The Murmansk region is a region with the largest enterprises of the mining complex of the Russian Federation:
KF JSC “Apatit”, JSC “Kola MMC”, JSC “Olkon”, JSC” Kovdorsky GOK”, JSC” North-West Phosphorus Company”, LLC”Lovozersky GOK”. They provide the majority of the country’s demand for phosphate ores, zirconium raw materials (baddeleyite), niobium, tantalum, and rare earth metals. In addition, the mining and processing of copper-nickel, iron and chrome ores, nepheline and ceramic raw materials, facing stone and building materials is carried out. At the same time, the activities of enterprises have a very negative impact on the environment. The issues of environmental safety in the extraction and processing of minerals, storage of mining waste in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation are of particular relevance. The definition of sustainable development in relation to the mining industry is given. The concepts of available best technologies, circular economy, and “green growth” are considered from the point of view of their contribution to sustainable development. It is shown that the sustainable development of enterprises at the present stage is impossible without improving the environmental friendliness of production. The article analyzes the legislation of the Russian Federation and the practice of its application to identify mechanisms that promote sustainable development and eliminate barriers to the implementation of this concept in the mining industry. New technological solutions have been developed for mining enterprises of the Murmansk region, aimed at reducing aero-technogenic emissions, cleaning waste (mine) water, processing tailings of enrichment as man-made deposits, which allows both to minimize man-made environmental impacts and to increase the full use of mineral raw materials. Thus, the expediency of using the principles of “green growth” for the development of economic development policies in the Arctic is justified.
At the present stage of development of the mineral resource base of precious metals, the wider involvement of refractory ores and technogenic products in the mineral processing is playing a very important role. It is due to these types of mineral resources the main Russian and foreign companies plan to get the increase in the production of gold and other precious metals. Refractory ores are characterized by low content and uneven distribution of valuable components, emulsion dissemination of gold, complex material composition, flotation active silicate and carbonaceous rock components. The main technologies for their processing include combined schemes that provide intensive preliminary preparation of ore, fine and ultrafine grinding. Creation of effective reagents for flotation of fine classes of noble metals, selective depression of gold-free sulfides, like pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and rock minerals is one of the recognized innovative solutions for intensifying the enrichment process of this type of raw material. The studies performed at IPKON RAS in the framework of the scientific school of Academician V.A. Chanturiya helped to develop and substantiate the novel selective reagents-collectors of dithiocarbamate type (DEDTCm, OPDTC, DBDTC, MDTC) and herbal modifiers that possess complexing properties in relation to noble metals and provide an increase in the recovery of valuable components of gold by 5-7%. A set of analytical methods - scanning electron (LEO 1420VP, Carl Zeiss) and laser microscopy (KEYNCE VK-9700, Shimadzu), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ARL ADVANT’X), ICP –MS (Agilent 725 ICP-OES, Agilent Technologies), X-ray diffractometry (DRON-2.0, XRD 7000, Shimadzu), potentiometry, titrimetric analysis, methods of mathematical statistics helped to study the adsorption layer of the reagents on natural minerals and model sulfides with micro- and nanosized gold. Using an original technique for quantitative assessment of the reagent coating by image analysis (SLM), the surface area of the mineral occupied by the reagent was calculated. A method for selective flotation of gold-containing sulfides using OPDTC and oak bark extract has been developed and tested in the separation of the collective gold-arsenic concentrate of the Olympiada deposit. It showed the possibility of obtaining a gold-pyrite concentrate with an arsenic content of less than 2%. The prospect of using plant modifiers for gold recovery during flotation of complex ores has been substantiated.
Morphotectonic indices are useful instruments for investigating the effect of tectonic activity in a certain region. Calculation of these indicators using the advantages of Geographical Information System, GIS, in a large area is useful for detecting potential disorders related to active tectonics. This method is useful in regions on which few morphotectonic studies have been conducted. An example of such areas can be the watersheds of the Sirch mountainous region. The watersheds of the Sirch region located in Central Iran’s zone in the southeast of Iran are a very ideal zone to evaluate the concepts of these indicators in the prediction of the relative tectonic activity according to the investigation of drainage systems or mountain fronts. Based on the values of the calculated indices including Form Factor (FF), Compaction Coefficient (CC), Ratio of Circularity (RC), Ratio of Elongation (RE), relative Basin Height (BH), and Ruggedness Number (RN), a final indicator called Active Tectonic Indicator (ATI) is obtained. The latter is a combination of the abovementioned indicators and evaluates the morphotectonic activity based on the shape of the watersheds. By measuring and combining these indicators, the tectonic activity stage of the Sirch region was determined by analyzing the watersheds of this region.
