When replacing expensive and scarce cement for the preparation of concrete mixtures, one of the promising alternative binders is fly ash which is formed when coal is burned at thermal power plants. The feasibility of such a replacement depends on the results of studies of the effect of the number of additives of complex binders of different types to cement on the strength of concrete mixtures. The aim of the research was to determine the dependence of concrete strength on cement consumption with fly ash additives, which allows to evaluate the effect of reducing cement consumption while maintaining the quality of concrete. As part of the research, the efficiency of the mixing operation of concrete mixtures components, which significantly affects the physical and mechanical properties of concrete products, was evaluated. So, it is determined that when the intense components mixing of concrete mix in the disintegrator concrete strength increases 1,5-2 and more times. It is established that the optimal mode for mixing the concrete mixture in the disintegrator is the relative velocity of particle collision of 30 - 40 m/s, and a further increase in this velocity is impractical. The results of determining the quantitative parameters of the dependence between the flow rate of cement with fly ash additives and the strength of the concrete mixture are the basis for optimizing the ratio of binder and inert components with a decrease in cement consumption while maintaining the desired quality of concrete. The quantitative values of optimal speeds of mixing are obtained experimentally by comparing alternatives by mixing manually or in the disintegrator. Partial replacement of cement with alternative substances is a promising direction to reduce the deficit of binders not only to ensure the volume of preparation of concrete, but also to reduce the load on the environment. With the intense components mixing in the disintegrator concrete strength increases 1,5-2 and more times. The results of the study are of interest in the manufacture of concrete to fill technological voids formed by the excavation of minerals in the process of underground mining. The proposed technology is a reserve for obtaining economic effect in the modernization of mining and related industries.
Traditional technologies for the development of ore deposits of the Dzhezkazgan deposit, including a standard set of geological and technical measures were able to stop the downward trend in the study of the characteristics of the mineral substance of useful components to a certain extent. But this effect can not last long. There is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the quality, relationship of composition, structure, physical properties and genetic characteristics of the mineral substance with the technological properties of minerals on the example of Dzhezkazgan deposit. The decision on introduction of new technologies is made on the basis of their detailed assessment on a set of technological, economic, technogenic and other factors important for mining and processing industry of the mountain region, its population and natural complex as a whole. Purpose of research. Study of interrelation of composition, structure, physical properties and genetic features of mineral substance with technological properties of useful components of Dzhezkazgan deposit. Research result. The results of the study make it possible to effectively make organizational and technological decisions for the correct choice of new technologies of the mining and processing complex. The peculiarity of the study is that the proposed method can be used in the fields of the mountainous regions of the North Caucasus. Summary. 1. Study of mineralogical characteristics of rocks containing three packs: quartz-carbonate rocks (PCM), quartz-siderite rocks, which are marking for the ore-bearing horizon (PS), mineralized rocks of near-contact ore zones (MZ). In laboratory studies, monofractions of bornite, chalcosine and Galena were isolated along the three lower horizons, and the chemical composition of impurity elements were determined by spectral analysis. 2. It is established that impurities in bornite, chalcosine Galena, such as Ag, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Ti, Zr, gradually increase, and such as As, Ni, V, W, decrease, the content of the remaining elements is less than the sensitivity of the device. Various technological types and grades of ores are defined, the assessment of technological properties of raw materials that allows to define an effective way of processing of ores and indicators of extraction is carried out.
Currently, the most impactful method of reservoir development for efficient oil recovery is water flooding. The main objectives of this method are to maintain reservoir pressure and increase the final oil recovery rate. However, formation damage caused by suspended particles in injected water always occurs during water flooding, thus leading to injectivity decline. This also gives rise to higher injection pressures, above the maximum injection pressure than the surface facilities can provide. Relatively little consideration is given to formation damage in the process of well control optimization. In this study the effect of formation damage caused by clay particles dislodged by low salinity injection water on the well production performance is predicted by coupling an analytical model with a reservoir numerical simulator. This method is applied in a Niger Delta type field model to evaluate its effectiveness. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict accurately effluent concentration profiles, permeability changes during reservoir water flooding, and the evolution of the filter coefficient with time using bed filtration model. In this study, model predictions for different particle and pore size distributions of particles are in agreement with experimental data.
