Introduction. It is known that advanced modern statistical filters cannot hold all small solid inclusions in oil due to their negligible size. At the current level of mechanical engineering, the centrifugal method of separating oil from solid inclusions is the most effective and promising way of high-quality oil refining. With this separation method, the centrifugal force acting on each solid particle of the mixture stops it on its way to the oil intake hole, and then transfers this particle to the sludgecollecting place. An analysis of the literature on the problem of separation of oil with solid inclusions shows that the theoretical provisions of the centrifugal separation process have not yet been developed, and there are no design formulas that allow the selection of the overall dimensions of rotating elements and the frequency of rotation of these elements providing highquality oil separation. The scientific developments of this article fill this gap in the field of application of the centrifugal separation method. The purpose of the research is to develop a mechanicalmathematical model of the centrifugal process for cleaning small solid impurities from the connecting rod journals of the crankshaft of an internal combustion engine of mining machines. Research Methodology. To develop a mechanical and mathematical model, the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines was simulated based on boundary value problems for the differential equations of incompressible fluid flow in a cylindrical tube and the differential equations of motion of small solids in a fluid. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the movement of the liquid in the tube and the forces of resistance to the movement of the solid in the liquid are taken into account. As input parameters, the obtained mechanical-mathematical model contains all the overall dimensions of the device elements and its rotation frequency. Research results. The resulting set of calculation formulas makes it possible to calculate the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the entrained solid particle and thereby select the neck rotation frequency so that solid inclusions do not advance to the oil drain hole, and particles created by the centrifugal force move to the sludge-collecting place. This will ensure high-quality centrifugal cleaning of oil from solid inclusions. The results of the obtained calculation formulas were implemented on a computer. The following important conclusions were obtained: at the above values of the input parameters of the device to ensure oil separation, the neck rotation speed should be At a rotation speed in the device, a reverse hydraulic process occurs, i.e. the oil flows from the area to the area through the tubes. According to the obtained calculation formulas, computer calculations were performed with the above numerical values of the input parameters. The frequency of rotation of the neck varied within. As the frequency increases, the ejection rate decreases sharply. This decrease is due to the fact that the centrifugal force slows down the flow rate of oil in the tube and at the same time, the ejection of particles from the tube is inhibited. The results of the presented computational experiments show that in a wide range of variation of the rotation frequency, the particle acceleration sharply increases within and is pressed against a cylindrical surface. Conclusion: 1. A mechanical-mathematical model of the process of centrifugal separation of solid inclusions in the oil of an internal combustion engine of mining machines has been developed. In the compiled differential equations, in addition to the inertial forces, both centrifugal forces and the forces of resistance to the move
In this paper we consider the importance of the environmental component of the reproduction process and preservation of ethno-cultural characteristics and lifestyle of the modern composition of the indigenous peoples of the North (Evenki) in the Trans-Baikal Territory. The author argues that the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of the Evenki community, which is an ethnic minority in the areas of residence, is possible provided that the resources of the hunting and fishing fauna of the local population are restored and rationally provided that the Evenki have special rights to them. The nature of the development of the territories, which affects the features of the conservation and reproduction of biological resources in the mountain taiga landscape zone of the region, depends on the institutional environment for hunting nature management that has formed here so far. It is noted that the weakening of the state’s attention to the sphere of nature management in the post-socialist period and the shift in the emphasis of national policy to the sphere of supporting cultural and socio-demographic processes among the indigenous population led to the degradation of the natural resource base of the traditional way of life in most regions of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the reduction in the number of the main hunting and commercial animal species worsens the socio-economic situation of the indigenous population, which remains connected with traditional activities. The purpose of the article is to assess the role of formal and informal institutions in creating the conditions for the sustainable development of ethnic nature management of the modern composition of Evenki Trans-Baikal Territory. Research materials. The results of interviews with representatives of the municipal authority, the Indigenous Peoples' Association of Evenki (Trans-Baikal Territory) of the TransBaikal Territory, hunting users, heads of hunting farms, chairmen of Evenki communities and ordinary hunters, data on the lease of forest plots, the number of hunting and hunting animals, the number and employment of the population, provided by the relevant State services and departments in the region, as well as the results of studying the transformation of formal and informal environmental management institutions and its consequences for hunting e-fishing activities of the indigenous population. A map showing all the main actors of hunting nature management in the areas of traditional Evenki residence and substantiating the use of an institution-oriented approach to solve the tasks posed during the study was created using GIS technologies. Conclusions. The institutional environment formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory is not very effective in resolving the problems of the development of ethnic nature management in the mountain taiga zone and requires further development in order to strengthen control over the number of commercial animal species and create mechanisms for their sustainable use. The author offers some recommendations that can ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East to hunting as a traditional activity.
