Introduction. Tailings are a source of chemicals and finely dispersed solid tailings carried by air currents over considerable distances. Purpose of research. Creation of a predictive map of the concentration of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings carried by air currents in mountain landscapes, and a description of the pattern of their distribution along the slopes of mountain gorges near the Fiagdon tailing dump. With the help of a simplified aerodynamic model, the processes of aerosol dispersion of the solid phase of tailings and chemical elements in mountain landscapes from the Fiagdon tailing dump, located in the Kurtat gorge, North OssetiaAlania, Russia, are considered. These tailings contain lead, zinc, arsenic and other chemical elements. The mathematical model takes into account the complex mountainous landscape of the area, the characteristic wind roses, as well as the transport and sedimentation of the solid phase of the tailings. A forecast of the distribution of chemicals along the slopes of the Kurtat gorge, adjacent gorges and in the floodplain of the Khanikom-Don River (the right side tributary of the Fiagdon River) is presented, local wind roses are calculated, which are compared with field measurements and with measurements taken by meteorological satellites. The data of meteorological satellites of the American aerospace agency NASA are used: satellites Terra, Aqua, Geos, as well as the Copernicus global monitoring system for the environment and security of the European Space Agency. These data are averaged over an area of the order of 10 × 10 km or more, and the wind roses obtained on their basis characterize the study area on an average. The comparison of the simulations and these wind roses shows a qualitative agreement. Comparison of the wind rose measured by the weather station and the wind rose obtained from the computational model for this area shows good agreement. The results of the simulations show that the important factors determining the spatial distribution of the tailings and chemical elements deposited on the slopes of the solid phase in mountain landscapes are the features of the terrain, the characteristic direction of the wind speed and the atmospheric turbulence. The forecast of concentrations of the solid phase of tailings and chemical elements from the Fiagdon tailing dump in the mountain villages of Kakadur, Fazikau, Lamardon, Dargavs, Staraya Saniba, Karmadon, Verkhny Fiagdon is presented. Based on the results of simulations of aerodynamic processes in the atmosphere of the Kurtat Gorge, North OssetiaAlania, predictive map of the distribution of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings from source in the area of the Fiagdon is built. Chemicals and the solid phase of tailings are carried out in the Kurtat Gorge mainly in the eastern and northern directions, while in the settlement of Verkhny Fiagdon, the concentrations remain insignificant and lower than the MPC. The model can be used to estimate the concentration of chemicals and the solid phase of tailings carried by air currents in mountain landscapes and to describe their distribution patterns along the slopes of mountain gorges.
The purpose of this study is to create a digital twin of the sludge reservoir, which allows modeling and predicting the impact of technogenic formation on the sustainability of urban development, in particular, on the state of groundwater. The research methodology is to simulate groundwater based on numerical simulation using the ModTech 2.21 program. This program is designed to solve problems of various equations and partial derivatives that describe the geo-filtration of the environment, using a numerical method on a three-dimensional finite-difference grid. In order to assess the sustainable development of the urban environment in the city of Sterlitomak, a digital twin of the urban area was created in terms of groundwater. Sludge accumulator «White Sea» is a unique man-made object located in the city of Sterlitomak and affecting groundwater due to infiltration losses of distiller fluid through the bed of the sludge reservoir. According to the simulation results, the infiltration losses of the SHBM are 3078 m3/day or 1123470 m3/year. The incoming part of the balance is formed due to the attraction of river runoff, infiltration nutrition, and the outgoing part is due to the discharge of groundwater into surface water. The model assessment was carried out in relation to the conditions of migration of the main pollutant component in the territory of the «White Sea» - chlorides. With the help of the created digital model, it is possible to assess, predict and manage the situation in the urban environment in terms of groundwater. Digitalization through the use of intelligent solutions and innovations in the field of digital technologies makes it possible to understand the processes occurring in social, man-made, and natural systems at a new level. The next step in creating digital twins can be models of electronic maps of soil cover or vegetation, the state of the air basin, and more. The same models can be created on the basis of economic and social indicators. This is necessary for planning the sustainable development of the urban environment.
