The aim of the study is to optimize technological solutions to reduce the cost of building a filling array, which remains one of the most pressing issues in the development of ore deposits by underground method. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive research method is used, which includes, first of all, a generalization and analysis of the practice of backfilling of enterprises, geotechnological design in relation to the storey-chamber development system and a feasibility study of optimization solutions at the level of expert assessment using the capabilities of engineering forecasting. Laying works with underground technology of mining of mineral deposits are the most costly, in connection with which research is carried out in order to develop ways to reduce the cost of repayment of the worked-out area. Through a systematic review and critical analysis of existing backfill technologies, the technical feasibility and economic feasibility of combining a hardening mixture and waste rock within a single repayable object has been identified, which provides a radical reduction in the proportion of hardening backfill. In the article offered to the reader’s attention, a variant of the combined array design and the technology of its formation are proposed. A variant of mechanization of the process of erection of the combined massif using specialized dump trucks is provided. This method of forming a combined filling mass allows reducing the volume of the hardening mixture in the total volume of the worked out space of the chambers by not a third. In connection with the complex mechanism of the formation of the combined filling massif, the work considers various options for the discharge of rock into the goaf, which differ in the number of points of discharge of the ingredients of filling materials into the goaf. Based on geotechnological design and mathematical modeling of the formation of a filling massif, it is certain that to increase the efficiency of filling the worked-out chamber space, two points of controlled rock discharge are necessary. The study identified ways to reduce the cost of controlling rock pressure in specific conditions by combining hardening mixture and waste rock for filling voids with a reduction in the proportion of hardening filling up to 50%. A variant of the combined massif construction with mechanization of the massif erection process using specialized dump trucks can significantly reduce the volume of the hardening mixture.
The purpose work. Substantiation and selection of a safe and effective option of mining technology of the experimental block in the pilot industrial mining of the Skalistoe deposit. Method of research. Analysis and synthesis of project solutions, experience in mining inclined low-thickness ore bodies, economic and mathematical modeling and optimization of the parameters of options mining systems in the conditions of the experimental block. Results of research. As a result of research it was established: - the sublevel caving mining system with the parameters adopted in the project does not guarantee the completeness of the extraction of reserves and the effectiveness of mining operations. Project indicators of extraction by sublevel caving technology with frontal ore drawing are overestimated and difficult to achieve in these geological and technical conditions (combination of low thickness and angle of ore body); project scheme for the delivery and transportation of rock mass seems impractical due to the significant volume of heading workings and increased transportation costs; - eight technically rational options of various mining systems were constructed, most relevant to the geological and technical conditions of the deposit. Five variants of the sublevel chamber system and pillar caving, a project variant of sublevel caving technology with frontal ore drawing and two options flat-back cut-and-fill system were considered; - for mining the Skalistoe deposit, according to the results of economic and mathematical modeling, optimal by the criterion of profit per 1 ton of balance reserves of ore is a option of the technology of chamber extraction with dual chambers, frontal drawing of ore by remote-controlled load-haul-dump machine and subsequent pillars caving, as having the greatest profit; - the calculations justified stable spans of dual chambers (25.3 m) and the width of panel pillars (3 m). With an allowable span of 25.3 m, the roof of the dual chambers will be stable with a safety factor of 1.41, and a panel pillar with a width of 3 m has a sufficient margin of safety (more than 1.6) in the whole range of ore body thickness variation; - the proposed scheme of delivery and transportation of rock mass, which allows to reduce the volume of tunnel works by 26% and the average length of transportation by 10-15% compared with the project. Findings. Developed in the process of modernization the technology sublevel chamber system with double-chamber, compared with the project technology, it is possible to significantly increase the efficiency of mining of the low thickness deposit of rich ores Skalistoe by reducing the specific volume of preparatory-rifled work by 34%, the cost of mined ore by 12%, losses and ore dilution – by 2 and 2.9 times, respectively.
