This field research based on the seven Biosphere reserves of Asturias, looks for identify: i) the perception of sustainability among their tourists, and ii) the sociodemographic factors linked to the propensity to increase expenses in sustainable accommodations as a proxy variable of environmental motivation. A personal survey - based on a convenience sampling - is used to find the answers to the research questions posed. The respondents' perceptions of sustainability were analysed using the best-worst scale method. Experiencing nature in an intense and deep way was considered the most important aspect of sustainable tourism, while dealing with the culture of the host region was perceived as the least important aspect of sustainable tourism.
The identification of relevant sociodemographic factors was carried out through a simple regression model. Age, housing category and family income have a positive effect on the propensity to spend more on sustainable accommodations. On the contrary, neither gender nor training seems to have a significant impact on the propensity to spend on sustainable accommodations.
Purpose: analysis of changes in the industry structure of Jewish Autonomous Oblast at the present stage of its development based on using of its natural resource potential. Methods of researches: systematic approach, historical and geographical that were used to carry out retrospective analysis of the regional economy development, as well as the main stages of land use development in the region were identified; statistical analysis. Results of researches: The development of the region is reflected through the formation of various types of land use on the territory. Analysis of the land use development reveals the fact that the natural resource potential has always been one of the leading factors in the development of the south of the Far East of Russia, and in particular in the current territory of Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO). Soil and mineral resources were already the most demanded in the early stages of regional development. The natural resources of the mountain landscapes of the region were involved in the economy simultaneously with the ones in lowlands. Gold and forest resources were the most significant. Mineral resources of the JAO are various and numerous. The deposits of more than 20 types of minerals were explored in here including large deposits of iron ore, manganese, tin, gold, graphite, brucite, magnesite, zeolites, constructing materials, etc. In terms of number of deposits and occurrences, as well as concentration of minerals the JAO is one of the richest territories of Russia. During the pre-reform period and from the USSR collapse until the 2010s the JAO was different in industrial structure of the economy compared with other eastern regions of Russia. It was characterized by the predominance of manufacturing industry. Then services of public administration and social services took leading positions in the structure of the GRP. The mining industry focused on the extraction of iron ore, brucite, limestone, tin, magnesite, graphite and gold is getting main in the modern industry of the JAO. Conclusions: Due to the current implementation of large investment projects in the mining industry and transport infrastructure the JAO’s environmental management is acquiring classic features of resource-oriented regions. They include increasing the contrast of space development, improvement of the road net of the region that is oriented now on links with Asian countries.
The aim of the study is to assess the bioclimatic conditions in the territory of the Kodar national park and to identify periods that are comfortable for organizing sightseeing and extreme tourism and other active types of recreation. Research methods: Based on the methods for assessing the thermal comfort of the climate, bioclimatic indicators were calculated which are indirect indicators reflecting the conditions for the implementation of tourist and recreational activities. Effective temperature, equivalent-effective temperature and Bodman weather severity index were used as the main indicators. With the use of the ArcGIS software complex, a geographic information model of the study area was created, a spatial analysis of the distribution of the calculated indicators by heights was carried out, and maps of their distribution over the territory were constructed. Research results: The analysis of the obtained values of effective and equivalent-effective temperatures made it possible to determine the main features of the bio-climate for different periods of the year. It was established that the main feature of the climate is its low comfort throughout the year and the seasonality of the distribution of values. Short conditionally favorable summer period, short periods of sub-comfort in autumn and spring and a long winter period of cold discomfort were revealed. The interpretation of the obtained values of indicators was carried out on the basis of thermal sensitivity criteria. Throughout the year, the performance of effective temperatures do not reach the optimum. The authors propose a regional scale of thermal sensitivity. The range of values (from –12 °C to +12 °C), which is suitable for the development of extreme tourism and other active forms of recreation. Thus, a comfortable season for outdoor activities in the Kodar national park is a period from may to mid-October. Analysis of the spatial distribution of bio-climate indicators showed that the most comfortable conditions are limited to altitudes from 550 to 1100 m and orographic boundaries of the Verkhnecharskaya basin, the basin of Lake Nichatka and the valley of the Kuanda River. Bodman index calculations confirmed that severe uncomfortable conditions are observed from November to March. Mitigation of the severity of the weather occurs in May. Special attention is paid to the analysis of opportunities for the development of tourism in the national park. It is proved that, despite the extreme natural conditions, the territory of the Kodar national park is promising for the development of active tourism, including «tourism in the North» or «winter tourism».