The relevance of the work is explained by the need to restore the lost potential of polymetallic extraction from the deposits of the Sadonsky ore node using the existing infrastructure and favorable geographical conditions for yearround operation. The purpose of the work. Theoretical and experimental substantiation of the technological possibility and economic feasibility of converting traditional development technologies to technologies for obtaining metals and other marketable products by leaching substandard metal-containing raw materials. Research methods: generalization, systematization, and analysis of theoretical and experimental studies with the acquisition of a data bank for the design of technologies for the extraction and processing of remaining reserves in the subsurface and man-made reserves on the Earth’s surface. Research results. The concept of environmental protection and resource-saving technology for the development of deposits of the type under consideration is formulated. The volume of potentially possible substandard ore reserves and mining and processing waste in the regions of the North Caucasus is estimated. The results of pioneering studies of the processes of extracting metals from ores, industrial effluents and man-made raw materials, including the processing of non-conditioned ores and their enrichment waste in a disintegrator using mechanochemical activation of the metal extraction process, are presented. The prospects of using innovative technologies in the region are assessed. It is shown that the prospects for resuscitation of mining production depend on the effectiveness of combining technologies and minimizing losses when using the available raw material base, determined by economic and mathematical modeling taking into account the environmental component.
Introduction. The most important modern trend is the development of a «green» economy, especially in terms of efficient management of production and consumption waste. The infrastructural component of such a process is the development and adoption of a regional environmental standard that defines the model for the operation of enterprises that use natural resources and authorities in conditions of increased man-made load on the environment. This problem is extremely urgent for the Kemerovo region - Kuzbass because of the decisive role of coal mining and coal processing in the successful functioning of the region. Purpose of the work. To develop a waste management system for an industrial enterprise, as an element of the environmental standard of a coal-mining region. Research methods. The theoretical part of research includes the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature on the innovative organizational and technological solutions aimed at the efficiency of production and consumption waste management. The practical part of work was built on statistical processing of the official ecological data of the enterprise on production and consumption waste. Research results. A waste management system for an industrial enterprise is developed, which can be effectively integrated into the environmental standard of a coal-mining region to ensure its sustainable development. Conclusions. The developed waste management system, as an element of the environmental standard of a coalmining region, can be used by environmental authorities to determine the vector of development of a particular territory in the region in the field of waste management. The use of this algorithm by the enterprise will reduce the complexity of choosing the optimal environmentally friendly managerial solution aimed at reducing the anthropogenic load and increasing its economic performance.
This paper presents the results of complex hydro-geochemical studies of the natural waters of the Kastropol tract. It was found that the studied waters are characterized mainly by HCO3 Ca and HCO3 Mg-Ca composition with a total mineralization value varying in the range from 220 to 2306 mg/dm3 and a silicon content from 0.78 to 6.08 mg/dm3 . It was revealed that the geochemical parameters of the medium vary from reducing to oxidizing with Eh -146.6 – +275.9 mV, pH 7.4 – 8.5 and O2 content of 1.80 – 7.73 mg/dm3 . It is determined that B, Br, I, Re and Au accumulate in the waters. In solution, Li, B, Sr, Re and Au have a very strong migration ability. The state of equilibrium of the studied waters with respect to carbonate (calcite and dolomite) and alumine silicate minerals (gibbsite and kaolinite) was revealed. It is established that the studied waters belong to the aluminum-siliceous type and characterize the monosiallite geochemical type of weathering. The controlling factors for achieving equilibrium with respect to kaolinite are the contents of aluminum, silicon and the pH of the medium in the solution.
