The article is devoted to the study of endemics of xerophilous flora of various regions of the Russian Caucasus, adjacent and remote territories (Western Mediterranean, Caucasus, Greater Caucasus, Transcaucasia. Asia Minor and Western Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Pontic region, Palaearctic). The purpose of the study is to identify their species composition, genetic links between them, which are necessary for solving the problems of florogenesis. The article analyzes the results of many years of floristic research in different territories of the Caucasus, publications on the flora of these, adjacent and alienated territories. The study used methods of historical reconstruction, morphological-ecological-geographical analysis, including the method of evolutionary series, as well as the method of phlorogenetic analysis and synthesis. Information on the genetic and geographical relationships of the taxa under discussion was obtained by analyzing the position of the species in the genus system (in the case of monotypic genera, the position in the family system), which made it possible to identify the closest relatives, determine their geographic localization, and suggest the time and directions of migration flows of ancestral species. As a result of the analysis of the distribution of 52 species of endemics of the xerophilic flora of the studied regions of the Russian Caucasus, as well as the flora of adjacent and remote areas, possible genetic links between them were revealed. The closest relationships of endemic euxerophytes were noted within the territory of the Greater Caucasus (26.3%), they are significant with endemic species of the Western Mediterranean, Anterior and Asia Minor (9.6% each) and weaker - with species of the Eastern Mediterranean (5.1%), The Pontic region and the Palaearctic (1.3% each). Based on the analysis of the relationship of paleo- and neoendemics, it was concluded that the process of formation of the endemic nucleus of the flora of euxerophytes took place at least in three stages: due to heterochronous waves of migration from distant western and eastern centers of formation of xerophilic flora of the Ancient Mediterranean, through the formation of secondary centers in Asia Minor and Western Asia, and then in the Western Mediterranean; the most recent most intensive speciation, which took place in the territories of Inland Dagestan, the Central Caucasus and Northwestern Transcaucasia, on a Caucasian genetic basis in Tertiary speciation centers, led to the loss of many types of distant family ties. The results obtained expand our understanding of migration processes and the history of the formation of the flora of the Caucasus.
Aim. Investigation of the electrical exploration effectiveness and atmogeochemical technologies for detecting discontinuous and folded tectonic disturbances during seismic microzoning of the tunnel crossing over the "Markotkhsky ridge" Task. Study of the tectonic disturbance degree and flooding of the flysch strata using spatial electrical filtration, electropotential tomographic sensing, and atmogeochemical measurements along the tunnel route using data from route surveys and drilling at the tunnel design site. Research methods. 1) Field electrical survey measurements of spatial electrical filtration and electropotential tomographic sensing and with installations of multidirectional electric field excitation for" highlighting " target objects. 2) Using a multi-variant system for presenting field data in the form of tomograms and in the form of electro-profiling and sounding to identify destructive zones related to tectonically disturbed rocks and flood zones. Research results. The analysis of domestic and foreign publications on the use of electrical exploration methods in seismic microdistricting of design, construction and operation of critical facilities is performed. On the example of a tunnel crossing over the Markotkhski ridge: 1) geological, geo-ecological, and seismological characteristics of the area of engineering and geophysical research are considered; 2) the field studies of spatial technologies electric filtrazione, electropotentials tomographic probing and atmogeochemical of observations are produced; 3) the heterogeneity of fliteway thickness laterally and quasioperational this thickness on the electrical properties at depth is shown; 4) as a result poperechnogo analysis curves electropotentials tomographic probing, as well as charts of the spatial electric filtrational and atmogeochemical measurements of an tectonically disturbed and watery areas are identified; 5) the degree of differentiation of the flysch thickness by the values of the specific electrical resistance was estimated using a pseudo-section constructed in the Res2Dinv program. Conclusions. The technologies of electropotential tomographic sounding and spatial electric filtration are unique in terms of mobility and simplicity of field measurements, subsequent geological and geophysical interpretation of anomalous values of the electric field based on its redistribution in tectonically and technogenically disturbed geological structures. The result is the identification of places of development of tectonic discontinuities and watered zones, information about which makes it possible to predict, along with the seismicity of the rock mass inside the tunnel, possible places of potential collapse and flooding during the design, construction and subsequent operation of tunnel crossings. A significant achievement of the experiments can be attributed to the identification of the possibility of electroprobing the flysch strata with steeply-and obliquely-lying layers by dipole electric exploration installations. The proof is that the growth of the right branches of the probing curves does not exceed 45°. Consequently, the steeply-and obliquely-lying flysch strata can be considered heterogeneous laterally and quasihomogeneous in depth in terms of electrical properties.