Introduction. Special attention has always been paid to the preservation of natural landscapes with the smooth integration of the road route into the relief of mountainous terrain in the Russian Federation. The design of linear objects of transport construction should be accompanied by scientific and technical expertise, i.e. with the participation in the design of scientists or scientific organizations involved in road safety. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct a spatial analysis of the road and the surrounding landscape. Method of research. The basis of the research was the works of domestic and foreign scientists revealing the problems of landscape design of roads in mountain conditions. Research result. As a result of human activity, the landscape can be modified, violating the harmonious forms of the environment by the discrepancy of the structures under construction, or their unsuccessful placement in the natural relief. Properly and competently designed road can improve and diversify the landscape, if it is approached creatively and make it new harmonious elements. Thus, long-term observations of the operation of roads in mountain conditions give grounds to strictly adhere to the principle of harmonious combination of road elements in the allotted lane in order to preserve the environment and ensure safety in case of landslide phenomena. Conclusion: 1. The article makes a certain scientific contribution to the methodology of road design in mountain conditions. Special attention is paid to the mistakes of road designers when straightening the tracks, in the plan and in the profile. 2. It is established that to reduce the accident rate of vehicles and injuries of road users mountain road should be laid with a harmonious introduction of its elements in the landscape space of the mountain area. 3. The article in the form of guidelines is useful for designers of roads and trails laid in mountain areas.
The high seismic danger for the town and its agglomerations is confirmed by the spatial confinement of the territory of Alagir to the zone of the possible seismic source (PSS) at the intersection of the Vladikavkaz and Ardon regional seismically active deep faults, the catalogue of historical seismic events and modern seismic activity. Starting from 2015, seismic events do not decrease, but on the contrary, their number increases to three events during the day, covering the area of manifestation along the entire expected width of the Vladikavkaz fault from Ingushetia to Kabardino-Balkaria and noticeably concentrating in the Ossetian sector of the fault. Three earthquakes on the same day were noted near Alagir in 2015; seismic events in this territory were recorded in 2016. On May 25, 2017, a seismic event was recorded near Alagir with a magnitude of about 3.0; on October 18, 2018, two events per day were recorded with epicenters at a distance of 58 and 36 km from Vladikavkaz; on December 8, 2018, between Alagir and Ardon (near the villages of Kadgaron, Ramonovo and Tsalikovo) a seismic event with a magnitude 3.3 occurred; on April 12, 2018, and April 26, 2018, seismic events occurred near the town of Alagir; on February 16, 2019, two events per day with magnitudes 3.5 and 3.7 occurred and on February 21, 2019, two events with M = 3.4 were registered. All these seismic events are united by the sublatitude zone of their confinement, which coincides with the spatial position of the Vladikavkaz fault, which is convincing evidence of the seismic activity of this territory at the present time primarily due to the activity of the Vladikavkaz fault. This fact proves the need to conduct continuous monitoring of the seismic situation and forehanded taking preventive measures.The article provides a detailed description of the Ardon and Vladikavkaz regional seismogenic deep faults using the data from the latest results of their research; the article also describes the engineering-geological and geomorphological conditions of the town territory based on a set of data on the physical and mechanical properties of soils and the results of engineering and geological and seismic zoning, that is provided with the attached schematic maps.
Objective. The scholarly paper aims to develop the more effective PDC-bit. The selection of the best drilling bit for the specific drilling conditions is one of troubles that oil-and-gas services companies have to face during well construction. Nowadays many different drilling bits being in use for various application well drilling are produced. Now we don’t have an all-purpose rock destruction tool for efficient drilling of any drill ability grade rocks, many specialists and industrial establishments in all the world work to create such drilling tools. Such tools using would help to reduce round-trip operations and as result to improve the drilling speed. The drilling bits cost is about 5% of the well total cost but they are the main ingredient of the well construction economy.