In the work, on the basis of our own field and laboratory studies of the components of the environment, the regularities of the natural and technogenic metal content of the territory of the Middle Urals were established; the mining complex was assessed as a source of pollutant flows into the environment; the formation of flows of pollutants in the environment under the influence of technogenic and mineral formations has been investigated; it is proposed to divide all pollutants, according to their source of entry into the environment, into atmospheric and hydrogenic flows of mining complexes. The problem is that the methodologies for setting maximum permissible emissions (MPE) and normative permissible discharge (NPD) are practically the same. They cover the assessment of the background concentrations of pollutants in the studied media, the assessment of pollution sources, the establishment on the basis of the dilution (mixing) processes of the predicted concentrations (at the border of the sanitary protection zone or in the control section) and the development of the permissible level of the impact of source into the element of the environment in g / h or in t / year with guaranteed quality assurance). Unfortunately, the methodologies used in standardizing the impact of mining and metallurgical complexes on the environment do not take into account a number of aspects, mainly geochemical, which often leads to the formalization of this process with subsequent negative environmental consequences. The objects of research considered in this work were the mining and metallurgical complexes of the Urals, located on its eastern slope in the basin of the river. Tours and including iron ore (the cities of Kachkanar, N. Tagil), copper ore (the cities of Krasnouralsk, Kirovgrad, Pervouralsk) complexes and environmental components (atmosphere, geo-hydro- and biosphere)) within them. The subject of research is the most characteristic ore and associated metals of the Ural deposits: Fe, Cr, Mn, V, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Hg, Cd. The aim of the work was to study the flows of pollutants in natural and man-made geosystems of the Middle Urals and to develop a methodological basis for assessing the impact of mining complexes on the environment.
Innovative processes of deep and complex processing of technogenic raw materials in the context of sustainable development of the mining industry and the economic challenges facing the mining industry should ensure the transition to a circular economy and the maximum use of natural resources. The article reflects the priority scientific and technological research on the involvement of technogenic mineral resources in efficient processing. Presented, developed at ICEMR RAS, including jointly with universities, research and production organizations and enterprises, modern innovative processes of deep and environmentally friendly processing of refractory mineral raw materials of complex material composition (tailings of enrichment of non-ferrous and noble metal ores, poor off-balance ores, slags ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, sludge of metallurgical production) and hydro-mineral technogenic resources (acidic mineralized bottom-dump waters of mining enterprises of the copper-zinc complex of the Urals, saponite-containing circulating waters of diamond processing factories). Among other things, new directions in the field of selective disintegration of finely dispersed mineral raw materials based on energy effects and deep processing of slags are outlined; increasing the selectivity of enrichment processes; combined processing of technogenic raw materials; resource-saving processing of technogenic and hydro-mineral resources, obtaining secondary products from processing waste. It is shown that in the face of new economic challenges, Russia has sufficient scientific and technological potential in the field of deep and environmentally safe processing of technogenic raw materials in the form of developed and, to varying degrees, tested innovative resource-saving technologies that correspond to the world level, and in a number of technologies are superior to it.
The main deposits of kimberlite ores located in the regions of Western Yakutia are enriched at the ALROSA diamond extraction factories using a similar technology, in which the maximum completeness of extraction and safety of diamond crystals is ensured by the stages of schemes. The bulk of diamond crystals is extracted in the processes of heavy medium, sticky and foam separation, the effectiveness of which is determined by the properties of diamonds, kimberlite minerals and the media separating them. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies carried out by ICEMR RAS together with the largest universities in Russia, scientific and industrial enterprises of ALROSA. It is shown that the use of combined energy methods of destruction and removal of hydrophilizing formations on diamond crystals provides hydrophobization of their surface in the processes of sticky and foam separation. It has been established that the efficiency and economic indicators of the process of dense medium separation of diamond-containing raw materials are due to the stability of the technological properties of the weighting agent of the ferrosilicon medium and the suspension prepared on its basis. The method for modifying the corrosion resistance of ferrosilicon by nitriding its surface has been substantiated and tested. The proposed method makes it possible to create a protective shell on the surface of the granules, preventing their destruction upon contact with corrosive components of the water-air environment. Semi-industrial tests have established the possibility of increasing the extraction of diamonds into concentrates for sticky and foam separation by 4 and 5.2%, respectively. The results of laboratory tests have confirmed the possibility of reducing the corrosion rate of ferrosilicon by 5-6 times in the process of dense medium separation.