Introduction. Currently used grinding machines, among which drum mills are the most widely used, have a low efficiency, are bulky, are characterized by low specific productivity, significant consumption of steel for grinding bodies and lining, high noise level, and high energy consumption of the grinding process. The most promising devices of a new type that can effectively perform grinding operations at high technological rates are centrifugal mills. The centrifugal mill developed at SKGMI operates on the principle of self-grinding of pieces and particles of crushed mineral raw materials, when they collide and RUB in a mobile toroidal flow formed when the material moves between a rotating Cup-shaped rotor, a fixed body and the overlying layers of the crushed material. Grinding occurs due to the appearance of a gradient of particle velocities over the working body, due to their impact and, to a greater extent, abrasion. The tests of these mills for grinding various materials have shown high efficiency in operation, but until now, the issues of determining the physical and mechanical properties of the crushed material based on the establishment of the particle opening mechanism remain unresolved. The purpose of the tests. Determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the crushed material in a centrifugal mill based on the establishment of the particle opening mechanism. Test procedure. To solve this problem, a vertical centrifugal mill MC-600 with a rotor diameter of 600 mm was used. Tests of the centrifugal mill were carried out according to the following method. The speed of rotation of the rotor was 4.8 and 8.4 s-1, the height of the material column above the rotor was at the level of 250 and 350 mm; 6 radial ribs were installed in the rotor cavity of the mill. The time of each test was 4 hours. The tests were repeated 3–5 times for each mode of operation of the mill. Quartz was used as a reference material for determining the relative pulverizability coefficient. The research was carried out in the production conditions of the Izhevsk machinebuilding plant during the regeneration of spent molding quartz mixtures. Pieces of a liquid-glass mixture based on quartz sand with strength of 1.3 MPa and 4.25 MPa were used as the crushed material. The crushed material was dispersed according to the standard method for each hour of operation of the mill. Samples were taken in the size class -0.200 + 0.074 mm for their fractional analysis by size. Test result. 1. It was Found that the maximum productivity of a centrifugal mill when grinding pieces of material with a strength of 1.3 MPa was achieved with a loading weight of 90– 100 kg, and with a strength of 4.25 MPa – 100–110 kg, which indicates the need to create an increased normal pressure of the layers of crushed material located above the mill rotor. It was found that the maximum productivity of a centrifugal mill when grinding pieces of material with a strength of 1.3 MPa and a rotor rotation frequency of 8.4 s-1 was 13.16 t/h, and when grinding pieces of material with a strength of 4.25 MPa – 10.0 t/h. 2. The Dependence of power consumption on the weight of the mill load and the rotor speed increases when the load weight is more than 100 kg. 3. The Highest fraction content of class -0.4 +0.16 mm is 72.14 %, and the content of class -0.074 mm is 3.9 %, i.e. there is no re-grinding of the source material. 4. The specific productivity of the centrifugal mill for the newly formed calculated size classes -0.074 mm and -0.200 mm was 1.28 t/h and 13.0 t/h, respectively. 5. Microscopic study of anshlifov showed that quartz grains in the crushed material mostly have a rounded shape, on average 90–95 % of the grains. In the initial material, about 90% of quartz joints with a binder, and in the crushed material
The Greater Caucasus experienced repeated glaciation during the Quaternary (early, middle, upper Pleistocene, late Glacial, and late Holocene), which occurred under changing climatic conditions and differentiated tectonic movements. These glaciations, of course, are associated with changes in terrain, the formation of new deposits, transgressions and regressions of the Caspian Sea, changes in vegetation and soil
types, so the problem of glaciation affects all earth Sciences to varying degrees. The study of Quaternary glaciation, especially Holocene glaciation, is currently relevant for understanding climate change. Against the background of significant climate fluctuations within the epochs of glaciation, there are smaller cooling phases that cause the temporary onset of glaciers. Short-term climate fluctuations are manifested in oscillations – minor fluctuations in the languages of glaciers. All this indicates that the climate undergoes significant changes in a short time, which are reflected in the morphosculpture of the terrain, the latest deposits and modern precipitation. Glaciation of the Greater Caucasus in the Prikazbeksky region reached its maximum in the middle Pleistocene,when glaciers went far into the Ossetian basin. All these traces have been preserved due to the lower capacity of the Chanty-Argun glacier and its fluvioglacial flow, which developed during the late Pleistocene epoch. Volcanic activity, especially active in the late Pliocene and continuing up to the present time, is associated with the late horn stage of development of the Caucasus. The formation of the Rukhs-Dzuar molass formation more than 2 km thick in the late Pleistocene in the Ossetian basin of the Tersky-Caspian flexure is associated with the activity of volcanoes in the Kazbek volcanic region. In the early Pleistocene, volcanic activity on the BC decreased significantly. The most intense outbreak of volcanism in the Kazbek and Elbrus volcanic regions occurred at the beginning of the late Pleistocene, which roughly coincided with the maximum phase of the late Pleistocene (Bezengian) glaciation. Then, in the second half of the late Pleistocene, volcanic activity was manifested on the mount Kazbek. The last outbreak of volcanic activity occurred in the Holocene no more than 2-3 thousand years ago. Fresh lavas are available on Elbrus, Kazbek, in the Terek valley near villages. Sioni and on the Kel volcanic plateau. Fumarolic activity still continues on Elbrus. Thus, in the Kazbek region, eruptions occurred from the late Pliocene to the late Holocene inclusive.