Method of researches. The known drilling bits designs observing permitted to develop the stabilizing double deck cutting-shearing PDC-bits design calculate the basic technological parameters and describe their work with account of the geomagnetic field influence over the drilling fluid. Results of researches. Research results permitted to create the best stabilizing double deck cutting-shearing PDC - bits design and calculate the basic technological parameters of drilling bits work. Conclusions: 1. The drilling bits design optimization permits to achieve the optimum axial load value and the rational value of unit contact bottom-hole pressure during well boring. 2. In accordance with research of the mechanics of medium and above-average drill ability rocks destruction the bit basic design driving up the well construction efficiency was developed. Recommendation. Authors think, the drilling bits will be multi function in the very near future, in the first place in terms of cutting point-equipping take into account rocks drill ability grade, and certainly subjected to different physical and other fields influence, to improve its strength. Herewith they will be changed structurally, than means, all cutting parts will be movable, field replaceable, hydraulic system will improve and all the hydraulic nozzles will be movable. In this way the drilling speed will grow, the vibration down the hole will lower, borehole cleaning will improve, pressure on the bit will be smoother and as a result the rocks drilling unit cost will be lower.
The aim of the work is to create a mathematical model of the movement of droplets (particles) in the turbulent air flow in the vertical pipe of the ventilation shaft of the mine (mine). The use of ore (mine) ventilation pipes of different cross-sections allows more efficient and energy-intensive to organize ventilation in the faces. However, the use in the mountain (mine) workings of abundant water irrigation to combat dust and ensure acceptable temperature conditions of people's stay leads to increased humidity (90% – 100%) in the atmosphere of deep mines, which in turn at temperature differences between the bottom-hole horizon and the earth's surface leads to abundant droplet formation and deposition of water masses on the inner surface of the ventilation pipe of the issuing shaft of the mine. Water, flowing down the walls of the pipe, enters the counterflow with the upward flow of exhaust gases, which leads to failures in the ventilation system and emergency situations in the mine ventilation system. In order to understand the process of deposition of droplet liquid in the vertical pipe of the ventilation shaft of the mine (mine), this article presents a corresponding mathematical model of the movement of droplets (particles). The influence of forces acting on the droplets in the upward ventilation flow is considered. Based on Newton's second law, a system of differential equations of the first order is derived and as a result of its solution the trajectories of droplets (particles) in a vertical pipe are obtained by numerical method. The motion graphs of particles (droplets) distributed over the entire section of the pipe, distributed in the boundary layers of the air flow and turbulent zone are presented. The process of subsidence of droplets on the inner wall of the vertical ventilation channel of the outstanding shaft of the mine (mine) is justified and the dependence of the place of subsidence of droplets on their radial location in the plane of the cross-section of the pipe is established.
In the 50-s, prof. K.V. Ruppeneit investigated the mechanism of transfer of rock pressure forces between neighboring individual blocks in a fractured rock mass. Experiments were performed to fill the cracks between the blocks of the array with liquid wax or liquid lead. After cooling of the wax or lead, the rock mass was carefully disassembled in order to extract a “cast” of rock contacts. As a result of many experiments, K.V. Ruppeneit found that the area of directly rocky contacts, namely, the holes in the "casts" - is only 3-4% of the surface of the entire crack between the blocks in the massif. The transfer of pressure forces is carried out through the point contact of the blocks, and basically, the surface of the crack is free from the transfer of pressure forces between the blocks. To determine the necessary stability of the exhaust workings, an assessment was made of the influence of the weight of a column of broken rock mass on their wear. At the same time, the conditions of the necessary strength and stability of the base of the blocks destroyed by the pressure of the weight of the column of the broken rock mass were determined. There are several options for the construction of the base of the blocks: for the release and delivery of PDM ore, trenches and funnels for VDPU and scraper delivery. When ore is released, the contacts of moving pieces of rock with the surface of the funnel are formed only on the surfaces of their contact. The load due to the weight of the column of broken rock does not act on the entire surface of the funnel, but only on the contact points of the pieces of ore with its surface. Therefore, on the basis of physical modeling, the area of rock contacts of pieces of broken rock mass with the surface of the funnel was determined; this ensured a geometric, dynamic and functional similarity to the model in nature, in which the dimensions of the funnels and the fractional composition were observed. With dynamic similarity, the bulk density of ore represented by quartzites and magnetites was observed. In functional modeling, the weight of a column of broken ore with a height of 100 m was observed. Studies were conducted on models made at a scale of 1:50 from full-scale. The area of rock contacts was determined by scanning on the computer the surface of an expanded truncated cone - an expanded funnel of release with dark spots of rock contacts, with a different ratio of fractions in the broken rock mass. Further, using a computer, their absolute and relative area was de-termined. Since the base of the block is an array cut by outlet funnels having inclined lateral surfaces to the horizon, as is known, there is also a force acting on the shearing (shear) of rocks by the weight of