Purpose: to study the influence of technogenic load and anthropogenic impurity in free air on indicators of health of the population with identification of cause and effect dependence, to develop sanitary and hygienic recommendations about improvement of a surrounding medium, strengthening of health of the population in sustainable development of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. Methods. Methodological approach of air quality research is based on the detailed analysis of structure and seasonal dynamics of pollution on route posts of observation and on padding points of selection of single tests. During the researches sample were drawn in reference points on territories of the republic and the analysis of emissions of pollutants from stationary sources was carried out. On reference points according to state standard specification 17.2.3.01-86 samples of air for definition of dioxide of nitrogen, white damp, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, phenol, formaldehyde and suspended matters were selected. Results (discussion): It is established that the tendency of air impurity concentration accumulation is observed for the free air in KChR expired, more than 15-year period, bulk emission of pollutants in the atmosphere of KChR in an annual cycle increased more than three times (from 19,2 to 58,1 thousand tons/year), at the same time by 2,4 times the common incidence among the population of the republic increased. Indexes of incidence of the period of 1994-1999 significantly differ from that, received by us from 2012 for 2016. The incidence of respiratory organs increased by 1,4 times, nervous system – by 1,8 times. Significantly indicators of diseases and other classes of incidence, narrowness of correlative communications with environmental factors at the same time very high raised. Conclusions. Depending on the prevailing kind of activity in areas of the republic increase in level of the corresponding classes of diseases is noted. At the developed sanitary and epidemiologic and ecological situation in territories of municipal units of Karachay-Cherkessia as shows the geoecological analysis it is possible to expect body height of incidence and abundance of diseases, the bound to increase in anthropogenic impurity in the air environment in the nearest future. At the same time indexes of health will allow to improve evidence-based ecologo-economic, technological and sanitary and hygienic actions for quality management of the air environment due to decrease in intensity of influence of risk factors. This task as it is represented by the authors can be solved by creation of a regional geographic information system.
The study of altitude-zone of mountain landscapes has a rich history. However, the allocation of mountain systems from the general natural structure of the Earth has not yet been ensured by the appropriate methodology, the seeming specificity of mountain landscapes does not have its strict justification and terminology. At the present stage of increasing the importance of mountains in the context of global changes, it is necessary to coordinate research and develop a generally accepted conceptual framework. The russian mountain landscape studies, which have rich methodology and experience, face the danger of being unnoticed in world research. Steps are required for convergence of positions, first according to well-known terms denoting the main altitudinal zones. The simplified schemes of high-altitude zoning in the various geographical belts can serve as a basis for further generalization. It seems that the most universal for different regions of the world can be the four main high-altitude stages that carry the signs of both climate and terrain. First, lowest stage, colline. It is separated from below from landscapes, which are often referred to as "planar". The second stage characterizes typical mountain landscapes (montane). The upper limit of this stage, as a rule, is indicated by the upper limit of forest spread and the upper limit of permanent settlement. The third stage - alpine - follows a higher montane and includes landscapes where it is possible to grow non-forest vegetation. In Russian landscape science, the term “alpine”, as a rule, refers to the designation of the forms of macro relief, as well as to the allocation of alpine meadows as subzones of the high-altitude mountain meadow landscape zone. In this respect, the international definition is broader, since it includes all landscapes above the upper boundary of the forest. In arid areas, where the distribution of forests is limited by natural and climatic factors, the boundary between the second and third stages is not expressed. The use of the terms "alpine" and "subalpine" in the Eastern Caucasus, in the mountains of Central Asia and other arid territories does not always reflect the specificity of local landscapes. Finally, the fourth stage - nival - is the least controversial. It stands out in almost all classifications as a step that completes the entire spectrum of high-altitude landscapes and denotes an area above the upper limit of the distribution of vegetation. In the Russian landscape science, it corresponds to the nivalglacial type of landscapes.