The ecological condition and physicochemical properties of the soils of the territory of the middle coast of the lake most visited by tourists on the west coast were studied. Baikal (Eastern Olkhon Region) and the eastern slope of the Primorskii Range. The studied soils have a predominantly low-power, strong and medium stone profile, a light particle size distribution, a high content of humus, and a predominantly neutral and slightly alkaline reaction. Vertical zonality is observed in the structure of the soil cover. The results of the conducted studies have shown that the soils of the recreational zone of the coast have elevated contents of some toxic elements, which may be due to anthropogenic stress and a high content of macro- and microelements in the soil-forming rocks. The adjacent territory of the Primorskii Range is exposed to the least recreational impact due to difficult passable places and poor development of ecological and extreme tourism. In the soils of the Primorskii Range, lower concentrations of toxic elements were detected.
Purpose of work. Identification of the features of the mountain soils microelement composition formation under the forest vegetation of the Western Caucasus with a homogeneous nature of soil-forming rocks.
Research мethods: The determination of the microelement composition of mountain soils was determined in the Teberda Nature Reserve, in the upper part of the Teberds river basin within the range of Malaya Khatipara. Chemical analysis of the soil is carried out by generally accepted methods. In soils, the content of strongly bound Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd compounds by acid decomposition using 5 M HNO3 was analyzed. Mobile forms of trace elements are converted into a solution using an ammonium acetate buffer solution. The metal content is determined by voltammetric and atomic absorption methods. Features of the microelement composition of parent rocks are revealed by comparison with clarks of chemical elements in the upper part of the continental crust. The trace element composition of soils is compared with clarks of chemical elements in the soils of the world.
Research results. Differences in the microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils formed under different types of forests have been revealed. The trace element composition of soils under fir forests is characterized by large concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn; under the pine trees – high Pb levels; under birch stands – relatively low concentrations of Pb and Zn; Soils of beech forests are characterized by minimal concentrations of Cd. Exposure differences in the manifestation of the climatic and biological factors of soil formation are reflected in the features of the microelement composition of soils. Between the content of trace elements in mountain forest brown soils and the distribution of humus, positive correlation relationships of medium strength for Cu, Cd were revealed; weak for Pb.
Conclusions. The formation of trace elements is determined in mountain soils by changes in the conditions of soil formation and the intensity of weathering processes – soil formation with the height and exposure of the slopes. The microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils under deciduous forests is strongly transformed in comparison with parent rocks. The influence of the mineralogical composition of parent rocks in a certain way affects the microelement composition of brown mountain forest soils under coniferous forests.
The research results of quartz – carbonaceous metasomatites of Eastern Donbass, including metal-bearing, with use of the experimental autoclave unit BAR-1 allowing to carry out destruction of solid substance in the conditions of sharp pressure and temperature variations are covered in article. It is established that as a result of autoclave processing of quartz – carbonaceous metasomatites tests in thermobarogradient conditions at the modes «stationary», «return» explosion, «choking» there are changes of structure and technological properties of the rocks which are shown in changes of particle size distribution and transition of ore elements from disseminated state in a firm phase to solution. At these modes there is a refinement of minerals and synthesis of polymineral aggregates and monocrystals. Considerable transformation of substance happens at the «return» explosion and «choking». At the «stationary» mode the autoclave was filled for 90% with rock, fraction −2+1 mm., with the distilled water and was heated for 2 hours at temperatures of 200-400 °C. The mode «return» explosion is almost similar to «stationary», but differs in a rupture of membranes at the subsequent increase of temperatures up to 400–655 °C. At the «choking» mode the tests were heated up to a rupture of membranes at temperatures of 400-600 °C, with the subsequent passing of suspension via the adapter and a perforated membrane. At these modes in all tests of rocks reactionary zones in quartz, a resorption and a dispergation of mineral grains, an upheaving of organic material occurred. «Choking» also differs by synthesis of new minerals. According to results of chemical analysis researches of initial metasomatites and products of their destruction it is established that as a result of autoclave processing of tests at the «stationary» and the «return» explosion modes the decrease in the general content of ore elements in all types of metasomatites is observed relating to initial tests that speaks well for their extraction and transition to solution. By results of chemical-analysis researches of initial metasomatites and products of their destruction it is established that the autoclave study of tests in the «choking» mode is resulted by different behavior of total content of impurity elements in all types of metasomatites as relating to initial tests. At the same time if all rocks are only losing elements, then quartz hydrothermalit obtains. After studying the mineral concentrations on membranes the new growths of native silver, cuprite crystals, globose-skeletal structure of silicon dioxide – organic substrate were established.
An effective option of disturbed land reclamation by stow-ing the goaf with overburden rocks of mineral deposits is considered. Outside the settlements, under favorable geological conditions, a goaf may be stowed with solid household waste. It is noted that to prevent migration of waste degradation products, their intermediate layer-by-layer isolation is required.
The purpose of this work is to study the possibility of using man-made sediments of water treatment plants to form an insulating layer during the reclamation of disturbed land.