A Council of Europe Ordinance of 2000 obliged government structures of various levels to protect and care for cultural landscapes designated as human-inhabited territory, which characteristics express the mutual long-term influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The concern is caused by the fact that since the second half of the 20th century, with the growth of mechanization, automation, and chemilization, the cultural landscapes of both the lowland and mountain regions have undergone particularly strong changes. The Alpine mountain region is considered as a benchmark in which the traditional economic activity in mountain areas, with its regional differences, keeps on co-existing with the current rapid development of technology, innovations and the increasing influence of external capital. However, the problems inherent in all the mountainous regions of Europe (desertion of rural settlements and outflow of population, declining role of agriculture and increasing role of tourism) are also characteristic of the Alpine region. The article deals with the territory of the northern, marginal part of the Alps, belonging to Germany – the Bavarian Alps. The Bavarian Alps occupy only 1.7% of the Germany territory but for Bavaria, this Alpine area is closely linked to its identity. In Alpine Bavaria, traditions, dialects, folklore are being preserved. The farmers land plots here are bigger than in other parts of the Alps, as well as the number of livestock. Population outflow in the Bavarian Alps is less than in some provinces of the Italian or French Alps. The Bavarian Alps is an area of developed, highly specialized and high-tech meat and dairy farming. But at the same time it is an area of sophisticated mass tourism – both, winter and summer. There are practically no original natural landscapes in the Bavarian Alps, since with the arrival of Bayovars, from about the 9th century, agricultural development of the territory began, and by the Middle Ages all suitable areas had been developed. Thus, all existing landscapes are cultural landscapes, the result of natural development and human impact. The cultural landscape of Bavaria, attractive for tourists and so important for the preservation of the natural balance, is supported primarily by farmers. Therefore, the main task is to prevent the desolation of mountain regions, the preservation of rural settlements and the rural way of life. Factors contributing to the preservation of the cultural landscape could be divided into external (political or legislative) and "internal". The external factors include: government subsidies of various levels (starting from the Council of Europe) to farmers; land law protecting the integrity of agricultural land; community rights to land and property management; building codes and regulations that preserve the architectural integrity of rural settlements. The “internal” factors in support of the Bavarian cultural landscape are hidden in the very system of rural life. These are traditions, customs, dialects. Traditions are worked out for centuries, passed down from generation to generation: housekeeping skills, crafts, customs, ceremonies, cuisine, etc. Traditions in Bavaria are very strong, as are the dialects. These factors unite people, create a connection with the place of residence with nature which is reflected in the cultural landscape.