The aim of the study was to assess the resources of the Caucasus high – mountain maples for forest planning and efficient use. The high-mountain maple Acer trautvetteri Medw., remains little studied among forest-forming species and features of the structure of stands stocks and properties of wood, plant raw materials, non-wood products have not yet been studied. In the Caucasus high-mountain maples occupy the Northern slopes of the ridges at altitudes from 1 to 2,2 thousand m. The structure of high-mountain maples, stocks and structure of raw materials deposited in these plant communities depends on the height above sea level. Based on the results obtained, the zone of distribution of the Trautfetter maple along the vertical profile is conditionally divided into three zones: the upper belt (above 1600 m above sea level), the middle belt (from 1301 to 1600 m above sea level) and the lower belt (up to 1300 m above sea level). It is established that high-mountain maples are a source of various medicinal and technical raw materials of a vegetable origin, food plants, good base for beekeeping. The greatest number of useful for human species of plants is concentrated in the lower tiers of high-altitude maple trees. Most of the types presented here are polyresource ones. Resource plant species are represented by the main life forms-trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. The most represented in klenovnik are herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs and shrubs. To food plants include more than 50 species, 69 species of medicinal, melliferous 73, to technical plants 61 views. It is established that the majority of resource species do not form continuous thickets, the projective cover on a particular forest area is most often about 5 %. This makes it impossible to organize the use of a certain list of resource species on an industrial scale. On the other hand, with a yield and reserves, allowable current rules and regulations, procurement polyresource types feasible and economically justified. At each forest site, regardless of soil and groundwater conditions at the same time grow to dozens of resource species of plants. In this regard, the procurement of food and medicinal raw materials in separate tracts is possible. Stocks and yields of a particular type of plant in a particular forest area is determined primarily by forest growth conditions, which primarily depend on the height above sea level and other elements of the relief. As the height above sea level increases, the number of resource species is changing towards their decreasing. Changes not only the number of species, but also stocks of raw materials, the yield of individual species. The distribution of the species also depends on a variety of other factors: exposure and slope steepness, composition, height, density of the tree stand, closed treeshrub canopy, etc. In order to preserve the mountain forests and high-mountain maples in particular, it is necessary to study their features and structure, establish the types of resources, stocks and yields. Effective management of mountain forests will allow to implement the tasks of their use and increase their environmental, soil protection, raw materials and other functions.
Objective. For the purposes of scientific research, by definition, basic properties and characteristics of explosives, explosion parameters and its impact on the environment the laboratory of destruction of rocks mining Institute UB RAS purchased the device "DATATRAP II" which allows determining the speed and duration of detonation, detonation pressure when testing powder, granular and emulsion explosives. The purpose given in the article results of the research was the testing of this measuring equipment at the test site, and in the technological wells. Methods. For this purpose we used a comprehensive method of research involving the synthesis and analysis of scientific literature and conducting experiments. Results. On the basis of instrumental measurements of velocity of detonation held to blow up the blocks in the technology well and field tests in mines of JSC "EVRAZ KGOK", OJSC "Uralasbest" in the quarries "Sibay", "Autumn", "Sibayskiy limestone", "Anniversary", "Orenburg minerals", "Khaibulinsky" and "left Bank" approved methods for determination of basic characteristics of emulsion explosives. Conclusion. The conducted instrumental measurements using a measuring equipment "DATATRAP II" with the aim of determining the detonation characteristics of emulsion explosives "Fortis" brand name "Eclipse" and "Advantage", "Nitronit" brands "of e-70 and e-100" during the instrumental measurements in technological blasting wells in mass explosions, in vertical and horizontal cylindrical charges of high EXPLOSIVES in field tests, and for determining the actual intervals of delay between the boreholes allowed us to obtain more accurate and additional measurements of the basic properties of EXPLOSIVES. Tested EE allowed us to determine the magnitude of velocity of detonation not only in field tests of individual charges, but also in several technological blasting wells with multi-channel parallel connection of the probe cable into the wells and simultaneous measurement of the actual interval of delay between the boreholes. The obtained experimental data allow to determine the compliance of explosives to quality control standards, specifications and to optimize the rational parameters of drilling and blasting operations.
