The paper investigates the phenomenon of radon emanation in various geological conditions – rocks, thick boulderpebble strata and a powerful landslide. Instrumental measurements of micro-seismic vibrations, radon volumetric activity (RAR) were carried out, and long-term values of the gravitational movement of the soil strata were determined on the largest Loire landslide in North Ossetia. A low OAR level was obtained, which did not exceed during the experiment (0.6 Bq/m3). It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information about geological cracks and the stress state of a landslide body. It has been determined that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the state of landslide and providing an objective scientific basis for assessing the stability of mountain slopes. The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between radon emanation and the level of external impact on the basis of monitoring large landslides in mountainous areas. Research results. As a result of the research, a low OAR level was obtained, not exceeding 0.6 Bq/m3 during the experiment. It has been established that the concentration of radon can reflect the degree of enrichment in underground cracks and, therefore, information on geological fracturing, the stress-strain state of a dispersed landslide body. This phenomenon was expressed in the fact that an increase in the amplitudes of the micro-seismic background manifests itself with a delay in an increase in the RAR or the “aftereffect time tp of radon”, after which a targeted effect on the environment or pulse-vibration processes in the environment itself, characterized by intense fluctuations, cause an increase in the intensity of radon emanation on surface. It has been established that the analysis of radon anomalies can be used as an independent method for assessing the stress-strain state of a landslide b
The aim of the study is to analyze climatic changes within the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus using observational data from the reference meteorological network, as well as spatial interpretation of the results using GIS technologies. Materials and methods. To assess climatic changes in arid landscapes, data from the Divnoe, Roschchino, Naurskaya, Makhachkala and Derbent meteorological stations were used for the period from 1961 to 2020. Material processing was carried out using statistical methods (Exсel). The results were mapped using GIS technologies (MapInfo and ArcGIS). Results. Analysis of the thermal regime of the arid landscapes of the North Caucasus for the period from 1961 to 2020 showed that climatic changes proceed according to the scenario of an increase in annual air temperature. Precipitation in the north- and southwestern areas of semi-desert landscapes is decreasing, while in the southeastern areas it is increasing. Against the background of an increase in air temperature and a decrease in precipitation, the value of the hydrothermal coefficient is also decreasing. Thematic maps obtained from the analysis of the hydrothermal coefficient illustrate the increase in the area of semi-deserts and dry steppes in 2011-2015. In comparison with 1991 -1995. Conclusions. Despite the decrease in the hydrothermal coefficient for all areas of the semi-desert landscapes of the North Caucasus, the hydrothermal coefficient value remains within the limits typical for semi-deserts and dry steppes.
The article discusses the results of studies on the electrochemical leaching of metals with the addition of a surfactant under the influence of infra-low-frequency current. Mathematical models of the dependence of leaching indicators at various numerical values of density and specially taken from the research range from the maximum allowable to standard production values of the DC reverse frequency and mathematical models characterizing the direct dependence of the leaching indicators on the density and duration of DC pulses are presented. The obtained results of the analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented in the form of tabular data on the leaching of ore under the influence of a reversible direct current, which allows assessing the prospects for processing secondary raw materials.
The growth in the power supply and the development of a mechanized complex of mining districts in coal mines has an impact on the characteristics of their power consumption. The improvement of coal mining technologies affects the servicing factor of mining machines, and the introduction of a modern variable-frequencyelectric drive can affect the dynamics of changes in electrical loads. Cited in the literature, the characteristics of the electrical load of the excavation districts of coal mines were obtained in the XX century and are outdated. To make adequate technical solutions in the design and management of power supply systems for coal mines, it is necessary to update these characteristics. Implementation of the SCADA system in coal mines makes it possible to obtain a large amount of measurement information that can be processed using modern methods of working with big data. The purpose of this work is a comparative analysis of the statistical characteristics of the electrical load of the modern Eickhoff SL 900 shearer with similar characteristics of the shearers used in the 1980s. The measurement data is collected using the SCADA system of a coal mine and includes measurements of the current, the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow. The measurement period covers 72 days. After the initial processing of the measurements, data arrays were formed with a time interval of 5 seconds. As a result of statistical processing of the arrays of measurements, the following characteristics of the shearer were determined: cycle time; work time; downtime; cyclic duration factor (CDF); time utilization degree (ηТ); coefficient of variation (CV). Comparative analysis of the listed characteristics showed that the SL 900 shearer has a significantly longer duration of operation and the time utilization degreein comparison with shearers of the 1960-1970s. Correlation analysis of the electrical load of the shearer with the shearer speed and the conveyor traffic flow showed&l
The article describes a structured approach to the collection and verification of data on the process of blast borehole drilling in the formation of geostructural block models. When using methods and means of machine learning to create block models based on interpreted drilling data, an important aspect is the accuracy of the input data for the learning process compared with the geological and structural information about the rock mass. To identify the real response of drilling to the variation of rocks and the structure of the rock, the article provides comparison of data on the drilling process, data on specific energy intensity and data on the analysis of the changeability of the drilling in the rock when entering various geologic zones and fracture zones. To identify the real state of the rock, its variability and response of drilling data, a comparison of the slope of the ledge after the contour explosion is made in conjunction with the information on the specific energy consumption of the discontinent rows passed in blocks. The results of the endoscopic of the main explosive boreholes for the delay of telemetry data with comparison with the specific energy of drilling are presented. The analysis of the research obtained during the studies showed that the measurement system during drilling gives a real response to changes in array, such as breed transitions, the presence of fracture and disorders, etc. For a more accurate assessment of the nature of the appearance of jumps of values, it is possible to compare the specific consumption energy intensity of drilling and data behavior during MWD drilling.