The purpose of this article is: 1) to show that the economy is neither the only nor the dominant factor in the sustainable mountain development; 2) consider the integration of the cultural needs of society with the goals of sustainable development; 3) describe the history of the occurrence (17th – 18th centuries) of the Old Believer’s SMD ethno-cultural model Belovodye and its relevance for the SMD Agenda of modern Russia. Methods of researches: analytical review of literary sources The article contains 3 key blocks: 1) Introduction - the issue of the integration of culture and the relevance of this issue to the mountain regions of Russia; 2) a brief overview of the history of the ROC schism in the 17th century, the emergence of two Russian sub-ethnic groups - the New (Nikonians) and Old Believers, as the basis for the emergence of a SMD model “Belovodye”; 3) specific examples of the history and features of the development of Old Believer communities in Altai and the Far East. The “Belovodye” model is a unique example of the SMD strategy, where ethno-cultural traditions and work ethics (affairs) are the main drivers of development. Its vitality and attractiveness in the 21st century is confirmed by numerous examples from the life of the Old Believer’s Russian diaspora in the most diverse natural and cultural landscapes of Russia and the world - Altai, Sikhote-Alin, Transbaikalia, North and South America. Such a model of life and management in the mountains is organic to the nature of the mountains. It is based on effective local management of local resources. The success of the SMD of the territory and the community is possible if there is a “political will” of the State that supports, through legal, economic and investment mechanisms, such a development model. In conclusion, the author poses the following questions: • How relevant and is there a future for the Old Believer model of “Belovodye” in the mountains of Russia? • Is the process of convergence of the preserved culture of the Russian subethnos of the Old Believers possible with a complex picture of a changing world - the world of numbers, modernization, artificial intelligence, climate change, etc.? • In what format can a powerful layer of Old Believer culture be integrated into the modern Russian SMD Agenda?
Cultural landscapes of the North Caucasus were created by the work of many generations of the Highlanders from regions of the Western, Central and Eastern Caucasus, and in the native habitats of indigenous ethnic groups with distinctive environmental practices. The originality of cultural landscapes was formed as a result of adaptation of traditional types of nature management to the unique landscape mosaic, and is expressed in the unique combination of residential complexes, mountain agricultural terraces and pastures with natural surroundings. An analysis of the literature and the experience of studying key mountain areas in the Galanchozh, Itum-Kalinsky and Sharoy regions of the Chechen Republic show that the current state of cultural landscapes can be characterized as critical with the ongoing destruction and ruinization of the former settlement, revegetation in some parts of landscape-economic areas and intensive uncontrolled pasture load in others.. The abandonment and desolation of the historical habitats of the mountain peoples are caused by the collapse of local communities, the loss of control over resources by local residents, the formation of a new enlarged "cutting" of land use, depopulation, the emergence of resource and tourist-recreational forms of exploitation of the territory. This phenomenon is proposed to be considered as a “mountaineering” of the Caucasus, in the sense that this sequence of events was realized (in various national invariants) in the second half of the 20th century on the vast space of the "Alpine arc". The specificity of the postmodern scenario of the North Caucasus development was manifested in the fact that the leading factor in the alienation of resources and the destruction of traditions was not private capital, but errors in public administration that led to a shift in the native ethnic areas, including due to the eviction of mountain ethnic groups, which led to more than a quarter-century gap in the traditions of staying in the enclosing landscape. The sequence of destruction of the cultural landscapes of the mountains is closely related to the features of their inherited structure: the distant and high-altitude villages and their adjacent landscape-economic area, the most vulnerable part of which is the mountainous terraces, become unused. The degradation of the cultural landscape entails the loss of the whole set of eco-service functions — environment-stabilizing, life-supporting, intangible, which contradicts both immediate aims and the long-term prospects for the region’s socio-economic development of the region. At the same time, in a number of regions of the North Caucasus, and especially in the mountainous part of the Chechen Republic, there is a "return" movement (approved, and partly initiated by the authorities) to traditional high-mountain habitats ("historical roots"), during which the efforts of private business and volunteers restore sacred centers (designed to serve as new points of growth) and there are the first signs of the re-development of the territory (small farms, seasonal shelters and roads) – a process that can be called "nativization".