Introduction. The increase in the production of hydrogen sulfide-containing gas in the Astrakhan field is an extremely urgent and promising task. Based on the current reserves of the field, the level of extraction of raw materials can be increased by 3-5 times relative to what has been achieved. One of the promising technologies that allows to significantly increase the extraction of hydrogen sulphide-containing raw materials when solving the problem of overproduction of sulfur and preservation of environmental requirements is the technology of injecting acid gases into underground layers. The aim of the research is to evaluate the efficiency of the use of new technologies at the Astrakhan gas condensate field. Research tasks. The tasks are solved on the basis of a comprehensive study of effective technologies for enhancing the sustainable development of the technical system of the oil and gas complex. Materials and methods of research. One of the main directions of pilot industrial works at the injection site is connected with the operation of injection wells, determination of the main parameters of their operation, design reliability and hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir and tubing. When creating a landfill, it is possible, both the construction of a new well, and the use of a well of an existing fund. Considering the fact that drilling a new well is associated with significant time and financial costs, in the context of this work a decision was made to use a well from an existing fund. As the injection well, the well was chosen according to the set of basic geological-technical and technological indicators: the lowest current reservoir pressure; the least working wellhead pressure; The presence of formation water in the production of the well; average values of productivity; good values of reservoir properties; good technical condition; proximity to the existing capacities of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. The formalized model of the injection well operation includes two main interconnected elements - the flow of the injected agent through the well tubing and the bottomhole formation zone. Acid gas, obtained in the desulfurization plants of highpressure gas, is used for pumping into the productive stratum as part of pilot-industrial tests of the new technology. The most preferable scheme is the organization of an experimental test site, in which the preparation of acid gas (its compression, drying and transfer to a single-phase liquid state) is carried out near or directly at the site of the enterprise. Next, a liquid stream of acidic components is transported through a pipeline to the landfill where a pumping station is installed to supply fluid at the mouth of the injection well with the pressure required for injection. The developed technology of preparation of acid gases for injection into the reservoir in the Astrakhan arch includes the following technological operations: compression of acid gas in 4 stages; interstage cooling of the stream, separation and discharge of the discharged liquid; drying of the flow of acid gases with a pressure of 3.5 MPa and a water content of 0.5-0.6% by volume. after the fourth stage of compressioncooling by a solution of triethylene glycol to a residual water content of not more than 0.01% by weight. Results. The project of sour gas injection technology has been implemented, which aims at the use of waste tanks and is characterized by relatively low productivity and low injection pressure at the wellheads. The project is designed for specific conditions, for which a large array of information is created. Before taking a decision on the large-scale introduction of technology at the Astrakhan gas condensate field, an experiment was conducted at the experimental industrial site, reliable baseline data was obtained that could economically and with minimum risk realize the technology of acid gas injection into selected objects
Goal. In this paper a study of power transmission lines operating in the "Two wires-to-ground" (DWS) mode, as well as four-phase lines (CHLEP) was made which were first mentioned in the 50s of the last century. These lines have greater bandwidth and reliability. To confirm the above results comparison with three-phase systems was carried out and the dependence on power losses on the lines regimes was determined. Methods. The research was carried out with the help of mathematical modeling. The algorithm and complex of the software solution with the help of the Mathcad system are compiled. Basis of constructing a mathematical model – is the canonical form of the method of nodal stresses, all elements of the network are decomposed into symmetric components. This algorithm is universal and can serve to calculate the parameters of a three-phase network with the number of nodes up to 400 in different modes of operation. Results and its discussion. It is shown that the DPZ lines have lower than other losses, the greater the transmitted power and the length of the lines. Thus, the efficiency of the system directly depends on the length of the air line. The modes of operation of four-phase power lines including fivewire lines are considered. Conclusions. The use of two-wire-to-ground transmission lines under current conditions is economically feasible due to significant losses in them as compared to three-wire lines at a voltage of 6-35 kV. The current reduction in the earth is possible with the use of four-phase power transmission lines consisting of two DPZ, in which the voltages on the same phases are opposite in direction. With the same loads, both circuits in the ground are absent, therefore, there is No power loss in the grounded phases. The introduction of an additional wire improves the reliability of a four-phase line to the reliability of a two-circuit three-phase line. By reducing the number of line wires in the proposed electrical system in comparison with two-chain three-phase line the electric energy and voltage losses are reduced, decreasing the cost due to the lower expenditures on line construction(five wires instead of six).
Nowadays, transported tunnels are widely developed and built in Viet Nam. Transported tunnels are usually designed with twin tunnels (two parallel tunnels) and they are driven at the moment curing excavation to increasing the speed of excavation. However, in the fact because of technical - economic conditions one tunnel is excavated and following the future we are going to expand tunnels or build new tunnels near the old tunnels. Today, drilling and blasting method is used for many cases during excavation tunnels. Vibration is released in the processing of blasting that has influence on the old tunnels. This paper introduces assessment the values of vibration of blasting pressure on the stability of tunnels during expansion excavation new tunnels near the existing tunnels.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the possibility of the Sadon deposits development modernization to ensure cost-effective production of non-ferrous metals and the restoration of the potential lost as a result of economic reform. The goal is achieved by solving a number of problems through experimental studies and expert opinions. Research methods include conventional methods of substantiation of innovative solutions, including: analysis of the development indicators of Sadon mines in the historical section, experiment on laboratory disintegrator and local metal-containing minerals and forecast of prospects of innovative technologies at the level of engineering solutions. The results of the study include the information necessary to make decisions on the reconstruction of the concept of development of Sadon mines in depression. The resource base of Sadon is time in the bowels of the Republic about 2% of reserves of lead and about 5% of the forecast resources of the P1 category of Russia. In the developed space of the mines there are 1 million tons of ore with a content exceeding the planned content of the present time. At the time, the fields with positive results mastered the technology with leaching of metals. It is established that the cause of the crisis of mines in North Ossetia is the mismatch of technology development principles of resource conservation, accompanied by increased losses and higher prices of products. The revival of the potential of the mines is possible with the conversion of development technologies with leaching, including the activation of metal extraction processes in the disintegrator. It is shown that environmental problems are being solved when mining waste is involved in the processing along with the replenishment of the mineral resource base. Announced the principle of combining the technologies of selective mining of different sorts of ores when rich ore issue to the surface and processed at the plant, and the rest is leached in blocks and stacks. The technology of utilization of primary processing tailings of the extracted raw materials with extraction of metals from them to the level of sanitary requirements by the impact on the mineral raw materials at the same time of mechanical and chemical energy in disintegrators is proposed. Conclusion. The goal of metal production modernization is achieved using technologies with leaching of metals including the impact of both mechanical and chemical energy on the mineral raw materials.
