Purpose. The tailings pond is a mountain object that undergoes significant physicochemical changes. It should be considered not only as waste, but also as temporarily preserved raw materials. Therefore, the fate of the tailing dumps should be considered in a comprehensive manner, taking into account their environmental dangers and the benefits from the components obtained, and the restoration of the habitat. It is necessary to carefully plan the tailing dump and tailings processing activities long before the operation of the enterprise during the entire life of the mine, as well as for the purpose of rational land reclamation after closure. Accuracy and reliability of control under the known mineralogical and chemical composition of the pulp solid phase will allow us to justify and continuously assess the material balance of the concentrating mill, and control the technological and ecological state of the tailing dump. Method. Measurement of the technological parameters of the pulp in a gravity tail pipe (pipeline) is carried out using measuring systems. Measurement of solid flow in pulp with the help of modern tools is necessary to improve the accuracy and reliability of control of process flows during the transportation of tailings to the tailings pond. Discussion. The performed investigations made it possible to propose a system for automated control of solid flow in a pulp moving along a partially filled pipeline. The control of the flow of solids in the pulp was carried out in a pipeline with a radius of 0.5 m which was filled with a pulp with a different filling volume of the pipeline, for example from 60–100% of its volume, the area of the segment of the unfilled space of the pipeline was measured with an ultrasonic level meter, the volumetric flow of pulp – flow meter, the density of the solid in the pulp – in a laboratory way, and the density of the pulp and the density of the liquid – a radioisotope densitometer. The proposed system allows you to obtain operational and accurate current information on the flow rate of solid in the pulp entering the main pipeline and reduce the error by 50%. Result. The proposed methodology, based on the regularities of tailings management will improve the efficiency of the technological solution for storing raw materials. Knowledge of the volumes of tailings stored in the tailing pond is an indispensable condition for ensuring the safety of the drive and evaluating the economic efficiency when using them further.
The collapse of the unified economic system of the USSR led to a sharp drop in industrial production in the post-Soviet space. But with the dynamic development in recent years of the construction industry of military-industrial and oil and gas complexes, as well as other sectors of the economy, the need for welding electrodes has also increased. However, economic sanctions imposed by Western countries against Russian enterprises have created objective conditions for the organization and successful operation of their own mini- production of welding electrodes. Purpose. Development and justification of technology for preparation of coating composition for welding electrodes using materials from non-metallic minerals of the North Caucasus region for the production of high quality welding materials. Methods. To improve the welding-technological properties and reduce the cost of welding electrodes in the electrode coating containing the components of the base electrode variant, dolomite and volcanic ash were additionally introduced in the form of fine powders (particle size not more than 150 microns). Preparation of the charge components, mixing of the coating mass and pressing of the electrode rods were carried out according to the technology adopted in the serial production of electrodes. Quality control was carried out for compliance of electrodes with the requirements of GOST 9466-75 on the difference of coating thickness and welding-technological properties. Discussion. In operation, welding electrodes were investigated, in the charge of the coating mass of which components from non-metallic minerals of the North Caucasus region were included or partially replaced in order to create new high-performance welding materials. The results of testing of electrodes during welding in different spatial positions showed that good separability of slag crust from the surface of the weld, as well as high welding and technological properties of the electrodes are provided with the content of 9-10% of volcanic ash, 55-57% of dolomite in the coating. At the same time, the formed slags have good hiding power and provide for the production of fine-grained seams with a smooth transition of the gain to the base metal. The decrease in the content of volcanic ash led to a decrease in the plasticity of the coating mass, which did not allow to reach the values of the eccentricity of the coating e ≤ 0.20 mm, required by GOST 9466-75 for electrodes with a diameter of 4 mm. an Increase in the content of volcanic ash above 10% with the number of components in the declared range led to a deterioration in welding and technological properties. Thus, the properties of the coating masses and the mechanical properties of the deposited metal allow them to be used in the manufacture of both serial electrodes of the brands UONI-13/55, ANO-9, Mr-3, and in the development of new brands of electrodes. Summary. On the basis of the studied raw materials resources of the North Caucasus region, experimental work was carried out to replace expensive and scarce components of welding electrode coatings with components from local raw materials. As a result, the compositions of electrode coatings for welding critical structures, including for the construction and repair of oil and gas facilities were developed. In the course of the research, several variants of electrode coating charge were developed, which provided satisfactory formation of welded joints in all spatial positions and mechanical properties of single-pass steel joints with a thickness of 12-14 mm at the level shown to the electrodes of type E46. The introduction of dolomite and volcanic ash to the electrode coating in comparison with the series electrodes of the fluoride-calcium type will increase the strength of the finished electrode coating, improve the plastic properties of the coating mass and the separability of the slag crust, provide additional ga
