Glaciers in the Caucasus have been continuously shrinking during the 20th and in the beginning of the 21st century. Mountain glaciers provide up to 70% of the total river runoff in the adjacent territories. Realistic prediction of future glacial run-off is a key problem of water supply in mountain and piedmont regions. The task of prediction can be solved by means of dynamical modeling of mountain glaciers. Because of lack of regular observations, it is feasible to focus on several reference glaciers in the region and to further extrapolate modeling results on the whole glaciated area. In the paper, we report about application of a 3D higherorder ice flow model coupled to a surface mass-balance model for carrying out prognostic numerical experiments aimed at simulation of future dynamics of Djankuat Glacier. Djankuat is a typical valley glacier on the northern slope of the main Caucasus chain. It is one of the most studied glaciers in Russia, which has been continuously monitored during the last fifty years. From the point of view of completeness and duration of observations, Djankuat is an ideal glacier for mathematical modeling. Considerable parts of the ablation zone of Djankuat are covered with debris. Heat and physical properties of the debris layer are very different from those of ice. Debris layer determines ablation rate and run-off regime. Dependently on thickness, it can accelerate ablation or totally isolate ice cover from melting. To force the model, we utilized observations from the nearest weather stations (Terskol and Mestia), as well as accumulation and ablation field measurements as controls. In the prognostic numerical experiments, we simulated possible Djankuat evolution until the year 2100 under stationary climatic conditions. We established that geometry of the glacier in imbalance with the climatic conditions of the decade 1999–2008 years. To reach the equilibrium, the glacier will need nearly half a century taking into account insulating role of the debris partially covering ablation zone. In case debris cover is not considered, the glacier does not reach equilibrium until the end of the current century. Supraglacial moraine is responsible for 20–65% reduction of the annual melting under the debris layer dependently on its thickness. For the whole glacier, with the debris cover taken into account, the annual amount of melt water reduces by 9-10% when the glacier equilibrates with climate.
The developed adaptive system controlling magnetic separation of iron ores allows reducing the period of searching for the objective control function, maintaining the optimal ratio of the concentrate yield and the grade contained under conditions of changing quality of initial ores and the equipment state. There are determined conditions and the best parameters of searching for the extremum in the system of adaptive control over iron ore magnetic separation under disturbances and noises in controlled signals. They can be achieved when deviations of static and dynamic characteristics from rated ones do not exceed ±25%.
Purpose. In order to develop the architectural typology of the residential buildings and their planning organization for the development territories, the analysis of the problem of the sustainable development of mountainous territories, taking into account the uniqueness of the natural and ecological landscape of the built-up areas in the difficult territories, the specific climatic features due to local conditions of the landscape was carried out. The article deals with the features of designing and improving the volume-planning structure of cities and residential buildings in the complex territories, taking into account the orographic features of the structure and climatic conditions of the area. The problem of the mountain region development for the purpose of planning structure of the inhabited formations and settlements considering the local climatic features is studied. In the practice of complex areas urban development, there is a significant gap in the field of the urban environmental studies in terms of the comfortable eco-environment for cities and settlements formation, characterized by a complex orographic situation, causing specific local climatic conditions. Methods. The study area of the complex topography with morphological, microclimatic and bioclimatic positions with the identification of the urban maneuverability of the relief situation, updated, expanded and refined is shaped in the framework of the design procedure . On this basis, the method of organization of spatial and architecturalplanning structure of cities, settlements and buildings was carried out. Results. Based on the study of domestic and foreign experience in the design and construction of buildings and buildings on complex terrains the problem of shaping the terrain to identify the areas of the potential construction were generalized and systematized. Using the method of background evaluation and method of assessment of local special climatic conditions formulated landforms for urban development elaborated by the authors. For the purpose of the sustainable development of mountain relief, taking into account the uniqueness of the natural and ecological landscape of built-up areas on difficult terrain, as well as the specificity of climatic features due to local landscape conditions, the existing architectural typology of residential buildings and their planning structure for development areas is systematized and refined. The methodological proposals for planning the spatial structure of urban development, design of housing and residential complexes, the method of layout in the landforms and relative to the slope were developed. The classification of the terrain according to the degree of complexity, as well as the materials of urban science, covering the features of the formation of the urban structures and construction of buildings in areas with complex terrain allowed to estimate the impact of complex terrain on the planning and design solutions of urban design. Conclusions. The developed methodological proposals for the planning – spatial structure design of residential buildings, housing design and residential complexes, the method of layout in the formation of the relief and the slope are scientific and practical skills for the sustainable development of mountain areas.