An extensive number of enterprises are located on the territory of the Central Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus. Emissions from these industrial facilities enter the atmosphere, settle on the soil, drain into reservoirs. Among the main pollutants is the heavy metal nickel (Ni). Nickel is at the same time a vital chemical element, and, at the same time, it can act as a toxicant metal that can cause mutations. Its biological role depends on the concentration of metal in the soil. The aim of the study is to establish ecologically safe concentrations of nickel for the soils of the Central Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus. Materials and methods of research. Nickel oxides were added to soil samples at a dose of 100, 1000, and 10000 mg/ kg and incubated in plastic vessels at a temperature of 20-22 °C and 55-60% soil moisture. In this work, the biological parameters of soils were determined on the basis of methods generally accepted in soil science and ecology (phytotoxicity of soils, total number of bacteria, catalase activity, dehydrogenase activity, abundance of Azotobacter bacteria, changes in cellulolytic activity). According to the indicators of microbiological, biochemical and phytotoxic parameters, we calculated IIBS - an integral indicator of the biological state of the soil The results obtained and their discussion. Based on the analysis of the soils of the Central Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus, the following were ranked according to their resistance to nickel contamination: ordinary chernozem (91) >chernozem podzolized (mountain) (84) ≥ chernozem typical (mountain) (83) ≥ chernozems leached (mountain) (82) = mountain-meadow chernozem-likes (82) ≥ mountain-meadow sod-peaty (80) ≥ mountain meadow-steppe (78) ≥ sod-calcareouses (76) ≥ dark gray forest(75) ≥ mountain-meadow soddy (71) ≥ brown forest weakly unsaturated(68).The greater the soil IPBS, the more resistant the biological indicators of this type of soil are to nickel contamination. The study made it possible to calculate the regional maximum permissible concentrations (rMPC) of Ni in the soils of the Сentral Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus. For this purpose, regression equations were constructed reflecting the dependence of the IIBS of each studied soil on the content of Ni in it. The rMPC of Ni in ordinary chernozem is 170 mg/kg, in typical chernozem (mountain) and mountain meadow chernozem-like soil — 160 mg/kg, in podzolized chernozem (mountain) — 150 mg/kg, in leached chernozem and mountain meadow turf-peat soil — 130 mg/kg, in sod—carbonate and dark gray forest — 120 mg/ kg, in mountain meadow-steppe — 145 mg/kg, in mountain meadow turf — 140 mg/kg, in brown forest slightly unsaturated — 100 mg/kg.
Introduction. A promising way to solve the problem of reducing the losses of weakly and abnormally luminescent diamonds in the process of X-ray luminescent separation is to modify their spectral characteristics with special compositions of phosphors. The phosphor-containing compositions used include inorganic and organic phosphors that provide the necessary change in the kinetic characteristics of the diamond X-ray luminescence signal. The purpose of the work. Investigation of the mechanism of the process and selection of compositions of phosphorcontaining compositions that provide the required modification of spectral characteristics and increase the extraction of weakly and abnormally luminescent diamonds in the process of X-ray-luminescent separation. Methodology results. Studies of the mechanism of formation of the X-ray luminescence signal from diamond-phosphor complexes were carried out by determining the degree of coating of the surface of diamonds with phosphors by the visiometric method and the amplitude of the luminescence signal with varying concentrations of phosphor in the emulsion. The effectiveness of the selected compositions of the phosphor-containing composition was evaluated by determining and comparative analysis of the acquired spectral and kinetic characteristics of the diamond-phosphor complexes using the Polyus–M separator. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the selected formulations was determined by the results of a test on industrial X-ray luminescent separators. Research results. The mechanism of formation of the X-ray luminescence signal from a diamond with a phosphorcontaining composition fixed on its surface is determined. It is shown that the total signal is the sum of the diamond and phosphor signals attenuated by screening and scattering of luminescent radiation by 5-15% for the diamond signal and 20-40% for the phosphor signal. The use of inorganic phosphors based on zinc sulfide, or a mixture of phosphor based on zinc orthosilicate and anthracene in compositions is justified, providing an increase in the intensity of the X-ray luminescence signal of a weakly luminescent diamond by 2.5 times, and preserving the shape of the X-ray luminescence signal of natural diamonds. It is proposed to use catalytic cracking as a collector of a diesel fraction compound and heavy gas oil, which ensures effective fixation of the phosphor on the surface of diamonds. The composition of the composition (FL-530, anthracene, diesel fraction, THCC) is proposed, which provides the required modification of spectral characteristics and detection of low-luminous diamonds. Resume. The results of the tests carried out on diamonds of various sizes have established the possibility of increasing the extraction of diamonds by 5-15% due to the detection of diamond crystals with weak or abnormal luminescence. At the same time, the required selectivity of the process with respect to kimberlite minerals is maintained. Conclusions. The results of the research are recommended for practical implementation in X-ray luminescent separation schemes at ALROSA processing plants to reduce losses of weakly and abnormally luminescent diamonds and will also be used in further studies of the possibility of increasing the selectivity of separation of diamonds and rock minerals during kimberlite enrichment.