The increase in the population creates prerequisites for the use of new undeveloped places, which include underground space. The development of underground space is associated with the construction of underground structures. A promising technology for the construction of underground structures is geokhodnaya. The basic element of which is a geokhod. As a rule, structures are built at shallow depths, which are characterized by rocks with a strength coefficient up to f = 1 on the scale of Professor M.M. Protodiakonov. Traditionally, the sinking of workings in these rocks is carried out by knife executive bodies. During the development and executive body design, one of the main indicators for evaluating its work is the energy intensity of the face rock destruction. As a result, a promising direction is to study the influence of the shape of the cutting edge of the knife executive body of the geokhod on the energy intensity of the destruction of the face rock. The article presents variants of schematic solutions of the geokhod knife executive body with a different shape of the knife cutting edge, developed on the basis of a functional and constructive approach to the development of constructive solutions and requirements for the geokhod executive bodies. It is established that the geokhod executive body geometric parameters, depending on the knife cutting edge shape, include: the angle of inclination of the knife with an inclined shape of the knife cutting edge; the radius of curvature of the knife cutting edge with a semi-convex and knife convex shape. The previously developed method of determining the face rock destruction energy intensity by the knife executive body of the geokhod is presented. For a promising direction of studying the influence of the geokhod knife executive body cutting edge shape on the energy intensity of the face rock destruction, the article provides initial data, which include the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and geokhod geometric parameters. As a result of the study, it was found that: the angle of inclination of the kn
One of the main global threats in the 21st century is the pollution by industrial enterprises (dyes and heavy metals) of the world’s fresh water resources. The main danger is posed by contaminated industrial wastes, which are so loaded with industrial waste that they cannot be used in the future, as well as dumped without purification due to toxicity, aggressiveness and other negative properties. Methods of chemical oxidation, ion exchange, nanofiltration, sedimentation, flotation, etc., used for industrial wastewater treatment, are ineffective, i.e. cleaning is carried out partially or not at all. The purpose of the work is to development of new materials with high adsorption properties by changing and selecting the optimal synthesis parameters for creating filters for industrial wastewater treatment. Object of study. Industrial waste water. Research methods. Nanostructured powders based on Sm3Fe5O12, used as filters for industrial wastewater treatment, are synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The features of the surface topology, structure, shape and size of the particles of the samples are investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The chemical and phase composition of the research objects was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis. The adsorption properties of the samples were investigated using spectrophotometry. Results and discussion. The obtained results of the research carried out make it possible to solve a number of problems arising from environmental pollution in general and the treatment of industrial wastewater, in particular, through scientifically based recommendations for the creation of powder filters as an adsorbent, which is used as nanostructured powders of samarium iron garnets. Conclusions. It was found that an empirical study of the charac
The article presents the new basic functional systems of underground devices of the “geokhod” class, as well as the problems faced by developers at all stages of the creation of experimental and prototypes of the new class of underground devices “geokhod”. The development of systems of a new class of underwater vehicles is hindered by the lack of special scientific and methodological support. The authors of the article propose the creation of a new scientific specialty “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses”. The article presents the formula of the scientific specialty “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses”; priority tasks of the scientific specialty “ Geodynamics of underground apparatuses “, within which research is carried out and primaryresults are obtained. But so far, the state of scientific and methodological support in this area is a deterrent. The development of a new scientific direction “Geodynamics of underground apparatuses” will make it possible to fill this gap. Similarly, with the Aerodynamics of aircraft, and Geodynamics of underground vehicles as a science should include the basics of two main components: geodynamics and dynamics of movement of underground vehicles. Geodynamics of underground apparatuses should determine the forces and moments acting on underground apparatuses and on the basis of this determine the rational forms of interacting surfaces. It is noted that in all known definitions and problems of geodynamics there is no binding to the definition of the interaction of the machine and the geoenvironment. The concept of “geomedia” is defined by the example of geokhod mining. The geomedia is heterogeneous and anisotropic in its properties. When a solid body interacts with a medium, the formation of an interaction surface is inevitable. For the process of motion of a solid body in a solid medium, there are two real surfaces: the surface of a moving body and the surface of the medium, the shape and dimensions of which may not coincide, perhaps even often cannot coincide. By analogy with the aerodynamic shape, it is proposed to introduce the concept of “geodynamic shape”. To reduce the forces of resistance to the movement of the underground apparatus in the geomedia and to ensure its stability, it is important not only the rational external form of the underground apparatus and its systems, but also the rational form of the surface of the geo-environment – the Geodynamic shape of the surface. In conclusion, the main tasks of Geodynamics of underground apparatuses are formulated.