The purpose. This paper is devoted to the generalization of the theoretical research and uniaxial wheeled modules (UWM) development results, conducted at the department of “Automated complexes of orientation and navigation systems” of the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). This work is aimed at the development of UWM as efficient vehicles for solving various monitoring tasks in the steady developing areas, in particular – mountains and foothills. It includes monitoring the state of pavement dynamics, roadside natural formation and engineering structures as well as the airfield infrastructure and the surrounding airspace. The methods. In the UWM structures development process we used the gyroscopic stabilizers construction methods, in particular, the method of ensuring UWM’s platform invariance to the inertia forces arising from its arbitrary movement along the space-time trajectory (STT). The generalized UWM’s mathematical model is obtained based on the second kind Lagrange equations for non – golonomic systems. When forming the signals for UWM platforms angular orientation control and stabilizing them in the horizon plane, we used inertial, gyroscopic, gravitational and flywheel methods and their combinations. For the stable UWM’s movement along given STT all structures use two-circuit control method. The results. The functional features defining the variants of the UWM structures and including the number of platform’s degrees of freedom relative to the wheels set’ axis, as well as the ways to control its angular orientation are summarized. A generalized UWM mathematical model has been constructed, and the particular UWM models can be derived from it. It is proposed to use a unified approach to the UWM movements along given STT control system construction. Common UWM’s software and hardware features are revealed. Presented UWM simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technical solutions. Conclusion. The generalizations of the work done at MAI was carried out, in particular, UWM structures development, mathematical models development, the formation of ways to control the angular orientation and stabilization of UWM platforms, development of the motion control algorithms for UWMs moving along given STT. In general, we have created the toolkit that makes it possible to effectively select one or another type of the developed UWMs in relation to the current monitoring task requirements.
The purpose of this work is the development and evaluation of technological solutions and measures to ensure ecological safety and preservation of the surrounding area, especially the nearby Teberdinsky state biosphere reserve, during the construction and operation of the Aksaut mining and processing plant on the basis of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit. Method of research. Analysis of mining and geological conditions and studying the experience of development of deposits of nonferrous metals, evaluation of the ecological situation of the territory of occurrence of the deposit. Results. According to the results of the research it was established: - for ensure ecological safety and preservation of the surrounding area is recommended that the underground method of development of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit of systems with the tab of the developed space and the ascending order of excavation of ore bodies. The most rational is the use of a system of horizontal layers with a dry or hydraulic tab and the use of self-propelled machinery. The most rational is the use of mining system of horizontal slicing with a dry or hydraulic backfill and the use of self-propelled machinery. Alternative options are a chamber-and-pillar system with the leaving of non-attracted pillars or a system with a hardening tab to maintain the hanging side. - the scheme of ore processing of the deposit involves deep enrichment with a high yield (up to 99%) of dry tailings and flotation sludge. To eliminate the adverse impact of sludge storage on the environment, sludge should be placed in the developed space, with the appropriate pre-thickening and dehydration of sludge. - the opening of deposit is recommended by adits and transport slope, while refusing the carrying out of vertical shafts. Given the existing transport communications and prospects of their development in the highlands, it is advisable to focus on road transport concentrate to its processing facilities. - for the construction of the underground mine and transportation of products of the mining and processing plant, it is necessary to reconstruct the existing road to the village Zelenchukskaya with a length of about 70 km. Along with servicing the needs of the plant, the road will improve the transport accessibility of the district and expand the development opportunities in the region of other sectors of the economy of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. Conclusions. The proposed technical solutions and organizational measures allowing economic efficiency and ecological safety to mining of the Kti-Teberda tungsten deposit.