Underground mining of ore deposits, sub-floor caving systems with end ore output are widely used but losses and dilution limit their application area. In the underground mines of Russia, they are the main ones in the extraction of iron and phosphate ores, for example, in the Krivorozhsky basin, Mountain Shoria, mines of the Nizhne-Tagilsky plant, and at a number of large non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. Systems with massive collapse are used in deposits of powerful and medium power. The treatment space is not supported (with the exception of the formation of chambers or slots to collapse the rest of the block in some systems), the breakdown is predominantly borehole, sometimes using controlled self-collapse. The goal of improving the parameters of caving development systems is to develop recommendations for reducing economic damage from lowering ore quality. The chess layout of the treatment faces of the diamond-shaped form is considered. The proposed technique uses the condition of inscribing the release figure into the contours of the beaten and produced ore layer. The maximum allowable for economic reasons ore dilution is determined taking into account technical, technological and technical and economic factors. The stages of mining the ore section are ranked as: drilled section; broken ore layer before release; release figure corresponding to the output of pure ore; a release figure corresponding to the interim release and a release figure corresponding to the final release. The results of calculating the release indicators for the moments of release are the basis for managing the quality of the ore extracted during the release process. Extraction rates taking into account dilution by rocks may be proposed to be determined graphically. Correct methods for calculating ore dilution, production rate and losses are proposed. Ore caving technologies have priority in the extraction of metal ores. Reducing losses and dilution is a reserve for increasing the efficiency of this high-performance technology. The proposed methodology for calculating the extraction indicators improves the accuracy of designing the parameters of the development system, which optimizes them taking into account the nature of the contact of ore with the host rocks, thereby allowing the use of this technology. The new methodology for calculating the parameters of the sub-floor caving system and the analytical, empirical and graphical possibilities of its implementation are applicable in the design and operation of mining and processing enterprises. The proposed technology is a reserve for obtaining an economic effect during the modernization of mining and related industries.
On the example of one of the large enterprises at the foothill zone of the North Caucasus – LLC Kavdolomit, which provides leading enterprises of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries with dolomite, the need for replacing the dry method for collecting small particles of dolomite flour, including nanoparticles, in bag filters that are unable to capture particles by size it is shown less than 1 micron due to the structure of the fabric on a promising wet method of dust collection. At NCIMM (STU) on the basis of the patented design of the distribution plate, a jet bubbler design has been developed in which a foam regime effective for trapping small particles is created due to the impact of gas-liquid jets without the use of surface-active substances. It is known that the mechanism of bubble formation in the bubblers is determined by a large number of parameters and is extremely complicated; therefore, the development of a mathematical model of the air bubbles formation is important for the theoretical assessment and prediction of the results of the bubbling process initial stage and for obtaining data for the design of the industrial jet bubblers. The process of bubble formation from the vertical slots of the bubbler caps is considered in stages. 1st stage – opening the windows of the slots of the cap. The formula for determining the static pressure requires to open the windows of the slots and the initial opening of the slots. 2nd stage – the formation of air bubbles. The process of separation of the bubble from the window of the cap slot is considered, provided that the forces acting on the bubble at the time of separation are equal. As a result, the formula is obtained for determining the rate of air outflow from the slot needed to detach a bubble. Based on the obtained mathematical model, a methodology has been developed for calculating the parameters of the air bubbles formation process in the jet bubbler: the initial opening of the slots, the static pressure under the cap of the cap and the rate of air flow from the slot. A comparison of the calculated value of the velocity of air outflow from the slots of the cap with the literature data for the velocity values in the holes of the bubblers indicates the adequacy of the obtained mathematical model.
Introduction. It is known that advanced modern statistical filters cannot hold all small solid inclusions in oil due to their negligible size. At the current level of mechanical engineering, the centrifugal method of separating oil from solid inclusions is the most effective and promising way of high-quality oil refining. With this separation method, the centrifugal force acting on each solid particle of the mixture stops it on its way to the oil intake hole, and then transfers this particle to the sludgecollecting place. An analysis of the literature on the problem of separation of oil with solid inclusions shows that the theoretical provisions of the centrifugal separation process have not yet been developed, and there are no design formulas that allow the selection of the overall dimensions of rotating elements and the frequency of rotation of these elements providing highquality oil separation. The scientific developments of this article fill this gap in the field of application of the centrifugal separation method. The purpose of the research is to develop a mechanicalmathematical model of the centrifugal process for cleaning small solid impurities from the connecting rod journals of the crankshaft of an internal combustion engine of mining machines. Research Methodology. To develop a mechanical and mathematical model, the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines was simulated based on boundary value problems for the differential equations of incompressible fluid flow in a cylindrical tube and the differential equations of motion of small solids in a fluid. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the movement of the liquid in the tube and the forces of resistance to the movement of the solid in the liquid are taken into account. As input parameters, the obtained mechanical-mathematical model contains all the overall dimensions of the device elements and its rotation frequency. Research results. The resulting set of calculation formulas makes it possible to calculate the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the entrained solid particle and thereby select the neck rotation frequency so that solid inclusions do not advance to the oil drain hole, and particles created by the centrifugal force move to the sludge-collecting place. This will ensure high-quality centrifugal cleaning of oil from solid inclusions. The results of the obtained calculation formulas were implemented on a computer. The following important conclusions were obtained: at the above values of the input parameters of the device to ensure oil separation, the neck rotation speed should be At a rotation speed in the device, a reverse hydraulic process occurs, i.e. the oil flows from the area to the area through the tubes. According to the obtained calculation formulas, computer calculations were performed with the above numerical values of the input parameters. The frequency of rotation of the neck varied within. As the frequency increases, the ejection rate decreases sharply. This decrease is due to the fact that the centrifugal force slows down the flow rate of oil in the tube and at the same time, the ejection of particles from the tube is inhibited. The results of the presented computational experiments show that in a wide range of variation of the rotation frequency, the particle acceleration sharply increases within and is pressed against a cylindrical surface. Conclusion: 1. A mechanical-mathematical model of the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in the oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines has been developed. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the move
