From the Gutenberg-Richter relation, b is equal to 0.8, which means that the seismicity of this area is due to weak earthquakes. The epicenters of earthquakes with ML≥3.0 magnitude are located either along active faults or in areas adjacent to them. The distribution of hypocenters shows that seismic events have mainly occurred up to the depth of 20 km, which coincides with the earthquake depths in the Caucasus. Seismic activity in this source area has been characterized by a staged pattern of more passive phases followed by active ones.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)