The aim of the work is to solve one of the important problems of sustainable development of mountain areas, providing for the development of mining enterprises of high-performance, intelligent automated production management systems (ACS P). The methods used in the work: the method of system analysis, methods of control theory technical objects, methods of mathematical modeling event situations, the method of the theory of fuzzy sets, etc. The results of the work. Based on the analysis of the literary sources chosen way forward for sustainable development of mountainous areas, providing for the introduction of mining enterprises with the purpose of meaningful ACS P improve both efficiency of production of these enterprises, and improve the environmental well-being of the territories adjacent to the enterprises. A flowchart of ACS P, as well as structural diagram and operation algorithm of ACS TP with improved functionality were developed. These ACS TP correspond to many conditions and mining development is a significant part of ACS P. Designed for ACS TP the intelligent subsystem elimination of production risks (SEPR), defining emergency situations. The algorithm of action and the functional scheme of this SEPR are offered. The work is also developed for the information support of ACS TP intelligent data collection system, one of the subtasks of which is the collection of information in digital form from control and measuring devices that perform the function of measuring the parameters of the process at all its stages. The main functions of the developed process control system are defined: identification of the probabilistic reasons causing production risks in technological processes; selection of the best solution to eliminate the current negative situation; selflearning, which predetermines the development of intellectual capabilities of the process control system, which is performed on the basis of fuzzy logic. An important part of the work is the development of blocks that are part of the SEPR, the development of the structure of their interaction and algorithms for their operation. The names of the blocks: a visualization block, the block decision, the processing unit prior decision, the evaluation unit situation unit classification of the situation, "say" about the importance and complexity of the tasks specified blocks. Conclusions. The main conclusion of this work is the high desirability of introducing developed APCS in mining enterprises to successfully meet the challenges of sustainable development of mountainous areas and infrastructure conservation in mountain regions. Other findings of the work are: the proposed work approaches to ensure the well-being of mountain territories and increased mining operations, including enhancing the safety of workers, apply for enterprises available in plain areas; the design principles of ACS TP, including those involving enhancement of intellectual ability (capacity) of the individual blocks of ACS TP, apply when designing ACS for many industries, with design of ACS for scientific research.
The objective of this study is to assess the surface subsidence due to mining activities at a study site in Upper Silesia Region (Poland). For this purpose, the geodetic time-series monitoring data was used from the period of 3 years (2009–2012). KnotheBudryk theory was adopted for the influence of underground mining on the subsidence and inclination whereas the rigid body condition method was used to evaluate the stable of buildings. The final inclination values, computed from the rigid body method, are few times bigger than the prediction of the Knothe-Budryk theory. Therefore, we conclude that computation of rigid body condition would be a proper tool to verify the predicted inclinations from deformation models like Knothe-Budryk theory
The purpose of the work is to assess the mining conditions of application of technological schemes of fastening workings in the preparatory work and the establishment of effective technological schemes of holding and fixing the contours for the preparatory workings in the coal mines to improve the stability of their contours. The idea of the work is to establish technological principles for managing the stability of mine workings contours taking into account the manifestations of the mountain pressure of the adjacent massif and changes in its geo – mechanical state. The widespread introduction of technological schemes for beztselikovuju dredging of reservoirs has led to high cost of borrowing workings, the need for the workings at the worked-out space. The behavior of rocks of the coal seams roof of the Karaganda basin is determined by their composition, physical and chemical properties, stratification and fracturing. The direct roof of coal seams is most often represented by mudstones, less often siltstones and in isolated cases sandstones, the main roof is usually composed of sandstones. The soil of coal seams is dominated by mudstone. The method of solving the tasks on the basis of the analysis of domestic and foreign experience in the development of technological schemes of mining in the conditions of reservoir mineral deposits; technological and technical evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions in industrial conditions. The work was carried out within the framework of research works on the theme "development of effective technology of preparatory workings with anchorage, taking into account the stress-strain state of the rock mass". In carrying out this work, we used a set of methods of experimental and theoretical research and the following conclusions: - the presented methodical approach will allow to make a choice of effective ways and means of fastening of mine workings for coal mines and generalized passports of fastening of workings-to form a database that can be considered as a basis and prerequisite for the creation of progressive standard technological schemes of workings and justification of the parameters of fastening and maintenance of workings; the peculiarity of the presented approach to technology, systems and means of contour fastening is that it allows the most effective use of the bearing capacity of the host rocks, which significantly reduces the material consumption and the cost of the support, increases the stability of the contours and reduces the defect of the cross sections of the supported workings.