In this paper we consider the importance of the environmental component of the reproduction process and preservation of ethno-cultural characteristics and lifestyle of the modern composition of the indigenous peoples of the North (Evenki) in the Trans-Baikal Territory. The author argues that the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of the Evenki community, which is an ethnic minority in the areas of residence, is possible provided that the resources of the hunting and fishing fauna of the local population are restored and rationally provided that the Evenki have special rights to them. The nature of the development of the territories, which affects the features of the conservation and reproduction of biological resources in the mountain taiga landscape zone of the region, depends on the institutional environment for hunting nature management that has formed here so far. It is noted that the weakening of the state’s attention to the sphere of nature management in the post-socialist period and the shift in the emphasis of national policy to the sphere of supporting cultural and socio-demographic processes among the indigenous population led to the degradation of the natural resource base of the traditional way of life in most regions of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the reduction in the number of the main hunting and commercial animal species worsens the socio-economic situation of the indigenous population, which remains connected with traditional activities. The purpose of the article is to assess the role of formal and informal institutions in creating the conditions for the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of Evenki Trans-Baikal Territory. Research materials. The results of interviews with representatives of the municipal authority, the Indigenous Peoples' Association of Evenki (Trans-Baikal Territory) of the TransBaikal Territory, hunting users, heads of hunting farms, chairmen of Evenki communities and ordinary hunters, data on the lease of forest plots, the number of hunting and hunting animals, the number and employment of the population, provided by the relevant State services and departments in the region, as well as the results of studying the transformation of formal and informal environmental management institutions and its consequences for hunting e-fishing activities of the indigenous population. A map showing all the main actors of hunting nature management in the areas of traditional Evenki residence and substantiating the use of an institution-oriented approach to solve the tasks posed during the study was created using GIS technologies. Conclusions. The institutional environment formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory is not very effective in resolving the problems of the development of ethnic nature management in the mountain taiga zone and requires further development in order to strengthen control over the number of commercial animal species and create mechanisms for their sustainable use. The author offers some recommendations that can ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East to hunting as a traditional activity.
A Council of Europe Ordinance of 2000 obliged government structures of various levels to protect and care for cultural landscapes designated as human-inhabited territory, which characteristics express the mutual long-term influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The concern is caused by the fact that since the second half of the 20th century, with the growth of mechanization, automation, and chemilization, the cultural landscapes of both the lowland and mountain regions have undergone particularly strong changes. The Alpine mountain region is considered as a benchmark in which the traditional economic activity in mountain areas, with its regional differences, keeps on co-existing with the current rapid development of technology, innovations and the increasing influence of external capital. However, the problems inherent in all the mountainous regions of Europe (desertion of rural settlements and outflow of population, declining role of agriculture and increasing role of tourism) are also characteristic of the Alpine region. The article deals with the territory of the northern, marginal part of the Alps, belonging to Germany – the Bavarian Alps. The Bavarian Alps occupy only 1.7% of the Germany territory but for Bavaria, this Alpine area is closely linked to its identity. In Alpine Bavaria, traditions, dialects, folklore are being preserved. The farmers land plots here are bigger than in other parts of the Alps, as well as the number of livestock. Population outflow in the Bavarian Alps is less than in some provinces of the Italian or French Alps. The Bavarian Alps is an area of developed, highly specialized and high-tech meat and dairy farming. But at the same time it is an area of sophisticated mass tourism – both, winter and summer. There are practically no original natural landscapes in the Bavarian Alps, since with the arrival of Bayovars, from about the 9th century, agricultural development of the territory began, and by the Middle Ages all suitable areas had been developed. Thus, all existing landscapes are cultural landscapes, the result of natural development and human impact. The cultural landscape of Bavaria, attractive for tourists and so important for the preservation of the natural balance, is supported primarily by farmers. Therefore, the main task is to prevent the desolation of mountain regions, the preservation of rural settlements and the rural way of life. Factors contributing to the preservation of the cultural landscape could be divided into external (political or legislative) and "internal". The external factors include: government subsidies of various levels (starting from the Council of Europe) to farmers; land law protecting the integrity of agricultural land; community rights to land and property management; building codes and regulations that preserve the architectural integrity of rural settlements. The “internal” factors in support of the Bavarian cultural landscape are hidden in the very system of rural life. These are traditions, customs, dialects. Traditions are worked out for centuries, passed down from generation to generation: housekeeping skills, crafts, customs, ceremonies, cuisine, etc. Traditions in Bavaria are very strong, as are the dialects. These factors unite people, create a connection with the place of residence with nature which is reflected in the cultural landscape.