The complexity of the mineralogical composition and the reduction of the content of valuable components in copper ores leads to the search for new alternative solutions for the production of a marketable product with the preservation of the profitability of production. Traditional pyro-metallurgical technologies, currently widespread, are not used in the construction of new metallurgical complexes, and preference is given to autoclave leaching technologies and increasing the complexity of the use of raw materials with a reduction in the loss of valuable components. The largest amount of copper produced by hydrometallurgical method is based on sulfuric acid and ammonia leaching. The latter is characterized with low aggressiveness and high selectivity in relation to iron and other components of waste rock. In addition, ammonia can be regenerated which makes this method preferable for creating a highly efficient technology. Hydrometallurgical technologies allow selective separation of impurity and target components which simplifies the further production of commercial products, while causing less damage to the environment and increasing extraction at the processing sites. The use of hydrometallurgy makes it possible to extract zinc, cobalt, Nickel and rhenium into a solution with a sufficiently high concentration for further cost-effective production of a marketable product. The paper presents the results of the study of autoclave ammonia leaching on the example of semi-products of copper sandstone enrichment of Dzhezkazgan Deposit. In the experiment, the concentration of the supplied NH3 was varied at constant values of oxygen pressure and ammonium sulfate addition, which allowed to determine the dependence of copper and silver extraction into the solution on the volume of its supply. The characteristics of the materials used in the work are given: the results of granule-metric analysis, mineralogical and elemental composition. This allows us to evaluate the possibility of using the studied leaching method for raw materials obtained from other sources. The dependence of extraction of copper and silver in solution on the concentration of ammonia and the preferred mode of leaching within the boundaries of the study according to the proposed technological criterion of optimality. The estimation of the cost of valuable components contained in a ton of concentrate, which makes it possible to calculate the preliminary economic efficiency of production. The assumption is made about the efficiency of the developed technology on copper-containing ores of the North Caucasus Urup, Mizur and other deposits.
The aim of the work is to justify the parameters of multi-stage averaging in underground mining on the basis of the developed simulation model to align their composition to the content. The idea of the work is to establish the regularities of the formation of ore mass in the multi-stage process of stabilization of the quality of ore streams. Ore extraction technology, although it has certain averaging properties, does not provide the necessary level of stabilization of the quality of the ore mass. Due to the instability of the quality of the ore mass, the quality performance of the processing plant deteriorates, as a result of which the degree of extraction of the useful component decreases and the losses and costs of processing increase. Stabilization of product quality in underground mining is a multi-stage process implemented through the implementation of independent operations for planning and organization of technological works. The method of formation of multistage ore streams of required quality in the required volume based on the method of mathematical statistics is proposed. Each stage of the averaging quality of ore match your original settings, restrictions, criteria for averaging, space averaging. Results. The work was carried out within the framework of research works on the theme "Theoretical foundations of new technologies with controlled quality of ores, ensuring effective development of non-ferrous metal deposits". The following conclusions are given in this work: - a simulation model is proposed to determine the required volumes of ore production at the quality management facilities in order to align their quality composition; - the scheme of stabilization of quality of ores realized by means of calendar planning and multistage averaging is given, meets the mining and geological conditions of Zhezkazgan field, provides the necessary stabilization of quality of ore flow, does not require additional capital costs for the device of underground and surface averaging warehouses, the acquisition of ore sorting machines.
The relevance of this work is determined by the need to create systems for recognizing the images of autonomous robots intended for transition to precision agriculture aimed at dramatically increasing the efficiency of agricultural production in mountainous areas. The purpose of the work is the development of the theoretical basis for image recognition by an agricultural autonomous robot based on video information. The task of the work is the development of a teaching system for an autonomous robot to recognize video data on the basis of multi-agent cognitive architectures. The methods based on cognitive architectures today are considered as the most common paradigm for modeling thinking and behavior. The algorithm of the multi-agent cognitive architecture presented in this paper is intended for interactive learning of images recognition registered by video cameras installed on the mobile robot. Video stream split into frames with the help of standard libraries is transmitted for further processing to robot software receptors-actors. Actors main task is in forming symbol signatures containing information about the basic primitives of image. Signatures are sent further along the afferent tract of the multi-agent cognitive architecture in order to search or create an agent which identifies statement in these signatures in the recognized input language. The obtained results are based on the application of multi-agent representations of the corresponding cognitive functions capable of learning and priming on the basis of self-organization. The further work should be directed to the development of image recognition methods, based on architectural similarity with the neuro-morphological substrate of image recognition process in biological organisms. The basic conclusions are connected with the assertion of the possibilities of creation of the agricultural robots’ machine vision systems. The main technological driver of precision agriculture providing the unique abilities of sustainable development of agro ecosystems is the mass usage of intelli- gent robots that are able to autonomous decision making and behavior. The significant increase in productivity due to this process, with a corresponding reduction in the cost of production, will allow the small-scale agricultural producers that are most widespread in the mountainous areas, to compete effectively with large farms. The use of autonomous intelligent robots will help to level out the advantages of the latter connected with the lack of a deficit of land and the possibility of reducing costs due to significant production volumes.