Method of research. The main physical and chemical parameters of the water treatment sediment were determined by generally accepted methods in accordance with the standards for soil samples. The fractional composition was studied by the method of Rutkovski. Humidity was determined by evaporation of water from a sample of sediment followed by drying to a constant mass. The mineral composition was studied by semi-quantitative spectral analysis. The relative deformation of the swelling was determined using the swell meter. The filtration coefficient was determined by filling the pits. A representative gross sample of sediment was placed in a ground recess to conduct research in natural conditions.
Outcomes and discussion. Water treatment sediment by its physical and chemical properties is a colloidal system consisting mainly of humus substances and clay minerals, as well as hardly soluble iron and aluminum hydroxides and manganese oxide. The results of the research indicate the stability in atmospheric conditions of the bearing properties of man-made soil formed when the sediment dries. The chemical composition of the sediment is characterized by the presence of heavy metals. Toxic elements such as lead and arsenic are bound by clay and organic particles, metal hydroxides and oxides that form sediment. As a result, the mobility of the elements is noticeably reduced. On the other hand, water treatment sediment can serve for plants as a source of trace elements such as copper, zinc, and nickel, contributing to the biological stage of reclamation.
Conclusion. Sediment of water treatment of filter plants is a promising material for use as a man-made insulating soil.
The main advantages of this application of water treatment sediment are associated with the possibility of using it on the surface of steep slopes, good sorption capacity in regard to polluting chemical elements and reduced filtration properties that prevent precipitation from entering the waste depth. The use of water treatment sludge as a technogenic secondary raw material makes it possible to solve the problems of environment-friendly waste management and recultivation of disturbed lands.
Purpose of research: The main aim of the academic research is interaction detection based on materials of the Mayma river basin (Altay Republic) between extreme meteorological and hydrographic situations.
Method of research: Extreme meteorological and hydrographic situations analyze was carried out upon predictive the criterion of drought and probability curve that was calculated using the annual average river discharge. Pearson’s code and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used for the determination of interaction detection between the parameters that characterize meteorological and hydrographic situations.
Research result: Conducted analyze of meteorological parameters anomalies allowed to distinguish two periods that are different from each other according to frequency years with different regimes of wetness. 1940/41 is the period with domination of «wetted» and «overwetted» years. 1976/77 and 1977/78–2013/2014 are the periods with high frequency of «dry» years. The probability curve was calculated according to the analyze of long-term range of annual average the Mayma river water discharge. Separate years according to the water content groups were distinguished: years with extreme little water (9,5 %), years with little water (31,1%), well watered years (20,3 %), extreme watered years (9,5 %).
Calculation of Pearson’s (R = – 0,59) and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (ρ = – 0,628) allowed to determine moderate linear correlation dependence between annual average flowing and wetness conditions for level of significance α=0,05. The revealed interrelation was confirmed by the synchronous display of extreme meteorological and hydrological situations in certain years.
Conclusions: The analyze of hydro meteorological facts of the Mayma river basin allowed to distinguish two periods that are different from each other according to their regimes of wetness and character of the river water content: more “wetted” and wetted, more “dry’ and with little water.
There is moderate linear correlation dependence between the parameters of river annual average discharge and dryness index values. This fact confirms important influence of meteorological factors on the river water content. At the same time there cannot be absolute dependence between extreme meteorological and hydrological situations that were determined according to annual average parameters. Preceding year’s autumn wetness, weather condition of snow melting and other factors significantly influence on the river flowing, particular on its maximum rating.
Although the current situation of the Iran’s land and the dominance of arid and semi-arid conditions cast a doubt on the existence of glacier reign in this land, there is evidence of geomorphological traces of glaciers in different areas of Iran indicating the function of glaciers in these regions.
Therefore, regarding these traces and evidences, the past climatic conditions can be reconstructed. Based on what mentioned above, this study mainly aimed to trace the climatic changes through the glacial traces and evidences on the Hezar Mountain.
Tracing the climatic changes indicates that the temperature of the study area was 6.58 °C colder than that of the current temperature during the period of glacial reign. In addition, the isopluvial map of the Hezar Mountain during the period of glacial reign indicates that the minimum rainfall at that time was 617 mm at the outlet of the basin and the maximum rainfall was 1340 mm at the highest part of the basin. On the other hand, glacier cirques, glacier valleys, and moraines were identified as the most characteristic geomorphological evidence of glaciers in the study area. Finally, laboratory indicators (granulometry), as a complement to glacier evidence, proved the existence of glacial sediments in the Tenguieh Basin. In addition, the permanent snow line was estimated at the height of 3326 meters in the Tenguieh Basin during the glacial reign and based on Porter’s cirque floor height et the height of 3333 m through the Wright method.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)