The construction of dams and reservoirs in mountainous and foothill areas poses a number of urgent tasks for designers and researchers related to the wave movement of water in a reservoir with a complex geometric configuration. The collapse of significant masses of rock into the reservoir basin as a result of a landslide phenomenon provokes high surface waves, leading to catastrophic natural disasters in the form of victims and destruction. Designers, construction organizations and maintenance services are required to assess the expected wave increase in water level through the dam crest, as well as the zone and degree of flooding of the area in the reservoir bays and along the river gorge, depending on the geometric, kinematic and dynamic characteristics of potentially possible landslide massifs, mudslides and avalanche flows. In this way, you can predict and then prevent or mitigate the consequences and damage that can cause the formation of destructive waves. In addition to the above problem, this article develops a mathematical model of the wave movement of water in a reservoir, when the movement is caused by the intrusion of a landslide rock mass or a high-speed mudflow into its bowl. The model is the initial boundary value problem of hydrodynamics and hydraulics of gravitational waves. In contrast to previous works, the developed mathematical model takes into account the planned non-prismatic configuration of the reservoir and changes in the water depth in the longitudinal direction of the reservoir. Taking these factors into account significantly clarifies the numerical values of the amplitude of the wave formed, as well as the values of the flow rate, speed and volume of water poured over the dam crest. In the General initial-boundary value problem, the coefficients of the main differential equation are variables that depend on the spatial coordinate. In the General formulation, this creates great difficulties in the analytical solution of the problem and has not been solved by anyone in the whole world to date. In this article was found and applied original and effective substitution, i.e. replacing a variable that in two special cases based on the coefficients from the spatial coordinates that led basic differential equation initial-boundary value problem to the equation with constant coefficients, and thus substantially easier way of solving the initial-boundary value problem. In the above-mentioned special cases, the initial-boundary value problem is solved by strict analytical methods of mathematical physics. For each case, a set of calculation formulas is obtained for calculating the amplitude of the waves formed, as well as for the flow rate and volume of water poured over the dam crest.
Introduction. Roads, as linear engineering structures in mountainous conditions for the sake of traffic safety, should provide a smooth interface and their harmonious combination with the surrounding landscape with the use of longitudinal slopes and radii on curves that reduce accidents and injuries. Anthropogenic intervention on the mountain natural landscape, for the purpose of road construction, is not always safe, because weak soils come into dynamics and the functioning of the road is complicated. For this , it is necessary to conduct a spatial analysis and an integrated approach to the issue, covering all aspects of landscape design of the road to eliminate negative consequences. The essence of the question. The design of highways in mountainous areas without observing the landscape principles of safe operation and with less dynamic shifts of the roadbed leads to a violation of the relief forms, with the implementation of large volumes of earthworks necessary to ensure the projected slope. Research methods. In the process of writing the article, the following methods were used: analysis - in the search and analysis of literature on the subject; observation and comparison in the study and selection of the optimal option. Conclusions: 1. When designing highways in mountain landscapes, it is necessary to find a harmonious combination of the functioning of the road and the landscape itself. 2. A scientifically based analysis and correct choice of landscape design elements in the operation of the road will reduce the dynamics of slope phenomena, the number of accidents, the cost of road maintenance, which contribute to improving safety on mountain roads.
The common approach to landslide prediction is the integration of the observed landslide displacements, soil properties, and rainfall estimation into predictive models. In general, monitoring the evolution of an unstable slope may provide valuable information to gain a better understanding of the active prediction and early warning processes for potential geodisasters. With this background an initiation has taken between India and Russia to develop cost effective methodology to monitor landslides under the Indo Russian Bilateral Collaborative Projects by DST- RFBR. Based on the hazard assessment The Nilgiris District in Tamil Nadu and Wayanad and Idukki Districts in Kerela area identified for further detailed study on monitoring Vulnerable slopes. On the territory of North Ossetia three sites of different mass volume and differenent activity rates were selected. Landslides that have not moved for years (for example Luarskiy landslide) commonly reactivate if ground water levels change dramatically, particularly when water penetrates old ground cracks, or construction activity creates slope modification that reduces stability.