Introduction. To date, one of the key consequences and conditions of the technogenic transformation of the subsoil is the violation of land. The process of land disturbance occurs during the extraction of minerals, the performance of geological exploration, survey, construction and other works that lead to a violation of the soil cover, the hydrological regime of the terrain, the formation of anthropogenic relief and other qualitative changes in the state of the earth’s surface, which represents their operational degradation. In this regard, it is very relevant to consider the issues of dumping and recultivation of land with the use of means of hydromechanization, the development of technology and justification of the parameters of hydraulic dumping, as well as technological schemes and the procedure for filling the hydraulic dump, taking into account the low rate of consolidation of rocks of heavy mechanical composition, which delays the process of recultivation and the return of land to agricultural use. The purpose of the research. Solving the problem of ecologically adequate relief restoration during reclamation of hydraulic dumps, ensuring the return of land to the natural geomorphosystem of landscape complexes with their former functions, excluding the formation of a contour slope of the alluvial surface in relation to the slope of the valley. Research results. The proposed technology and parameters of hydraulic dump formation provide a significant improvement in the environmental situation due to the fact that the slope of the surface of the hydraulic dump coincides with the slope of the valley talvega. The results of the work have practical implementation in terms of reclamation of hydraulic dumps on the territory of the Russian Federation. Conclusions. The proposed approach makes it possible to establish the shape of the relief to perform its inherent functions in the morphosystem of the region and, depending on the lithological composition of rocks, to determine the most stable surface configuration that provides conditions for assimilation of the recultivated surface, formed in the logic of natural processes of evolutionary transformation of the subsoil.
The study aims to solve the problem of information support for the efficient managerial decision-making system oriented to the development and maintenance of anthropogenic landscapes ecosystems. The primary research task is to formulate a benchmark adequate in terms of environmental quality assessment and management. The research method. The study proposes the estimation method of the maximum permissible load on the ecosystem based on the synthesis of environmental quality evaluation approaches, patterns of ecosystem functioning, and data on hydrocarbon fuel consumption in the territory. Determining the parameters of the studied object’s idealized model allows discovering the limit characteristics of its actual prototype, i.e., the human-transformed ecosystem. The analysis of the investigated landscape’s model optimal parameters makes it possible to establish the maximum values of assimilation potential and safe emission mass for the features of the territory. One of the elements of the proposed method is the calculation of supply air volume for the ecosystem based on the analysis of the gas exchanges process, taking into account the mechanisms of biogeochemical cycles and data on the carbon dioxide emission in the territory. The results of research. The representative subject for determining the indicators of anthropogenic landscapes sustainability to technogenic influences is the city of Nazran, the Ingush Republic. The available information on the dendrometric parameters of chosen monoculture (Fraxinus Excelsior) allowed determining the patterns in the dynamics of bio-productivity characteristics in correlation with the age of growing stock, considering its exposure to environmental impacts, which made it possible to evaluate the ecosystems’ assimilation potential. The study represents the results of the carbon dioxide emissions inventory for Nazran and the estimation of its masses absorbed by the monoculture during photosynthesis. It also theoretically determines the supply air mass and volume values needed for the toxicants’ atmosphere mass limits assessment. The obtained data laid out the basis for calculating the parameters of the territorial environmental sustainability, along with the relative aggressiveness indices for each of the studied pollutants. Conclusions. The proposed approach makes it possible to take into account the specifics of the ecosystem of the particular territory and the uncertainty of the motor transport emissions dispersion, eliminate the inconsistencies of elements of the management system, increase transparency and simplify the decision-making process, and reduce the restrictions of information support system, the ambiguity of managerial decisions’ consequences and the risks of opportunistic behavior, predict the situation in the territory considering various strategies for ensuring the environmental stability, and improve the system manageability as a whole.