The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of the mutual influence of groundwater flow and results of human activities in the upland and lowland areas of Central Asia. The need for research was determined by the serious consequences of anthropogenic activities, which in recent years have required the inclusion of these tasks in the category of national security problems of the Central Asian States. Such tasks include, first of all, the extensive use of existing water resources in the Syrdarya and Amu Darya river basins, which was reflected in the well – known tragedy of the Aral Sea, the pollution of water resources during peaceful nuclear weapons tests, which negatively affected the state of the environment in East Kazakhstan, in addition-in the irrational use of water resources, including groundwater, on irrigated lands in Central Asia. These and other factors have determined the need to develop capabilities for predicting the state of both the aquatic environment and the influencing factors of human activity themselves. The solution of the problem presented in this article is based on the new fundamental scientific concepts developed by the authors, their own and attracted material of the results and is expressed in the proposed specific solutions.
Floods are considered to be one of the most costly natural hazards in the Lam river basin causing infrastructure damages as well as devastating the affected area and relatively high death toll. So prevention is necessary for shielding lives and properties. The flood management on the Lam River basin has been considering for many years to minimize damages caused by flooding. The flood hazard zoning map is one of the indispensable tools to provide information about hazard and risk levels in a particular area and to perform the necessary preventive and preparedness procedures. The multicriteria decision analysis based on geographic information systems is used to build a flood hazard map of the study area. The analytic hierarchy process is applied to extract the weights of six criteria affecting the areas where are prone to flooding hazards, including rainfall, slope, relative slope length, soil, land cover, and drainage density. The results showed in 91.32 % (20103.83 km2) of the basin located in the moderate hazard zones to very high hazard zones. Accordingly, this study also determined 4 vulnerability levels to agricultural land including low, medium, high, and very high. About 94% of the total area of agricultural land in the basin are classified into moderate to the very high hazard of flood vulnerability. The paper presents a method that allows flood risk areas in the Lam River basin to receive information about flood risks on a smartphone, making them more aware.
Abstract. The article presents the results of research on a comprehensive assessment of techno genic waste deposits located in the North Caucasus region, gives a brief description of the material composition of techno genic raw materials, element-by-element quantitative reserves that are part of the accumulated secondary georesources for their possible utilization, production of non-ferrous metals and raw materials for the manufacture of industrial building materials. The article considers the sanitary and ecological parameters of the functioning of man-made raw materials in complex orographic, meteorological and geographical conditions. The critical aspects of the preservation of techno genic waste deposits in the current anthropogenic conditions are identified. The risk factors for the removal of toxic and harmful geomaterials into the water area with significant harm to the flora and ichthyofaunal are identified. For a deeper assessment of the minerals contained in the extracted ore, a unified state register of techno genic waste deposits should be created, Taking into account the high fragmentation of all the above – mentioned process links at the present time , the owners, taking into account the current sanitary and regulatory requirements, must take adequate measures to ensure the regulatory and environmental requirements in accordance with the current Federal Law “On Production and Consumption Waste”. The need for complex processing of waste from mining and processing industries in the North Caucasus is also dictated by environmental aspects due to the high risk of the occupied
territories (they are located in floodplain terraced areas of mountain rivers) due to the flooding of mountain rivers, including the high vulnerability of resort and recreational and balneological complexes due to the negative impact of these negative sources. The assessment of the useful components contained in the extracted ore is currently not carried out in full, and the accumulated waste from processing non-ferrous metal ores is used in small volumes.
A great number of various factors to a different extent impact iron ore treatment, properties of mineral composition of ore and parameters of technological equipment being some of them. To solve the problem of improving performance of a concentration plant in terms of the concentrate, it is required to elaborate effective scheduled procedures, upgrade technological equipment, develop methods of control over concentration processes considering technological properties of ore fed. There is suggested a method of improving efficiency of magnetic concentration of iron ore under the action of high-intensity ultrasound. There are established dependencies between physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical characteristics of iron ore slurry solids and their behavior in technological flows under controlled ultrasonic vibrations, this enabling simulation modelling of the process and specification of optimal controlling actions. The research object is assessment of characteristics and control of iron ore magnetic concentration on the technological line of the ore concentration plant. The research subject is the cyber-physical system based on using impacts of highintensity ultrasound on slurry solids to assess characteristics of iron ore magnetic concentration. Obtained dependencies and mathematical models of the non-linear spatial process of high-intensity ultrasound propagation in the iron ore slurry enable implementing the method of assessing characteristics of iron ore magnetic concentration and due to this increase efficiency of the mentioned operations. There are suggested methods of calculating intensity of high-intensity ultrasound in a certain point of the measurement area in order to perform forecast displacement of ground ore particles and changes of the fraction composition of slurry solids under the controlled action of high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations. The developed method and the software-engineering complex for its implementation enable restoring a function of distributing ground ore particles by sizes, forecasting results of technological operations and forming controlling actions.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)