In Vladikavkaz (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania) in the period from October 04 – 08, 2021, the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the Problems of Mineral Enrichment, the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science “Institute of Problems of Integrated Development of Mineral Resources named after Academician N.V. Melnikova of the Russian Academy of Sciences” (IPCON RAS), the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education “North Caucasus Mining and Metallurgical Institute (State Technological University (SKGMI (GTU)” held an international conference “Problems of complex and environmentally safe processing of natural and man-made mineral raw materials” (Plaksin Readings – 2021). Plaksin Readings-2021 were attended by 150 representatives from 51 organizations, including 15 academic and 11 industry institutes, 9 large mining and metallurgical companies. The reports were made by scientists from Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Mongolia. Plenary reports were presented by leading scientists in the field of mineral processing: Chanturia V.A., Shadrunova I.V. (Institute of Problems of Integrated Development of Mineral Resources named after Academician N.V. Melnikova RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation); Innovative processes of deep and environmentally safe processing of technogenic raw materials in the context of new economic challenges); DmitrakYu.V. (North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (State Technological University), Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation) “The main directions of scientific activity of SCGMI (GTU) in the study and solution of the problem of complex and environmentally safe processing of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials”; Kurkov A.V., Anufrieva S.I., Temnov A.V. (N.M. Fedorovsky All-Russian Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian
Report. The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the formation of the microelement composition of soils under the mountain meadow vegetation of the Greater Caucasus based on the analysis of literary materials and the results of our own field research. Methods. The study of the microelement composition of soils under subalpine and alpine vegetation was carried out on the territory of the Teberdinsky State Biosphere Reserve. Traditional methods of soil-geochemical studies were used with the laying of soil sections, the selection of soil samples and their analysis for the content of four trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd). Determination of trace elements was carried out by voltammetric and atomic absorption methods. The humus content was determined by the Tyurin method with wet salting, the pH of the water extract was determined potentiometrically. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed in the Statistica 10 program. The microelement composition of soil-forming rocks was compared with the clarks of chemical elements in the upper part of the continental crust; the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils was compared with the clarks of the soils of the world. The radial distribution of trace elements in the soil profile was analyzed. The qualitative trace element composition of soils was characterized as a sequence of decreasing the content of trace elements in the humus horizon. Results. It is established that the microelement composition of soils under the mountain-meadow vegetation of the Western Caucasus is formed under specific conditions that affect the course of soil processes. High solar insolation, low temperatures, intensive humidification throughout the year affects the features of the processes of humification, the formation of clay minerals in the soil and other products of intra-soil weathering. The predominance of acid hydrolysis processes leads to the predominant accumulation of aluminosilicates, Fe hydroxides, chelated organomineral complexes in the soil profile, which play a leading role in the binding of trace elements. The microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils under subalpine vegetation is formed with more intensive processes of humus formation and oglinivaniya. These soils are characterized by a more pronounced biogenic accumulation of Cu and Zn in the humus horizon, the illuvial nature of the Cd distribution is more pronounced. The microelement composicomposition of mountain-meadow soils under alpine and rock-scree vegetation is formed against the background of relatively weakened processes of humus formation, humus accumulation and oglinivaniya. This affects the lower intensity of biogenic accumulation of trace elements, their leaching into the lower part of the profile. Conclusions. The main regularities of the formation of the microelement composition of mountain-meadow soils are determined by the special conditions in which these soils develop. The fixation of trace elements in mountain-meadow soils occurs mainly on aluminosilicates, Fe, Mn hydroxides and chelated organomineral complexes, which largely form the silty fraction. The movement of silty particles along the soil profile leads to the redistribution of trace elements associated with them. The granulometric composition, which is an indicator of the content of the silty fraction and its distribution along the soil profile, is of great i
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