Purpose. Development and creation of a mathematical model of environmental sustainability of the transport system in the mountain region which would allow to systematize and formalize the processes of the transport systems impact on the environment and the reverse impact which in turn would allow to comprehensively assess the environmental sustainability of the system "mountain transport – the environment", to develop specific measures to increase it. Methods. The analysis algorithm of the transport system ecological compatibility in the mountain region is based on the simultaneous analysis of the transport system functioning, the state of the environment and the assessment of their mutual influence on each other, expressing the level of ecological compatibility of the transport system in the mountain region. Assessment of techno-genic impact of the transport system on the environment is made by comparing the real values of the influence parameters with the normalized ones. Assessment of the possible impact of the environment on the transport system is also made by comparing the real parameters of influence with the permissible ones (for example, the probability of manifestation of an environmental risk, possible damage, etc.). If the actual characteristics in both cases fall within the limits of the permissible values, the ecological compatibility of the transport system is fulfilled. Results. The developed mathematical model and analysis algorithm of the transport system sustainability in the mountain region using a set of 2 matrices: the influence of anthropogenic factors of the transport system on the natural environment and the impact of environmental hazards in the mountainous region on the functioning and sustainable development of the transport system. The analysis algorithm of the transport system ecological compatibility in the mountain region based on the simultaneous analysis of functioning of transport system, a condition of environment and an assessment of their mutual influence on each other expressing level of ecological compatibility of transport system in the mountain region is given. The probabilistic model of ecological compatibility and the method of its analysis are offered. Summary. The matrix model and the proposed method of the transport system ecological compatibility analysis in the mountain region allows the most complete qualitative and quantitative assessment of both the techno-genic impact of the transport system on the environment and the dangerous impact of natural anomalies (environmental risks) on the transport system, maintaining the environmental compatibility of the transport system of the mountain region at the proper level, is a prerequisite for sustainable development of mountain areas. The given method of mathematical description of ecological interaction of transport system and environment can be used in the analysis of ecological compatibility of other techno-genic objects.
Sustainable development of the mining enterprise is provided by the use of technical solutions aimed at fundamental changes in the direction and volume of economic activity. The sustainable development of the mining and processing complex is not possible without the use of advanced solutions in the field of deep enrichment and optimization of the tail economy of processing plants. The criteria for the implementation of appropriate solutions and technologies in the end are economic indicators. As an alternative to the traditional approach to the financing of technical solutions in the field of projects in the field of subsoil use is project financing. In this case, there is an optimal distribution of risks between all participants involved in the project, and a large return is provided by effective maneuvering of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional forms of financing. The advantages and expediency of the method of project financing of technical solutions in the field of subsoil use, the implementation of which at the stage of development has ambiguity in terms of obtaining and distributing profits. The potential participants of project financing in the development of solid mineral deposits and reconstruction of quarries and the elimination of mining. The main and alternative technical solutions to ensure the sustainable development of mining enterprises are shown and evaluated on the example of the Bereznyakovskoye gold ore deposit and the Korkinskoye brown coal deposit located in the Chelyabinsk region. The area of application of traditional and project financing in the field of subsoil use is substantiated taking into account the distribution of risks and ensuring the requirements of the legislation. It is shown that the scope of project financing is much wider than traditional approaches to providing financial resources for technical solutions, but in modern conditions it is more limited by environmental factors. This confirms the need to apply project financing methods in the context of sustainable development of mining enterprises as an alternative to traditional approaches to the financing of the mining industry and private solutions in it.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)