The current state and prospects of agricultural development in the Central Asian countries are considered. It is shown that demographic factors and food security are the main stimulating factors for the further development of agriculture. The acceleration of the melting of glaciers in Central Asia stimulates the search and development of progressive and water-saving irrigation technologies. The problem of the impact of large and medium-sized reservoirs on the microclimate and crop yields with the increasing development of the hydroelectric potential of the region becomes relevant. The chemical composition of irrigation water is a key factor in the preservation of soil structure and the development of crops, and the movement of chemical elements through the functioning of the water-soilplant chain can harm the health of the population.
The attractiveness of the Gorny Altai territory for the development of tourism is due to the presence of rich natural resources, a developed system of recreational and health-improving programs, interesting mountain reliefs and the beauty of the region. The intensity of tourism development and the high multiplier effect of income and employment become the basis for presenting tourism as the basis for sustainable development of entire territories, which is impossible without sustainable management of the recreational nature. In this regard, research and analysis of the natural and recreational potential of the territory of mountainous Altai are of particular importance. The purpose of the study is to determine the recreational and functional zones of the Altai Territory and the main directions of their further development, taking into account the peculiarities of the geographical location and climatic factors of the Altai Mountains for the sustainable development of this territory as a resort and recreational zone. Materials and research methods. The research methodology is based on fundamental works on the management of sustainable development of recreational areas, as well as on the works of modern domestic and foreign scientists studying the problems of tourism development in the regions of Russia and in the world. In the course of the research, general scientific methods and approaches were applied: abstraction, analysis and synthesis, logical method; systems approach. Research results and discussion. For the effective and sustainable development of the tourist areas of Altai Mountains, it is necessary to adhere to the following principles: consistency, territoriality and management. Taking into account the specifics of the Altai mountainous territory, the principle of consistency includes the following measures: opening of platforms for monitoring and control of the natural environment; determination of the optimal recreational load; an inventory of unique natural monuments and cultural and historical monuments of the region; execution o
Contemporary agricultural land use is highly impacted be the factors causing its degradation. That is particularly in evidence on those agricultural lands that are in the zone of risky farming with the conjoint exposure of the above factors. This zone includes the arid steppe of the Altai Krai occupying the area of more than 2,4 million hectares, which is of great importance concerning agriculture not only for the territorial subject of the Russian Federation, but also for the Siberian Federal District and the Russian Federation as a whole. To implement the priorities outlined in contemporary strategic regulatory documents and programs concerning the development of land resources, it is necessary to analyze them on a regular basis, identify natural and anthropogenic markers (restrictions) that affect their effective and rational implementation, as well as to model and manage the territory. In this paper assessment of the climatic, geobotanical and soil characteristics of the arid steppe territory of the Altai Krai has been taken, highlighting the features in municipal areas. An analysis of the use of agricultural lands in the dry steppe pointed out the irrationality of their use and the instability of the territory depending on various factors. Blowing has been found on absolutely all agricultural lands of the zone and is the main limiting factor on them. Therefore, the agroecological zoning of the territory, considered in this paper, and developed on the basis of the conducted agroecological assessment, systematizes the prospective effective use of agricultural land. Seven land groups and fifteen subgroups have been identified. Within the subgroups, classes, ranks, genera and subgroups have been outlined. While identifying agroecological groups of lands, the transformation of the land fund structure within administrative regions, the structure of cultivated areas and the system of crop rotation has been conducted. It is pointed out that measures of agricultural landscapes optimization will provide an increase in employment, the level of profitability per unit area, the increasing volume of natural capital, the increasing <
The aim of the work is to study the patterns in long-term snow regime of highland pastures of the Inner Tien Shan. Methods: The daily Snow Depth FEWS NET scenes for Central Asia were used for monitoring of snow cover of four test sites. Three test sites were located on the plains of South Kazakhstan near Tien Shan mountains. The primary test site was a highland pasture in Inner Tian Shan mountains. This is the Aksai-Chatyrkul basin, with an area of about 2800 km2, located in the altitude range of 3200-3500 m above sea level, in Kyrgyzstan on the border with China.Time series of the average seasonal snow depth for each test site were formed, which meant the average snow depth from January 1 to March 31. Monitoring for 2001-2021 years was carried out. A first-order autocorrelation was calculated for each time series. Results: The analysis indicated that the snow cover depth of neighboring years are rather poorly related to each other for three test sites located on the plains of Southern Kazakhstan. In contrast to the S outh Kazakhstan plains, the highland Inner Tien Shan pasture was characterized by pronounced persistence ("long memory effect"). Conclusion: The highland Inner Tien Shan pasture are characterized by the presence of pronounced persistence in the long-term dynamics of the average snow depth in January-March. That is, it is more likely that after a many-snow year there will be a many-snow one, and after a low-snow year, respectively, a low-snow one. The probable cause of this phenomenon is the persistence in the long-term dynamics of the seasonal characteristics of the Siberian anticyclone, which affects the ability in the cold period to atmospheric transport of water vapors through the mountain ranges of the Northern and Western Tien Shan to the Inner Tien Shan. This pattern in the long-term dynamics of highland pasture snow depth in Inner Tien Shan can be useful for long-term planning of calendar dates of spring migration of livestock from winter plain pastures to h