The inventory and analysis of high-altitude flora is a necessary condition for assessing the state of fitbit, determining trends in its changes and the impact on the integrity of the habitant, as well as for the correct understanding of flour -genesis, forecasting in many theoretical and practical areas, determining the prospects for the use of resource-useful species and the preservation of phyto-diversity. The article highlights the results of long-term (2010– 2017) studies of Alpine rock scree flora of the Central and Eastern Caucasus. The data on endemic species are given. In the present flora among 384 species 107 (27.9 percent) are endemic species; 33 (8,6%) species strictly endemic species (22 steno endemic and 11 euro endeliks), 74 (19.3 per cent) of sub endemic ones. Kinship relations of different species, as well as their origin are established. An analysis of endemism species show that there are different types of endemic species, noted their importance for the solution of close genetic issues. The analysis of flora endemism of the Central and Eastern Caucasus showed that the studied flora has rather high degree of originality, almost every tenth of its species is endemic for this territory. The leading families of the systematic spectrum play an outstanding role in the formation of the endemic component of the flora, they account for about a quarter of endemics of all categories, the dominant role belongs to three families Campanulaceae-Caryophyllaceae-Fabaceae. Data on the genetic and geographical relationships of 22 steno endemic and 11 angelics are provided. The formation of the endemic core of flora should be geographically associated with the Elbrus mountain range and mountain ranges of the right bank of the Samura, in total, the largest number of endemics of all categories is concentrated in the floristic regions of the East Caucasus. The vast majority of endemic species are neo endemics which were formed on the Caucasian genetic basis, the fourth part of the species are polio endemics showing the Armenian-Iranian-Turanian ties, weak ties can be traced with the Central Asian territories.
To create innovative zones for the development and production of environmentally friendly technologies, as well as methods of their use in various spheres of human activity, the analysis of the processes occurring during the extraction of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions of wastewater of mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises with natural products is performed The aim of the work is to analyze the possible mechanism of extraction as well as to evaluate the possibility of technical use of vegetable oils on the example of extraction of lead ions by vegetable oils. Method of research. The following types of vegetable oils were used as extractants: sunflower, olive, corn. Extraction was carried out from individual aqueous solutions of Pb (II). Extraction was carried out with different pH solutions. During extraction the pH value was kept constant, adjusting it to a predetermined value. For greater confidence in achieving equilibrium extraction results were evaluated every two days. For the most intensive mass transfer, the extraction process was carried out with intensive mixing of the solution and the extractant for a given time. Upon completion of the process, the mixing system was transferred to the separating funnel for settling and more complete separation of the mixture. Results and discussion. The sedimentation dynamics and system stratification after extraction of lead for three types of oils within 24 hours, pH 11, B:O= 1:3, SISC= 5 g/dm3 . When saponified in an alkaline medium (pH ≥ 10), vegetable oils are broken down into glycerin and fatty acids. Reacting with heavy metal hydroxides, glycerin creates metal glycerates – chemical compounds similar to salts. The volume of the extract as a result of extraction with Pb (II) olive oil increases from five to ten percent of the extractant volume. When settling the system after extraction for more than 24 hours, delamination is manifested into the main three phases: the oil phase from above, the water phase from below and the intermediate mesh gel structure of the hydroxocomplexes of divalent lead with the components of water and oil between them. Summary. From the intermediate phase (gel) it is possible to extract ions of lead and/or its compounds which gives the prospect of possible technical use of vegetable oils for the wastewater solutions treatment at the mining, hydrometallurgical, industrial enterprises.
This article is devoted to the problem of waste soil pollution of "Tuvakobalt" mine, Republic of Tyva. The problem has not lost its relevance since the closure of the plant in 1991. A major threat to the adjacent areas and nearby communities is represented with 5 cards-waste of hydrometallurgical redistribution of arsenide-cobalt-nickel ores of Khovu-Aksinskiy field. The aim of the work is to assess the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals and arsenic, to identify the possibility of the additional remediation activities. The area under research is confined to a small Elegest-Ungesskiy basin located in the spurs of the Eastern ridge of TannuOla in the upper reaches of the Elegest river (Central Tuva). Totally 51 soil samples were selected: from the surface of the waste disposal maps of the plant, from the adjacent area and from the background area (35 km to the South-West and 25 km to the North of the plant). The content of organic carbon, the fraction of physical clay, pH was determined in the samples. Gross concentrations and mobile forms of nickel, copper, cobalt and cadmium were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The gross amount of arsenic was determined by the AAS method, in part of the samples – by photometric method. To identify the ability of soils to inactivate heavy metals and arsenic, the soil buffering was evaluated by the method of Ilyin V. B. The concentration coefficients of elements, the total pollution coefficient (Zc) and the radial differentiation coefficients were calculated. According to the research results the greatest soil pollution was observed in the area near the plant facilities and waste disposal maps. The assessment of buffering shows that the established level of accumulation of pollutants in soils is 10 background values. In general, for the studied area the level of pollution is defined as low, near the maps – average. The concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in soils are characterized by significant variability both in the territories adjacent to the waste maps and in the soils of the background. At the same time, Nickel, cobalt and arsenic concentrations stand out significantly, which well reflects the Association of the main components of the ore of the Khovu-Aksinsky deposit. In the substrate of uncovered maps elements are present in the abnormally high concentrations. Significantly less in their content, but many times higher than in the clark they were revealed in the soil remediated cards, proving the need for the re-remediation.