gines are widely used as a drive on autonomous vehicles, special purpose vehicles for the development of mountain areas, extraction of minerals by open and closed mine method. The aim of this work is to perform analysis of statistical data taking into account the causes of failures; to set the mean time between the cylinder heads of the diesel engine of locomotives of mining enterprises; to establish the form and parameters of the law of distribution of the operating time for the failure of cylinder heads of mining transport vehicles. Methods. Mathematical methods are used processing the statistical data; assessment of reliability and prediction of longevity; testing the hypothesis that the sample belongs to a certain distribution law; verification of statistical hypotheses. Results. The conditions of operation of power diesel engines in mountain areas and in the extraction of minerals are similar and primarily due to large slopes. In order to assess the reasons for the failure of diesel engines of mining transport vehicles, statistical data were analyzed at transport enterprises with different operating conditions. The least reli- able node of the diesel system is the cylinder-piston group. The analysis of failure-free operation according to aggregate logs of three enterprises on which mining transport vehicles with power diesel engines is analyzed. The greatest share of refusals of cylinder heads of mining transport vehicles in all enterprises is caused by cracks in the inter-valve lintel, and the maximum number of such failures was observed at facilities with an average tension of the work. The distributions received on objects with light and heavy work are similar. Conclusions. Analysis of statistical data, taking into account the reasons of failures, allowed to establish the values of the mean time between failures of cylinder heads of diesel engines of locomotives of mining enterprises with average, light and heavy work tension. The form and parameters of the law of distribution of the operating time for the failure of cylinder heads of mining transport vehicles have been established, taking into account their operating conditions. The obtained results allow to clarify the reliability characteristics of the diesel power engine of the mining transport vehicle and to predict the occurrence of failures.
The purpose of research is the analysis of the main methodology for estimation of atmospheric air quality in Russian Federation. Restrictions in environmental protection practice prevent the transition to the sustainable development of mountain urbanized landscapes due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic impact. The research method is based on the defect identification in the state system of assessment of atmospheric air quality at residential areas. A lack of officially approved ecosystem status criteria, legal acts declaring the rules for emissions of pollutants by stationary sources, lack of calculation methods for emissions by motor vehicle which is the main source of pollutants entering the air basin of urban landscapes, establishment of intermediate quality criteria for urban ecosystems in the form of unreasonable maximum permissible (MPE) or temporarily agreed emissions (TAE) of pollutants, etc. impede the adequate monitoring of environmental pollution. In general, at practice estimation methods of atmospheric air pollution create the opportunities for manipulating with economic data. Results. The analysis of the contradictions in the environmental legal system made it possible to identify the factors preventing the achievement of a favorable environmental quality. The methods for ensuring environmental safety shortcomings are the consequence of: setting emission standards; lack of correct calculation methods of emissions and air pollutant concentration; the use of questionable concepts of impurities dispersion in the atmospheric air; changes in maximum permissible concentration (MPC) by an administrative decision; inadmissible comparison of the investigated values by comparing of experimental and teoretical parameters of environmental pollution; incorrect information about pollutant emissions, their concentration in the air, the ecosystem damage by vehicle emissions, etc. To eliminate the above mentioned remarks, an author's method for ensuring the safety of urban ecosystems is recommended which is based on the principles of scientifically sound ecological standardization of stationary and mobile sources. Conclusion. To solve the problems of the quality assessment methodology the approach taking into account both ecological and economic aspects of environmental protection is proposed. The use of the author's method promotes the increase of efficiency of ecosystem quality management and the transition to sustainable territory development.