a column of broken rock mass. It was necessary to determine which of the above forces exerts the greatest destructive effect on the base of the block during the mining of rock mass, and based on this information, determine the permissible height of the beaten out ore layer during mining of the ore deposit. Calculations were made of the solid base of the block under the action of crushing and shearing forces, from which it was revealed that when pieces of broken ore act on the inclined surface of the outlet funnel, the destruction of the surface of the funnel occurs primarily due to the shearing component of the column weight forces of the broken rock mass. Calculations show that the column of rock mass creates a shearing force, 2.1 times higher than when crushed. Further, similarly, the calculations of the effect of crushing and shearing forces on the weight of a column of broken rock mass for various sizes of funnels were made. Based on the calculations, the dependence of the permissible maximum output volume of the rock mass on the value of the coefficient of rock contacts was established. For mining syst
Purpose. The aim of the research is to identify the main regularities of formation of chemical composition of mine waters in the Eastern Donbass for the 100-year period and to assess their role in contamination of ground and surface waters in the region. Methods of researches. Interpretation of the data using the standard methods of mathematical-statistical analysis of information and original digital computer technology of classification of multivariate observations AGATE-2 (G-method). This technology allows you to highlight similar taxa in the absence of a priori information (task without a teacher), use dependent signs, high light taxa at various levels, to assess the similarity between taxa and informative signs. Results of researches. The coal industry has a significant impact on the environmental status in the Eastern Donbass. A detailed analysis of the chemical composition of mine water to nine time intervals for the 100-year period showed that the process of personnel changes is undulating in nature. The intensification of the processes of oxidation, leaching and dissolving discovered after periods of flooding of mines (in the post-war 40-e-50-IES and after the Elimination of mines in the 90-ies). It is in these times of mine waters most intensely polluting natural waters in the region, there is a sharp increase in salinity and especially sulphate iron and various metals. Takeaway mine waters on the surface of the solute reaches 413 thousand tons/year. Four main types of (direction) changes the chemical composition of mine waters. The genesis of the first type is associated with the influence of intensive processes of oxidation of sulfides and sulfur contained in coals and enclosing rocks. The second type is caused by the weakening of the oxidation and the beginning of the influx of chloride in ground-condensation from water-carbon phase. There is a possibility of detection within East Donets Basin oil and gas fields, particularly in Gukovo-Zverevskom coal area. Summary. Found that the mine waters are the leading factor in negative impacts on our environment and cause serious environmental damage in the territory of the Eastern Donbass. This calls for effective measures for the rehabilitation of environmental conditions and improvement of remediation technologies.
The aim of the article is to develop a mathematical model of technological damage to the functioning of mining enterprises to improve the monitoring of technological cycles. The study of technological processes of industrial enterprises is accompanied by the emergence of man-made cycles.
Research мethods. In almost any existing technological system, in particular, a mining enterprise, in addition to the current tech-nogenic influence, the accumulated man-made damage already existing at the given moment can be distinguished. For example, pollution of soil and water bodies with various harmful substances as a result of constantly and periodically (emissions) of existing sources of pollution already takes place at this moment and continues to increase due to the continuous operation of pollution sources. In the work, the function of accumulated damage for the material-mathematical model of the technogenic cycle of a mining and metallurgical enterprise is proposed and investigated. The model developed on the basis of equations of electrohydrodynamic analogy allows us to adequately reflect the sequence of stages of environmental impacts during research, which increases the information content of the information support system for monitoring the technogenic cycle of a mining and metallurgical enterprise. The results of the study. With the development of a mathematical model that allows one to determine the accumulated man-made damage in the system of sustainable development of mountainous areas, new perspectives are opened for the analysis of the man-made impact of mining and metallurgical enterprises on the environment and the possibility of making forecasts of the occurrence of man-made disasters. The proposed software allows one to assess the sustainable development of regional economic complexes in any regions of the Russian Federation based on the introduction of specific characteristics for the studied region in the database. The scientific provisions described in the article can be used to analyze technogenic cycles not only in the mining and metallurgical industry of the Russian Federation, but also in any other economic industry where technogenic manifestations of a different nature take place. The introduction of the developed information systems, methods and models in the mining and metallurgical industry of the Russian Federation will increase management efficiency, significantly reducing the technogenic load in the system “enterprise of the mining and metallurgical complex - environment”. Findings. Development and application of mathematical models of the ecological state of the environment, possible environmental damage, etc. they will help to reliably assess the environmental situation, make correct forecasts, outline and implement ways to reduce the anthropogenic load on the environment.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)