The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region is the main fuel and energy base of Russia, on its territory there are numerous oil fields including Samotlorskoe field, which is among the largest fields in the world. Recently, as a result of hydrocarbon production, the amount of polluted land has been increased. To eliminate the negative anthropogenic impact the method of remediation is used. According to various estimates, in the Ugra area the land contaminated by oil products equals to 55.7 thousand hectares. Of these, slightly more than 10% were reclaimed and only 16% of the reclaimed areas are restored to their natural state. It is impossible to prevent environmental pollution but the natural ecosystem self-healing mechanisms can be used to the maximum. It is necessary to understand all the processes aimed at self-purification. In this study the authors reveal changes in the chemical parameters during the natural restoration of natural substrates that are used during remediation activities. These processes were considered in the conditions of model experiments. Experimental sites were laid ten years ago in the natural landscapes. Pre – coat sand, loam, peat and a mixture of sand with peat were chosen as substrates — which are used for the land reclamation in the north. We compared the dynamics of changes in the content of the chemical indicators with the reclaimed area of the Sovetskoye field in Nizhnevartovsk area. The site was subjected to the industrial pollution in 2015. For four years, the monitoring has been carried out of oil salt contamination and migration of some chemical elements responsible for the restoration of fertility. The decrease in the petroleum products content and chloride ions in the soil substrate was educed. The pH ranged from weakly acidic to neutral one. The changes in the bulk composition of the transformed soils an increase in the content of phosphorus, and ammonium ions were observed which indicates the activation of soil formation. It was revealed that different soil substrates used in remediation, in approximately the same environmental conditions are aligned in the content of chemical indicators and approach the background level. It was diagnosed the improvement of the agrochemical properties of the upper layer of technology-related substrate at the site of the field and at the experimental sites.
The distribution of debris in the mudflow dangerous areas of the Azerbaijani Republic according to the materials of past debris flows (1891–2016). The limit of daily precipitation amounts needed to form mudflows (20 mm or more per day) was determined. It was found that mudflows occur with long, lasting for several hours rains, accompanied by short showers, intensity of 0.45–2.00 mm/min or more. Extreme values of mudflow rains on the southern slope of the greater Caucasus are 20–188 mm in the North-Eastern slope of the greater Caucasus with the Gobustan – 20–132 mm, in the Malyi Caucasus – 22–60 mm in Lankaran – 26–283 mm. A special attention is given to relations between types of atmospheric circulation prevailing over Europe and Siberia and synoptic conditions contributing to invasion of cold and humid air masses, leading to the loss of heavy rain, the peculiarities of the pressure fields (surface and altitude) to mudflow periods. Studying the circulation processes leading to the mudflow of storm water origin, it is established that they are determined by the invasion of cold and transformed air masses into the territory of Azerbaijan. It was found that in almost all cases during the period of mudflow formation there was a sufficient reserve of positive energy of instability and the level of convection often reached the surface of 300–200 GPA, and the specific humidity was characterized by high values. To identify the links between atmospheric circulation and mudflow in Azerbaijan, the types of circulation according to the Wangenheim G. classification were used and Dzerdzeevskii B. L. found that when enhancing the processes E in the study area is intensification of floods and the processes of mudflow formation weakened. Analysis of the relationships between debris flows and circulation patterns in B. L. Dzerdzeevsky found that mudflows in Azerbaijan are mainly formed in the 12 subtype (subtype Northern meridional circulation) and 13 l (subtype of the southern meridional circulation dominating in the summer).
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)