Purpose: to present a systematic analysis of the parameters of sustainable development of the coal-mining region (on the example of the Kemerovo region-Kuzbass) in the light of the growing environmental problems and the strengthening of external shocks. Methods: the methods of comparative analysis, grouping, and analogy were used that were implemented on the basis of the data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being. Results and discussion: identified in the course of the analysis, the problems of a technological, scientific, educational, social nature in the Kemerovo region-Kuzbass, having a pronounced tendency to increase, are due to the specifics of the functioning of the region, which is manifested in the consolidation of the raw materials orientation against the background of the curtailment of the scale of the processing sector, and in it – high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries, degradation of cultural and educational values, often neglect of environmental and moral norms, as well as the formation of consumer behavior of business owners. All this together determines the growth of existing environmental threats, and also determines the high susceptibility of the regional economy to the impact of increasingly emerging external challenges, the main of which is the high volatility of export prices for coal. In the context of a deteriorating environmental situation in coal-mining regions, their sustainable socio-economic development should be determined by the increasing role of social, scientific, innovative and cultural and educational determinants in the context of the regulatory parameter – environmental feasibility and safety. Thus, a positive impact on the sustainable development of an industrial region can be ensured by the deployment of cultural and educational activities, which, in turn, activates scientific and innovative development, creating prerequisites for the diversification of industrial production
At present, a tourist and recreational cluster is being formed around the federal resort of Belokurikha, which includes the adjacent territories of the Smolensk, Altai and Soloneshensky municipal districts of the Altai Territory. To determine the directions of spatial development in the cluster, information is needed on the prospects for discovering new sources of radon waters. The purpose of the study is to assess the current level of use of radon waters by the resort of Belokurikha, to identify geological and geochemical prospecting indicators of radon waters and to assess the prospects for their detection within the tourist cluster "Bolshaya Belokurikha". A field study of the territory and sampling of granitoids from the Belokurikhinsky pluton were carried out. The analysis of isotopes of uranium and thorium from granitoids was carried out according to the classical method at the Center for Isotope Research of the Russian Geological Research Institute (St. Petersburg). The analysis of the current water use was carried out based on the data of the Hydroservice of the resort of Belokurikha on water consumption for 2019. The volume of radon water consumption by the sanatoriums of the Belokurikha resort in 2019 varied throughout the year from 435.1 m3 / day in August to 282.1 m3 / day in December. This does not exceed the operational reserves of the Belokurikhinskoye deposit, which are 600 m3 / day. Potential areas for the detection of radon waters are confined to the deep sub-latitudinal Belokurikha fault, which runs along the border of the Pre-Altai plain and the Altai Mountains, and especially to the zones of intersection of faults of different directions. This is the main geological prospecting indicator. The geochemical prospecting indicator is the increased content of uranium in rocks. The highest concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes in the granitoids of the Belokurikhinsky pluton were found for aplites and pegmatites. Thus, the entire strip of the transition zone from the Biysk-Barnaul depression to the moun
Introduction. For North Ossetia, where about half of the territory is occupied by mountains, the problems of the mountain population and settlement are of particular relevance. They are becoming even more relevant now, in connection with the intensification of economic activity in the mountains, the construction of a cascade of Zaramag HPPs, the implementation of the Mamison project, the optimization of recreational activities, the development of environmentally friendly cattle breeding, fish farming, crop production, etc. Settlement began to rebuild to meet the needs of the economy, the infrastructure began to improve (gasification, electrification, computerization, etc.), the population again reached for the mountains. Research methods. The study of mountain settlement in the North Caucasus has begun relatively recently. The first works appeared in the 1990s. They covered the territory from Dagestan to Adygea. Mountain settlement in Dagestan was studied by Sh.S. Muduev , in Kabardino-Balkaria by A.E. Zelenskaya , in Adygea by F.V. Tlehuray . A.D. Badov [7–9; 20]. Studies of mountain settlement were also carried out by Yu.P. Badenkov [1; 10; 11], V.S. Belozerov , P.P. Turun  and others. Research results. Currently, there is a stabilization and even a slight increase in the population in the mountainous part of North Ossetia. At the same time, in summer, the number of the living population increases significantly due to the arrival of summer residents and tourists. The number of summer residents has increased significantly over the recent period, especially in the Kurtat gorge. However, some problems of both demographic and ecological character are revealed. Thus, in a number of villages there is a significant disproportion in the sex structure of the population, which negatively affects the marriage rate of the population . The dumps in the mountains have not been liquidated yet, the tailing dumps have been reclaimed with design errors and imperfections.