The aim of this work is to develop approaches for a methodology creation that allows estimate preliminary assessment of the power consumption management potential in the absence of experimental data on the object under actual load study. Analysis of diesel power plants operating modes in such systems showed that diesel generators often operate in suboptimal load ranges, which leads to increased diesel fuel consumption, reduction in diesel generators service life andas a result of poor diesel fuelcombustion in the cylinders or increased mechanical parts wear, etc. At the same time, electricity demand management technology used in large centralized power supply systems in some countries of the world can be adapted for use in isolated low power systems. Considering that diesel power plants are the sources of distributed generation in the power systems of hard-to-reach facilities in mountainous areas, demand management will allow to align the daily load schedule, plan the loading, start-ups and stops of diesel generators to improve the technical, economic and environmental performance of the entire complex. This paper proposes a technique that allows estimate preliminary assessment of the object shiftable electrical load share on the basis of "base" data about a typical similar object. The initial data isthe average electrical load daily schedules for each month of the studied object, for example, a settlement. The schedule of non-shiftable partof the studied object load is constructed by scaling the base non-shiftable load schedule depending on the selected method: the series values of base schedule can be multiplied by a coefficient so that one of the base schedule values becomes equal to the corresponding series value of the studied object load schedule, and other base schedule values were less than or equal to the corresponding values. According to the second method the base schedule values can be multiplied by a coefficient so that the series values at the selected hour (for example, evening maximum) were equal to the corresponding series value of the studied object load schedule. An example of methodology application is shown to estimate the demand response potential for electricity in the Amderma settlementresidential sector in Arkhangelsk region. It also shows the calculation results of technical, economic and environmental effect of the demand side management technology, due to electric load schedule alignment and, as a result, diesel generators operationin modes close to optimal.
Currently a lot of mining companies, such as Caterpillar, Sandvik, Atlas Copco and Komatsu are developing solutions for machines remote control and mining process automation. The purpose of these technologies is to increase labor efficiency and safety. Solutions for remote control should establish secure connection and transfer data with low latency – this could be implemented with WebRTC technology. Several problems were revealed during open data analysis of Cisco, Sandvik, Moxa and Acksys remote control solutions – using of expensive IP-cameras, sophisticated network and security design. WebRTC could solve these and several other problems. WebRTC operation principles reviewed further: initial information exchange via signaling server, use of ICE for discovering shortest path between peers and establishing peer-topeer connection. This could simplify network design and allow to use more cheap USB cameras instead of IP-cameras. For security reasons WebRTC encrypts transmitted data with DTLS and SRTP algorithms. Encryption key fingerprints are exchanged over signaling server; after connection establishment, peers are exchanging keys itself over discovered route. But WebRTC specification does not define peer to signaling server communication, which may lead to breach in unsecure data channel, especially man-in-the-middle attack. To prevent this, software engineer should ensure that connection with signaling server is secure. Mining machine model was developed to test data transmission latency. In this model, Raspberry Pi single-board computer is responsible for wireless connection, video encoding and commands processing. Received commands are passed to Arduino controller, which operates electric engines controller. Three remote control scenarios were tested – model is near the operator and in direct line of sight; model is near operator, but not in direct line of sight; model and operator are far away from each other (over 1600 km), model controlled over Internet. Test results shows that transmission latency does not exceed 300 ms, which is suitable for real-time remote driving.