The study of mountain areas has always been given great attention by science. However, the lack of a single model for the development of mountain areas leads to a variety of recommendations that may not always be consistent. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the natural resource potential and the level of economic development of the analyzed territory. To considers previously developed models of development and assess the possibility of their implementation and orientation. The purpose of this work is to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas on the basis of previously known models by extracting the most optimal solutions from them. As a working method, a logical analysis of a given subject area is proposed, in which the objects are different spheres that determine the level of development of mountain areas, and the signs are their characteristics presented in terms of the variable-valued logic of predicates. As the characteristics of the development of the territory can be the economy, social sphere, resource potential of development, etc., these areas of development in the formal formulation of the problem will be called objects. Description of the object (characteristics) is represented by a set of features that can accurately diagnose the desired object. The set of a number of objects and their features is a sample, which worked a certain number of algorithms (proposed models of development). The quality of each algorithm of the model is estimated by the Boolean function. None of the considered algorithms performed perfectly on the whole set of given objects. We propose a logical method for constructing a new algorithm (correction model), which is optimal for the entire set of recognized objects. The method is based on the construction of a new logical function of the classifier. The result of the study is an optimal model that includes the positive properties of the previously considered models and at the same time corrects their shortcomings. The proposed approach can be the basis for obtaining expert assessments and recommendations in order to build an optimal strategy for the development of mountain areas.
Introduction. As you know, mountain areas in their development to some extent lag behind the plains. In fact, any undertaking in the highlands of an economic, social, agricultural or other nature aspects begins with the solution of the transport problem. At present, transport projects are subject to the requirements of high intelligence with innovative developments, safety, awareness of the road environment, comfort, environmental friendliness and quietness. If on the plain when choosing the directions of the road there are practically no restrictions than in mountain conditions the laying of the road faces a lot of difficulties of relief character, requiring the use of maximum slopes and small radii on the curves, as well as a certain geographical location of the gorge, which sometimes is frontal from the required direction of the road. On the slopes of these gorges to some extent surface exogenous phenomena were developed in the form of landslides, landslides, mudflows, avalanche-glacial and ice formations, the processes of collapse which complicate the design, construction and operation of the transport artery. Creating a transport project in such difficult mountain conditions is extremely difficult, but important. The urgency of this problem increases the need to present to the promising transport communications intelligence that is not yet sufficiently formed for mountain roads. The purpose of the work is to monitor the operation of mountain roads by accident on the example of the Transcaucasian highway (Transcam) and the application of existing rules and regulations in the search and design. Method of research. The research was conducted by the method of analysis of existing design developments, monitoring of mountain roads operation and accident rate. Research result. Complicated conditions of the survey and design of roads in mountainous conditions forced project implementers because of relief conditions to apply the maximum and the maximum allowable longitudinal slope, small radius curves, respectively, that during operation creates a hazardous traffic condition and leads to road accidents.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)