Introduction. Issues related to increasing the sustainability of agricultural land in the Altai Krai are very relevant, modern and practically significant, since about 90 % of the territory is more or less subject to degradation processes. They reduce soil fertility and, as a result, the productivity of agricultural land, which is largely due to the landscape specificity of the territory. The solution to the problem is possible on the basis of adaptive landscape land management, which is the basis for organizing sustainable agricultural land use. When designing agricultural landscapes, on the one hand, we take into account and preserve the natural properties of the territory, and on the other hand, we limit the anthropogenic impact on it. By designing sustainable, capable of self-regulation and self-reproduction of agricultural landscapes, it is possible to optimize agricultural land use. The purpose of the study: to conduct an agro-ecological typology of agricultural lands (agro-landscapes) of the arid steppe of the Altai Krai to optimize the existing agricultural land use and increase its sustainability. Research methods. System analysis has become the main scientific method for analyzing the relationships and mutual influences within landscapes. When studying and comparing the physical and geographical characteristics of the territory, comparative geographical and ecological landscape methods were used using the cartographic method and GIS technologies. Research results. The allocation of agro-ecological groups of lands is based on the leading agro-ecological factors (moisture supply, erosion, waterlogging, periodic flooding, salinization, alkalinity), the degree of their manifestation and related limiting factors. As a zonal agro-ecological group, we identified upland lands, which occupy 22 % of the study area. Slope (or erosional) lands in the arid steppe occupy a significant proportion (59 % of the area) and are located on slopes with a steepness of up to 3°, in some places 5°. Taking into account the wide spatial development of deflation processes (44 % of the subzone area), the authors of the work singled out a special agroecological group of lands – deflationary lands in the composition of eroded lands. The deflationary lands were divided into three agro-ecological groups: weakly, medium and strongly deflated lands. Insignificant territories (less than 1% of the subzone area) are combined into a group of waterlogged lands, which differ in the degree of hydromorphism and have a common feature – ecological waterlogging, which makes it difficult or excludes the possibility of cultivating crops. The territories in the soil cover of which solonets occupy more than 10 % of the area are combined into a group of solonetz lands, which occupy slightly more than 4 % of the area of the zone. The group of solonetzic lands is divided into two parts – solonetzic-automorphic and solonetzic-hydromorphic. Also, a group of lands of the ravine-beam complex was identified, which are limited, since the depth of the dissection of the territory does not exceed 10 m, and the density is insignificant or weak (1-2,5 km and more than 2,5 km). In nine municipal districts that are part of the arid steppe, the identified types of land are found in different proportions. For the sustainable development of agricultural land use, its optimization is necessary, associated with a reduction in the area of agricultural land by 14,5 thousand hectares with fluctuations in districts from 0,7 (Suetsky district) to 2.3 thousand hectares (in Blagoveshchensky and Rubtsovsky districts) and an increase in the area of industrial land (by 12,4 thousand hectares) due to the allocation of protected zones along railways and roads, green protective zones around settlements, as well as shelterbelt forest belts. Conclusions 1. An agro-ecological typology of agricultural
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)