Purpose of work. The article presents the results of theoretical research and developments obtained at the Kuzbass state technical university on the implementation of current monitoring and bringing about signal processing procedures for the dynamic state of autonomous heavy platforms (AHP) on open pit mine routes. In order to obtain information about the generated current trajectories (CT) of unmanned mining dump trucks, in the software and hardware complexes of the computer-aided dispatching system (in the external control subsystem – ECSS and the autonomous control subsystem – ACSS) installed on-board of an AHP, one-dimensional (scalar) continuous signals (hereinafter converted into discrete digital ones) with a time-dependent instantaneous frequency, the so-called chirp signals, are put in accordance with the current trajectories of the AHP. Research methods. This approach makes it possible to continuously monitor and manage the dynamics of current ATP trajectories with a high degree of efficiency. Note that for the purpose of information-rich and semantically transparent representation of information about the current state of the AHP CT, the chirp signals of the CT are converted into multidimensional Cohen’s class time-frequency wavelet distributions. The Wigner-Ville distribution (hereinafter referred to as the Wigner distribution) is selected as a working tool for performing computational procedures in the hardware / software module. This distribution is based on the Gabor basis wavelet functions and the wavelet matching pursuit algorithm. The choice of Gabor wavelets as the main ones is explained by their sinusoidal-like shape, since they are sinusoidal signals modulated by the Gauss window. On the other hand, the analyzed 1D-signals indicating the current position of the AHP on the route are also sinusoidal-like. This makes it possible to approximate current signals with high accuracy based on their comparison with the wavelet functions selected from the redundant wavelet dictionary. This approximation is adaptive, since it is performed on separate local fragments of the signal analyzed depending on approximating wavelets. This is the essence of the wavelet matching pursuit algorithm. The resulting wavelet series is then transformed into the Wigner time-frequency distribution, which is used to form a corresponding CT. Research results. As an example, reconstructions of time-frequency distributions (TFD) are given, corresponding to the deviation of a certain CT to the left (the trajectory signal decreases exponentially) and to the right (the CT-signal increases) from the nominal axial trajectory (NAT). The calculated scalar signal and its TFD for the AHP CT deviating to the left from NAT are also presented. In addition, on the basis of theoretical explanations the calculated linear-increasing TFD is demonstrated, corresponding to the CT-deviation to the right from NAT, and the time invariant stationary TFD characterizing the movement of AHP along the NAT line. Сonclusion. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that the most appropriate ways to monitor the current trajectories of AHP movement and procedures for processing the corresponding signals are the operations implemented in computer-aided subsystems of external and autonomous control and based on such concepts as the Cohen’s class wavelet distributions, Gabor redundant dictionary of wavelet functions, the wavelet matching pursuit algorithm, and the representation of technological chirp-signals, as well as frequency-stationary signals about the current AHP trajectories represented in the wavelet medium. In this connection, the authors concluded that the procedures realizing the current monitoring of AHP movement on open pit mine routes and implementing the process of analyzing a relevant dynamic change in curre
The purpose of this work is to analyze the role of culture in the sustainable development of mountain areas in different regions and with different approaches to reflecting this topic of research in scientific publications. The analysis is based on two thematic issues of the journals Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories (SDMT) and Mountain Research and Development (MRD), which focus on the role of culture in mountains. The joint thematic issue was based on the task to reflect the contribution of cultural factors to the sustainable development of mountain areas, as well as the expansion of scientific exchange between communities speaking different languages. Last but not least, it was important to reflect the difference in approaches and methods of “visualization” of scientific thought in the West and in Russia, integration and contextualization of knowledge, which is crucial for ensuring sustainable development in the global aspect. In total, 13 articles were analyzed (4 in the SDMT and 9 in the MRD). The parameters for analysis and comparison were: thematic focuses of articles, regions covered, a set of keywords, goal formulation, concepts. 9 articles cover the mountains of Asia (Caucasus – 3, Himalayas – 2, Tibet and its eastern mountain frame – 2, Mountains of Siberia – 2), two articles each are devoted to the Alps and Andes. Comparison of the analysis of articles on the role of culture in the mountains, presented in the Russian and Swiss journals, showed both similarities in assessments of the role of culture in sustainable development and differences in approaches and depth of analysis of empirical data. The articles recognize the fundamental importance of culture for sustainable development in mountainous regions and preventing the destruction of mountain communities with unique environmental management systems. The initiative to jointly produce articles on such an important topic as the role of culture in the mountains contributes to global efforts to generate knowledge, demonstrating how to integrate the cultural component into development practice and policy. This is in line with the goals and objectives of UNESCO, in particular with efforts to develop indicators for the cultural dimension of development.
In 2015, 1.8 million tourists visited Russia’s Altai Republic. This profoundly affected the residential population numbering 210,000. However, tourism’s effects do not holistically offer benefit to local culture, the local economy or the environment. To understand perceived impacts of tourism within the Altai Republic, surveys and interviews were conducted among local stakeholders during the summer of 2015. Results suggest that residents and tourists largely agree on tourism’s improving the standard of living, and that tourism helps preserve local culture. That said, residents demonstrated greater propensity than tourists to pick up litter, while women tended to notice environmental damage more than men. The study provides valuable insights into the understudied Altai Republic and contributes to global understanding of interactions between tourism stakeholders.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)