The purpose of this article is: 1) to show that the economy is neither the only nor the dominant factor in the sustainable mountain development; 2) consider the integration of the cultural needs of society with the goals of sustainable development; 3) describe the history of the occurrence (17th – 18th centuries) of the Old Believer’s SMD ethno-cultural model Belovodye and its relevance for the SMD Agenda of modern Russia. Methods of researches: analytical review of literary sources The article contains 3 key blocks: 1) Introduction - the issue of the integration of culture and the relevance of this issue to the mountain regions of Russia; 2) a brief overview of the history of the ROC schism in the 17th century, the emergence of two Russian sub-ethnic groups - the New (Nikonians) and Old Believers, as the basis for the emergence of a SMD model “Belovodye”; 3) specific examples of the history and features of the development of Old Believer communities in Altai and the Far East. The “Belovodye” model is a unique example of the SMD strategy, where ethno-cultural traditions and work ethics (affairs) are the main drivers of development. Its vitality and attractiveness in the 21st century is confirmed by numerous examples from the life of the Old Believer’s Russian diaspora in the most diverse natural and cultural landscapes of Russia and the world - Altai, Sikhote-Alin, Transbaikalia, North and South America. Such a model of life and management in the mountains is organic to the nature of the mountains. It is based on effective local management of local resources. The success of the SMD of the territory and the community is possible if there is a “political will” of the State that supports, through legal, economic and investment mechanisms, such a development model. In conclusion, the author poses the following questions: • How relevant and is there a future for the Old Believer model of “Belovodye” in the mountains of Russia? • Is the process of convergence of the preserved culture of the Russian subethnos of the Old Believers possible with a complex picture of a changing world - the world of numbers, modernization, artificial intelligence, climate change, etc.? • In what format can a powerful layer of Old Believer culture be integrated into the modern Russian SMD Agenda?
Cultural landscapes of the North Caucasus were created by the work of many generations of the Highlanders from regions of the Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus, and in the native habitats of indigenous ethnic groups with distinctive environmental practices. The originality of cultural landscapes was formed as a result of adaptation of traditional types of nature management to the unique landscape mosaic, and is expressed in the unique combination of residential complexes, mountain agricultural terraces and pastures with natural surroundings. An analysis of the literature and the experience of studying key mountain areas in the Galanchozh, Itum-Kalinsky and Sharoy regions of the Chechen Republic show that the current state of cultural landscapes can be characterized as critical with the ongoing destruction and ruinization of the former settlement, revegetation in some parts of landscape-economic areas and intensive uncontrolled pasture load in others.. The abandonment and desolation of the historical habitats of the mountain peoples are caused by the collapse of local communities, the loss of control over resources by local residents, the formation of a new enlarged "cutting" of land use, depopulation, the emergence of resource and tourist-recreational forms of exploitation of the territory. This phenomenon is proposed to be considered as a “mountaineering” of the Caucasus, in the sense that this sequence of events was realized (in various national invariants) in the second half of the 20th century on the vast space of the "Alpine arc". The specificity of the postmodern scenario of the North Caucasus development was manifested in the fact that the leading factor in the alienation of resources and the destruction of traditions was not private capital, but errors in public administration that led to a shift in the native ethnic areas, including due to the eviction of mountain ethnic groups, which led to more than a quarter-century gap in the traditions of staying in the enclosing landscape. The sequence of destruction of the cultural landscapes of the mountains is closely related to the features of their inherited structure: the distant and high-altitude villages and their adjacent landscape-economic area, the most vulnerable part of which is the mountainous terraces, become unused. The degradation of the cultural landscape entails the loss of the whole set of eco-service functions — environment-stabilizing, life-supporting, intangible, which contradicts both immediate aims and the long-term prospects for the region’s socio-economic development of the region. At the same time, in a number of regions of the North Caucasus, and especially in the mountainous part of the Chechen Republic, there is a "return" movement (approved, and partly initiated by the authorities) to traditional high-mountain habitats ("historical roots"), during which the efforts of private business and volunteers restore sacred centers (designed to serve as new points of growth) and there are the first signs of the re-development of the territory (small farms, seasonal shelters and roads) – a process that can be called "nativization".
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)