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The description and main characteristics of the deformation methods of the GGD field and GPS measurements used to assess the stress-strain state of seismically active mountainous areas of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Krai and Kamchatka are given. It has been established that the technology of the GGD field cannot guarantee the isolation of all recorded anomalies that are generated by the same source of the upcoming earthquake, and its practical use for the purposes of seismic forecasting remains limited. GPS measurement networks are a more technologically advanced and scientifically sound technology for monitoring seismic and geodynamic hazards. An example of using measurements in GPS networks and a multidimensional statistics algorithm to calculate an estimate of the integral criterion of the stress-strain state of the environment during the period of seismic activity in the Sochi area in 2017-2018 is shown.
Deep study of plant adaptations at different levels of their organization, from cellular to cenotic, is one of the fundamental problems of ecological botany. Its important aspect is the study of the structural responses of different tissue types on the change of environmental factors, including highly fluctuating conditions of the mountains. A significant role in the ability of plants to acqure a particular natural environment belongs to the organization of wood – a complex tissue performing water-conducting, mechanical and storage functions. An essential aspect of ecological anatomy is the detection of a complex of structural features characterizing the originality of the secondary xylem (wood) in representatives of arboriflora of the North Caucasus. The aim of our study was to perform comparative ecological and xylotomic analysis of the water-conducting tissues of woody flowering plants of various phytocenoses in eastern regions of the North Caucasus and the identification of the basic xylotomic character facilitating the growth of these species in the humid and arid habitats. Materials and methods of research. Samples of wood for xylotomic analysis are taken from the collections of the Botanical Museum and Herbarium of Komarov Botanical Institute (RAS, St. Petersburg), CI RAS Laboratory (Grozny), and also collected from several phytocenoses of the successive mountain belts, including foothill lowlands, during expeditions in the territory of the Chechen Republic. In total, we have examined 72 species of 51 genus from 28 families of woody flowering plants belonging to various biomorphs – tree, shrub,semifrutex, liana. Microslides and their descriptions are made by conventional methods (Yatsenko-Khmelevsky, 1954; Metcalfe, Clark, 1983), using the terminology proposed by the International Association of wood anatomists – IAWA (Wheeleretal., 1989). The method of xylotomyc characteristics’ code is used in the analysis of wood structure (Umarov and others 2007). Results. Ecological and xylotomic analysis of th
An analysis of previously performed studies has shown that the coefficient of stability of the working sides of quarries and coal mines is considered constant along the open surface of the side or along its height. The method of limiting equilibrium for the entire sliding surface allows us to obtain an average value of the coefficient. The stress-strain state of the instrument array of the working side of a coal mine under the action of a distributed load from an external rock dump is investigated. The use of the finite element method and modern geomechanics software packages made it possible to obtain indicators of the stressstrain state and stability of the board at any point of the instrument array. The regularity of the change in the coefficient of the stability margin of the side according to its height is established. The lowest numerical value of the coefficient is characterized by the lower ledges of the side, the deformation of which leads to the weakening of the upper ledges and the possible manifestation of landslides.
ISSN 1998-4502 (Print) ISSN 2499-975Х (Online)