An actual problem is the assessment of the affected areas size in the case of rock mass crashes at the present time. To study the rock fall processes, various methods are used, among which an important role is played by the mathematical and computer modeling.The rock fall movement of the slope which is associated with the horizontal section was investigated in the paper. The theoretical investigation was performed using two-fluid model based on the continuum approach and kinetic theory of granular gas. At the continuum approach the moving mass of a substance is represented as a continuous medium characterized by the inseparable field of the physical parameters values. To describe the fluidization of the mass of rock fall in the course of its motion, the kinetic theory of granulated gas was used, which takes into account the chaotic motion of debris both in the dense and in the rarefied state.Fluidization means a change in the density of the layer which can change during its movement. Verification of the model was carried out using the results of the experiments obtained on the laboratory equipment. The comparison between the experiment results and calculations, performed using two-fluid model and discrete element method were presented. The numerical calculations of the affected area of rock fall performed for various values of the slope angle to horizontal surface satisfactorily describe the experiments. The affected area increases almost linearly with an increase in the slope angle. The experimental data is corresponding to the calculations obtained using the two-fluid model at relatively large values of the slope angle better than the calculations obtained using the discrete element method. In addition, the computer time spent on computations using the two-fluid model is about four times less than in the case of using the discrete element method.Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the two-fluid model based on the continuum approach and the kinetic theory of granulated gas can be used to describe the motion of the rock fall and to estimate the affected area.
For the typical regional geosystems of the Baikalian region, this study of spatial landscape heterogeneity was carried out at the level of elementary territorial units, i. e. facies. Our investigation into the spatial-coenotic changes of the mountain taiga and subtaiga forests and steppe geosystems of the Southern Baikal Region and the Western Baikal Region allowed us to establish the dependence of the spatial landscape heterogeneity on the variability of the hydrothermal conditions and litomorphic nature of habitats. A useful starting point for landscape heterogeneity research has been to explore landscape as groups of plant communities or ecosystems forming ecological units (patches) which have distinguishable structural, functional, morphological, and disturbance regimes. We identified dominant and edificatory species of vegetation as well as peculiarities in their spatial distribution in the key sites. The complexity of the landscape structure is enhanced by the mixed character of the successiondynamical states of geosystems arising as a consequence of different impacts. The application of a structural dynamic approach to the analysis of the spatial landscape heterogeneity in our study made it possible to show the order of changes of the facies due to the variability in ecological conditions in the form of models, namely, factoringdynamic models. These models will support us in understanding and integrating information on spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the current and prognostic geosystems needed to provide the main functions of the geosystems. These are the resource, environment-forming, environmentprotective and social functions. We studied this landscape structure as a set of the geosystems existing in different dynamical states as a result of their directed transformation under spatial and temporal changes in natural conditions and under anthropogenic impact. Landscape structure analysis was made of the middle-scale landscape profiles using the comparative-geographical method, since the landscape topographic profile and spatial combination of the facies within it reflect the main structural and dynamic features of the territorial landscape structure with regard to regional nature characteristics.
The goal is to identify ecological risks, associated with development of recreational and tourism objects in the mount cluster of Sochi. The anthropogenic, geological, hydrological, hydro chemical aspects which represent danger for the resort as well as for unique ecosystems of the mount river Laura were studied. Methods. During 2016–2017 the complex research of the Laura river were conducted within the framework of which the analysis of exogenous geological processes and studying of hydro-chemical and hydro-biological parameters of ecological situation of the water body were carried out. The examinations of water were carried out in accordance with methods approved by the Hydro-meteorological Service of the Russian Federation. For evaluation of biological communities conditions the saprobical method and analysis of biological diversity were used. Results. The research indicated that intensive anthropogenic influence on the geological environment of the region provokes activation of the dangerous geological processes increasing the risks for humans health and safety as well as for the natural communities of the river Laura. It was determined that during summer months in the hydro biocenoses of the Laura river due to the complex "Gazprom" influence on zone share tolerant to the organic pollution of macrozoobenthic organisms significantly increases. Resulting from the river dewatering and increasing anthropogenic pressure, the status of the river on this area was changed from oligosaprobical to β-mezosaprobical. The increase in the river pollution level by domestic wastewater combined with the raised fine-grained suspended solids content and excessive metal ions concentrations due to the natural geochemical anomalies creates risks of additive influence of these factors on the mountain river biocoenoses in the region. It was revealed that the Laura river above the resort complex territory where there is practically no anthropogenic pressure during the whole investigation period was characterized as a clean, oligosaprobic waterway. Conclusion. A comprehensive study of the Laura mountain river allowed identification of the environmental risks for the river ecosystem. It was revealed in the course of the research that the changes in the water body hydro biocenoses composition creates the risks of decreasing the fishery and recreational value not only of the Laura river but also of the Mzymta river, the inflow of which it is. The authors recommend the expansion of the monitoring program of these rivers which should include the study of the actual referencing areas and a comprehensive analysis of all biotic and abiotic factors affecting the ecological status of water bodies.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)